IPCS INCHEM Home

    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 8

    EPICHLOROHYDRIN
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1987

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria
    33: Epichlorohydrin

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    ISBN 92 4 154333 7
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations
    already available.

    (c) World Health Organization 1987

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    IPCS

    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    INTRODUCTION

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Composition
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Exposure to epichlorohydrin
         2.2. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.3. Effects on animals
         2.4. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         ACTION
         4.1. Main hazards for man, prevention and protection,
               first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards, prevention
               4.4.1. Explosion hazards
               4.4.2. Fire hazards
               4.4.3. Prevention
               4.4.4. Fire-extinguishing agents
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
               4.7.1. Spillage
               4.7.2. Disposal (based on IRPTC waste disposal file)

    5. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    6. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.4. Waste disposal
         7.5. Other measures

    

    INTRODUCTION

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety is responsible for the
    publication of a series of Environmental Health Criteria documents,
    each of which assesses the existing information on the relationship
    between exposure to a specific chemical, mixture of chemicals, or
    combination of chemicals and physical and biological agents, and man's
    health and the integrity of the environment. The documents provide
    guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection
    of human health and the environment.

    To facilitate the application of these guidelines in national chemical
    safety programmes, "Health and Safety Guides" are being prepared,
    highlighting the information contained in the documents for those who
    need to know the health and environmental issues involved, but not the
    scientific details. The Guides include advice on preventive and
    protective measures and emergency action.

    Review and revision of the information in this Health and Safety Guide
    will take place in due course, and the eventual aim is to use
    standardized terminology. We should be grateful if you would help by
    telling us of any difficulties encountered in using the information in
    this guide.

    Comments please, addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    All people in the work-place environment should be given the relevant
    written information in this book, supplemented by a clear, personal
    explanation to ensure that they are fully aware of the dangers and the
    current courses of protective and emergency action.

    The International Chemical Safety Card should be displayed as directed
    and its contents clearly explained to all working personnel. Medical
    staff should be fully conversant with the medical information to
    ensure they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency. Posters
    should be used to give impact to basic safety measures.

    Further copies of the Health and Safety Guide and, for those requiring
    more detailed scientific information, the relevant Environmental
    Health Criteria publication, are available to order.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Chemical formula:          C3H5ClO

    Chemical structure:           O
                                /   \
                               /     \
                               CH2 - CH - CH2Cl

    Common synonyms:           alpha-epichlorohydrin; CEP;
                               1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane;
                               3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane;
                               (chloromethyl)-ethylene oxide;
                               chlormethyloxirane; 2-(chloromethyl)
                               oxirane; 1-chloropropene oxide;
                               3-chloropropene oxide;
                               3-chloro-1,2-propylene oxide;
                               (DL)-alpha-epichlorohydrin; ECH; ECHH;
                               EPI; 1-epichlorohydrin;
                               1,2-epoxy-3-chloropropane; 2,3-epoxypropyl
                               chloride; gamma-chloropropylene oxide;
                               glycerol epichlorohydrin; glycidyl chloride

    CAS registry number:       106-89-8

     Conversion factors

    1 ppm epichlorohydrin = 3.78 mg/m3 at
    25C and 101.3 kPa (760 mm Hg);
    1 mg/m3 - 0.265 ppm

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Some physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin are given in
    the Sample International Chemical Safety Card.

    1.3  Composition

    The technical product is more than 98% pure.

    Depending on its source, epichlorohydrin contains different
    impurities, among which may be chlorinated ethers, 1,4-dichlorohexane,
    and several chlorinated propenes.

    1.4  Uses

    Epichlorohydrin is usually prepared from propene and is mainly used in
    the manufacture of glycerol and epoxy resins. It is also used: in the
    manufacture of elastomers, glycidyl ethers, cross-linked food starch,
    surfactants, plasticizers, dyestuffs, pharmaceutical products, oil
    emulsifiers, lubricants, and adhesives; as a solvent for resins, gums,
    cellulose, esters, paints, and lacquers; and as a stabilizer in
    chlorine-containing substances such as rubber, pesticide formulations,
    and solvents.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Exposure to epichlorohydrin

    Epichlorohydrin is released into the environment as a result of its
    manufacture, use, and disposal.

    Human exposure to epichlorohydrin mainly occurs at the work-place
    through inhalation and skin contact.

    Some epichlorohydrin may occur in food and drinking-water as a result
    of migration from packaging and tubing materials.

    In the atmosphere, epichlorohydrin is probably degraded under the
    influence of sunlight.

    The compound is expected to disappear rapidly from water via chemical
    degradation and evaporation; it is biodegradable.

    2.2  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    Epichlorohydrin is absorbed rapidly into the body through the skin,
    and after ingestion or inhalation. It is distributed widely throughout
    the body.

    The highest tissue concentrations in rodents were found in the nose
    after inhalation, and in the stomach after ingestion. In rats,
    regardless of the route of exposure, most absorbed epichlorohydrin is
    metabolized rapidly, part being excreted as carbon dioxide via the
    lungs and part as water-soluble compounds via the urine.

    2.3  Effects on Animals

    For single exposures, epichlorohydrin is moderately toxic after oral
    exposure and slightly toxic after inhalation exposure.

    Oral doses of 260 mg/kg body weight (LD50) and inhalation exposure
    to vapour concentrations of 2400 mg/m3 for 4 h or 1360 mg/m3 for 6 h
    (LC50) have been shown to be lethal for half the number of exposed
    rats. Concentrations of epichlorohydrin of between 18 and 36 mg/litre
    water have been shown to be lethal for half the number of fish
    (LC50) exposed for 2-4 days.

    Exposure to epichlorohydrin induced sterility in male rodents.

    No evidence has been obtained of any embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or
    teratogenic effects in animals.

    Epichlorohydrin is an alkylating agent, but the extent of its reaction
    with nucleic acid and proteins is unknown.

    The compound is mutagenic in a variety of tests.

    In animals, epichlorohydrin is carcinogenic when administered by
    inhalation, orally, or by subcutaneous injection. Tumours are induced
    at the site of administration, i.e., the nasal epithelium after
    inhalation, forestomach epithelium after garage and drinking-water
    administration, and the site of injection after injection.

    In one study, the compound initiated skin neoplasms in mice.

    2.4  Effects on Human Beings

    Epichlorohydrin vapour is strongly irritating to the human eye and
    respiratory tract, and local contact will result in protracted skin
    burns and blisters, though the effects may not appear until some time
    after exposure. Epichlorohydrin can sensitize the skin of human
    beings.

    On the basis of observations following short-term inhalation exposures
    to epichlorohydrin, human beings are likely to begin to experience eye
    and upper respiratory tract irritation at concentrations of
    approximately 76 mg/m3.

    Studies on human beings and animals show adverse effects on the
    central nervous system, nose, throat, lungs, liver, blood, eyes, and
    skin. Degenerative effects on the kidneys, which have been clearly
    demonstrated in rodents, have not been found in human beings, so far.

    Limited epidemiological studies have not revealed any effects on the
    fertility status of male workers exposed to epichlorohydrin.

    Conflicting results were obtained when the lymphocytes of workers,
    occupationally exposed to concentrations below 19 mg/m3, were
    examined for chromosomal aberrations.

    Up to the present, epidemiological studies have not provided evidence
    of carcinogenicity in human beings due to exposure to epichlorohydrin.
    However, the studies have all been limited by small numbers, short
    duration of follow-up, and the fact that confounding factors were not
    sufficiently considered. Thus, no definite conclusions can be drawn
    from them.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS

    On the basis of the above data, it can be concluded that
    epichlorohydrin is mutagenic and carcinogenic for experimental
    animals, causes sterility in male rodents, and could be carcinogenic
    for human beings.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 33: Epichlorohydrin

    4.  HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        ACTION

    4.1  Main Hazards for Man, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Epichlorohydrin vapour irritates the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and
    lungs, and may cause excessive accumulation of fluid in the lungs
    (oedema). The liquid is severely irritating to the skin and eyes after
    local contact, and to the mouth, throat, and stomach, after ingestion.
    Epichlorohydrin can sensitize the skin. The compound affects the
    central nervous system and liver, and is a suspected carcinogen.

    Human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    epichlorohydrin together with preventive and protective measures and
    first aid recommendations are listed in the following table.

    GOLDEN RULES

     1. Do not smoke, drink, or eat in the work-place.

     2. In case of overexposure, the victim should leave, or be removed
     from, the contaminated area to fresh air as rapidly as possible.

     3. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and wash with plenty of
     water and soap.

     4. Flush affected eye(s) with water for at least 15 minutes.

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    No specific antidote is known. Treat symptomatically. Oxygen may be
    required. Treat blisters on skin as for a thermal burn. Pay attention
    to occurrence of pulmonary oedema (complete bed rest!).

    Check liver function.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    Human beings likely to be exposed to epichlorohydrin should undergo
    medical examination, once a year, with emphasis on skin and eye
    disorders and liver function.


        ROUTE                HEALTH HAZARDS                            PREVENTION AND PROTECTION              FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    SINGLE EXPOSURE

    SKIN                 Severe irritation by both liquid          Avoid exposure, wear                   Remove contaminated clothing
                         and vapour; skin burns on direct          impervious clothing, gloves,           and shoes; wash skin with
                         contact (may be delayed); sensitization   and face shield (made of               plenty of water; seek medical
                         may occur                                 polyethylene, polypropylene,           attention
                                                                   or poly(vinyl)chloride; unsuitable
                                                                   materials are neoprene, rubber,
                                                                   or leather); provide emergency
                                                                   showers
                                                                                                                                                

    EYES                 Severe irritation by both liquid          Avoid exposure; wear safety            Flush with plenty of water
                         and vapour; corrosive                     goggles and face shield;               for at least 15 minutes; seek
                                                                   provide eyewash                        medical attention immediately
                                                                                                                                                

    INHALATION           Irritation of nose, throat, and lungs;    Avoid exposure; apply                  Remove victims to fresh air and
                         lung oedema; effects on the central       ventilation, local exhaust,            keep quiet in half upright
                         nervous system such as difficult          or breathing protection by a           position; if breathing has
                         breathing (respiratory depression);       suitable respirator                    stopped, apply artificial
                         headache; nausea and vomiting;                                                   respiration; seek medical
                         effects on liver                                                                 attention immediately
                                                                                                                                                

    INGESTION            Irritation and corrosion of mouth,        Do not eat, drink or smoke             Rinse mouth; give milk with
                         throat, and stomach; death by             when handling epichlorohydrin          water to drink, and induce
                         respiratory failure                                                              vomiting in conscious patients;
                                                                                                          transport to hospital immediately
                                                                                                                                                

    ROUTE                HEALTH HAZARDS                            PREVENTION AND PROTECTION              FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    REPEATED EXPOSURE

    SKIN                 Sensitization

    INHALATION           Inflammation of nose, throat,             Avoid exposure; apply
                         and lungs; liver damage                   ventilation or local exhaust

    GENERAL              Potential carcinogen
                                                                                                                                                

    
    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards, Prevention

    4.4.1  Explosion hazards

    Epichlorohydrin-air mixtures containing 3.8-21% epichlorohydrin by
    volume are explosive above 34C and can be ignited by hot surfaces,
    sparks, and open flames. The vapour is heavier than air and may travel
    along the ground and be ignited at a distance. Contact with strong
    acids and bases, zinc, aluminium, metal chlorides, alcohol-containing
    materials, isopropylamine, trichloroethylene, and oxidizing agents may
    cause fire and explosions.

    4.4.2  Fire hazards

    Epichlorohydrin is a flammable liquid. The compound decomposes in
    contact with open flames and glowing surfaces with the formation of
    harmful gases such as hydrogen chloride, which forms mists of
    hydrochloric acid with moisture, phosgene, and carbon monoxide. In a
    fire, the compound may polymerize and burst its container.

    4.4.3  Prevention

    Do not use epichlorohydrin in the vicinity of a fire, a hot surface,
    or during welding. Do not smoke. In case of fire, shut off
    epichlorohydrin sources; containers of epichlorohydrin should be
    removed or cooled by spraying with water. Fire-fighters should wear
    proper respiratory protective devices and protective clothing.

    4.4.4  Fire-extinguishing agents

    Powder, alcohol-resistant foam, water sprays, halons, and carbon
    dioxide.

    4.5 Storage

    Epichlorohydrin should be stored in tightly closed, labelled
    containers in fire-proof, cool, dry rooms. Apply ventilation across
    the floor. Epichlorohydrin attacks steel in the presence of moisture.
    The compound should be stored away from strong acids and bases, zinc,
    aluminium, metal chlorides, alcohol-containing material,
    isopropylamine, trichloroethylene, and oxidizing agents.

    4.6  Transport

    In case of accident during transport, stop the engine, extinguish
    naked lights, and do not smoke. Keep bystanders away from the danger
    spot, and mark the roads. Keep upwind. In case of spillage, use the
    methods advised in section 4.7.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1  Spillage

    Evacuate the area. Remove all ignition sources and collect leaking
    liquid in sealable containers. Absorb spilled liquid in sand, paper
    towels, or another inert absorbent, and remove to a safe place. Do not
    allow epichlorohydrin to enter a confined space such as a sewer,
    because of the possibility of an explosion. Ensure personal protection
    by the use of self-contained breathing apparatus and protective
    clothing (see following table).

    4.7.2  Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste disposal file)

    Epichlorohydrin wastes should be disposed of by incineration,
    preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Assure complete
    combustion to prevent formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is
    necessary to remove halo acids produced. Aqueous, epichlorohydrin-
    containing wastes can be saponified by caustic solutions, and the
    resulting glycerol can be biodegraded in sewage-treatment plants.

    5.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of epichlorohydrin. It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     epichlorohydrin, and on processing equipment and containers. The card
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).

     All persons potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.


        SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
                                                                                                                                                

    EPICHLOROHYDRIN
    (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, chlormethyloxirane, ECH)
    (OCH2CHCH2Cl)
                                                                                                                                                

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                                  OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                                

    Relative molecular mass                            92.53                             Colourless liquid with a chloroform-like odour;
    Appearance                                         colourless liquid                 the compound decomposes in contact with open
    Odour                                              chloroform-like                   flames and glowing surfaces with formation of
    Odour perception threshold                         38-95 mg/m3                       harmful gases; contact with strong acids and bases,
    Melting point                                      -57C                             zinc, aluminium, metal chlorides, alcohol-containing
    Boiling point                                      115C                             materials, isopropylamine, trichloroethylene, and
    Solubility in water (20C)                         66 g/litre                        oxidizing agents may cause fire and explosions; the
    Density (20C)                                     1.18 g/ml                         compound is heavier than air and may travel along the
    Relative vapour density                            3.21                              ground and be ignited at a distance
    Vapour pressure (20C)                             1.7 kPa (12.5 mmHg)
    Flash point (open cup)                             34C
    Flammable (explosive) limits                       3.8 - 21%
    Octanol/water partition coefficient                0.30
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                                PREVENTION AND PROTECTION            FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    SKIN: Irritation; redness; pain;                Avoid exposure, wear impervious      Remove contaminated clothing and shoes immediately;
    burns; blisters; sensitization                  clothes, gloves, face shield         wash skin immediately with plenty of water

    EYES: Irritation; redness, corrosion, pain      Avoid exposure, wear safety          Flush eyes immediately with plenty of water for at
                                                    goggles or face shield               least 15 minutes; seek medical attention
                                                                                                                                                

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                                PREVENTION AND PROTECTION            FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    INHALATION: Irritation of nose, throat,         Avoid exposure, use ventilation,     Fresh air, rest; if breathing has stopped, apply
    lungs; lung oedema; effects on nervous          local exhaust or breathing           artificial respiration; in serious cases, seek medical
    system with breathing difficulties              protection                           attention immediately

    INGESTION: Irritation and corrosion of          Do not eat, drink, or smoke          Rinse mouth, give water to drink, induce vomiting
    mouth, throat, stomach                          when handling the compound           in conscious patients

    GENERAL: Epichlorohydrin is a potential
    carcinogen
                                                                                                                                                

    SPILLAGE                                        STORAGE                              FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                                

    Evacuate the area; remove ignition sources;     Store in tightly closed, labelled    Compound is flammable above 34C; explosive
    collect leaking liquid in sealable              container in fire-proof, cool,       vapour/air mixtures may be formed; no open flames;
    containers; absorb spilled liquid in            dry rooms away from incompatible     no sparks; no smoking; above 34C, closed system,
    sand, paper towels, or other inert              materials; ventilation across        ventilation; fire extinguishing agents: powder, foam,
    absorbent and remove to safe place; ensure      the floor                            water spray, halons, carbon dioxide; in case of fire,
    personal protection by using a                                                       remove containers or keep cool with water spray
    self-contained breathing apparatus and
    protective clothing
                                                                                                                                                

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    WASTE DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                                                

    Waste should be incinerated, preferably         National Occupational                UN: 2023
    after mixing with a combustible fuel;           Exposure Limit:
    assure complete combustion and apply
    acid scrubbing                                  National Poison Control Centre:

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                                

    NOTE:  Do not use the compound in the vicinity of a fire, a hot surface, or during welding. Do not smoke. It is a strong sensitizer;
           avoid skin contact and high vapour levels.
    
    6.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Epichlorohydrin is moderately toxic for aquatic organisms.

    Avoid contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere by proper
    methods of storage, transport, handling, and waste disposal. In case
    of spillage, use the method advised in section 4.7.

    Exhaust ventilation systems discharging to outside air must conform
    with air pollution regulations.

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this paragraph has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country. A full reference to the
    original national document from which the information was extracted
    can be obtained from the IRPTC.a

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is shown, indicated by
    (r).

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    See the following table.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    In the USA, the substance is restricted for use as an ingredient of
    pesticides to some specified purposes (1981 (r)). When used as a
    starch modifier, it may not exceed certain limits (1981 (r)).

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 2

                 

    a  International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, Palais des
       Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland (Telephone No. 988400-985850).

    The label must read: may cause cancer; flammable, keep container in
    well-ventilated place; also toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin
    and if swallowed -- causes burns and may cause sensitization by skin
    contact -- avoid exposure, obtain special instructions before use; if
    unwell, seek medical advice (and show label where possible).

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous
    Goods classifies epichlorohydrin as a toxic substance (Class 6.1) with
    medium danger for packing purposes (Packing Group II). Packing methods
    and a label are recommended (1982 (r)). The label is:

    FIGURE 3

    The International Maritime Organization also classifies
    epichlorohydrin as a toxic substance and recommends packing, stowage,
    and labelling methods for maritime transport (1977 (r)). The label is:

    FIGURE 4

    7.4  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, any solid waste (except domestic) containing
    epichlorohydrin must be listed as hazardous waste (subject to
    handling, transport, treatment, storage, and disposal regulation and
    permit and notification requirements), unless it is found that the
    waste cannot pose a threat to human health or the environment
    (effective date: 1980).

    Permits are required for the discharge of epichlorohydrin from any
    point source into USA waters (1981 (r)). Epichlorohydrin, and
    solutions and mixtures containing the substance, are designated as
    hazardous substances for the purpose of discharge (including spilling,
    leaking, etc.) under the water pollution control act (1981 (r)).

    7.5  Other Measures

    The European Community legislation on the discharge of dangerous
    substances into the aquatic environment prohibits the discharge of
    epichlorohydrin into groundwater. For other waters, it requires that
    national authorities give specific discharge authorizations with
    discharge conditions (total quantity and concentration).


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium     Specification    Country/               Exposure limit descriptiona                           Value               Effective
                                organization                                                                                     date
                                                                                                                                                

    AIR        Occupational     Australia              Threshold limit value (TLV)                                               1983 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        20 mg/m3b

                                Belgium                Threshold limit value (TLV)                           19 mg/m3b

                                Czechoslovakia         Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1985
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        1 mg/m3
                                                       -- Ceiling value                                      2 mg/m3

                                Finland                Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                                   1982 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        19 mg/m3b

                                German                 Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1983 (r)
                                Democratic             -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        5 mg/m3b
                                Republic               -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   10 mg/m3b

                                Germany, Federal       Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                 -b                  1985 (r)
                                Republic of            -- Carcinogen                                         no MAK value
                                                                                                             established

                                Germany, Federal       Technical reference concentration (TRK)                                   1985 (r)
                                Republic of            -- One-year time-weighted average = year              12 mg/m3

                                Hungary                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1978 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        1 mg/m3
                                                       -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   2 mg/m3
                                                                                                                                                

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium     Specification    Country/               Exposure limit descriptiona                           Value               Effective
                                organization                                                                                     date
                                                                                                                                                

                                Netherlands            Maximum limit                                                             1985 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        4 mg/m3b
                                                       -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   20 mg/m3
                                                       (maximum 15 minutes each 2-h period)

                                Poland                 Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                                   1982 (r)
                                                       -- Ceiling value                                      1 mg/m3

                                Romania                Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                                   1975 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        5 mg/m3b
                                                       -- Ceiling value                                      10 mg/m3

    AIR        Occupational     Sweden                 Hygienic limit value (HLV)                                                1985
                                                       -- One-day time-weighted average                      1.9 mg/m3b
                                                       -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   4 mg/m3
                                                       (15-minute time-weighted average)
                                                       -- Carcinogen

                                Switzerland            Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                                     1984 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        8 mg/m3 h
                                                       -- Carcinogen

                                United Kingdom         Recommended limit                                                         1985 (r)
                                                       -- 8-h time-weighted average                          8 mg/m3b
                                                       -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   20 mg/m 3
                                                       (10-minute time-weighted average)

                                USA (ACGIH)c           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                               1982 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        10 mg/m3b
                                USA (ACGIH)c           -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                   20 mg/m3
                                                                                                                                                

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium     Specification    Country/               Exposure limit descriptiona                           Value               Effective
                                organization                                                                                     date
                                                                                                                                                

                                USA (OSHA)             Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                                          1981 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (IWA)                        19 mg/m3b

                                USSR                   Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1977
                                                       -- Ceiling value for vapour                           10 mg/m3

                                Yugoslavia             Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1971 (r)
                                                       -- Time-weighted average (TWA)                        18 mg/m3b

    AIR        Ambient          USSR                   Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                     1984 (r)
                                                       -- Average per day                                    0.2 mg/m3
                                                       -- One time per day                                   0.2 mg/m3

    WATER      Surface          USSR                   Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                 0.01 mg/litre       1983 (r)
                                                                                                                                                

    a  TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b  Skin absorption.
    c  Value recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists.
        


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Epichlorohydrin (EHC 33, 1984)
       Epichlorohydrin (ICSC)
       Epichlorohydrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)