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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 12

    TECNAZENE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 42:
    Tecnazene

    This report contains the collective views of an international group
    of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the
    stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the
    International Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization 

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the
    United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour
    Organisation, and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154000 0

    (c) World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in
    this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
    whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health
    Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
    city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation
    of its frontiers or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar
    nature that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the
    names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital
    letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
        1.1. Identity
        1.2. Physical and chemical properties
        1.3. Analytical methods
        1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
        2.1. Tecnazene toxicity
        2.2. Human exposure to tecnazene
        2.3. Evaluation of health risks for man
        2.4. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
        3.1. Conclusions
        3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND
        PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
        4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and
            protection, first aid
            4.1.1. Advice to physicians
        4.2. Health surveillance advice
        4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
            4.3.1. Explosion hazards
            4.3.2. Fire hazards
        4.4. Storage
            4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
        4.5. Transport
        4.6. Spillage and disposal
            4.6.1. Spillage
                    4.6.1.1 Solid products
                    4.6.1.2 Liquid products
                    4.6.1.3 All products
            4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR
        PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND
        STANDARDS
        7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
        7.2. Exposure limit values
        7.3. Specific restrictions
        7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
        7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    
    INTRODUCTION

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety prepares for
    publication a series of Environmental Health Criteria (EHC)
    documents, each of which includes an assessment of the effects of
    exposure to a specific chemical, or group of chemicals, on human
    health and the environment and gives guidelines for setting exposure
    limits.  The Health and Safety Guides complement the criteria
    documents and are intended to facilitate the application of the
    guidelines in national chemical safety programmes.

    The first three sections of each Health and Safety Guide highlight
    the relevant technical information from the corresponding EHC
    document.  Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective
    measures and action to be taken in an emergency.  All health staff
    should be thoroughly familiar with this information to ensure that
    they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency.  Hazards for
    the environment and their prevention are discussed in section 5. 
    Each Guide indicates the information to be included in an
    International Chemical Safety Card, which should be prominently
    displayed in all areas where there is a possibility of exposure to
    the chemical(s).  The information included in the final section on
    current national regulations and standards has been obtained from
    the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC)
    and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership for the Health and Safety Guides includes the
    staff of occupational health services and government ministries and
    agencies, and personnel in industry and the trade unions who are
    concerned with the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards.  The information on the prevention of,
    and protection against, accidents will be of vital interest to all
    workers who are involved in the production and handling of toxic
    chemicals.  A bibliography has been included for readers who require
    further background information.

    The information in this Guide will be revised in due course, and the
    eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 

    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using this Guide would
    be very helpful and should be addressed to:

            The Manager
            International Programme on Chemical Safety
            Division of Environmental Health
            World Health Organization
            1211 Geneva 27
            Switzerland

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY, PRODUCTION, AND USES

    1.1 Identity

    Common name:                    Tecnazene

    Chemical formula:               C6HCl4NO2

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Common trade names:             Chipman 3,142, Folosan, Fusarex,
                                    Fumite, Folosan DB905, TCNB

    CAS chemical name:              2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene

    CAS registry Number:            117-18-0

    Relative molecular mass:        260.88

    The technical grade material is more than 99% pure and contains less
    than 1% of hexachlorobenzene.

    1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties

    Tecnazene is a colourless, odourless, crystalline solid with a
    melting point of 99C.  It is fairly volatile at room temperature. 
    It is readily soluble in carbon disulfide, benzene, chloroform,
    ketones, and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds.  It is
    practically insoluble in water (0.44 mg/litre at 20C), and its
    solubility in ethanol is 40 g/litre at 25C.  Tecnazene is generally
    very stable; it can be dispersed by pyrotechnic mixtures.  It
    decomposes slowly in solution when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    1.3 Analytical Methods

    Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is the preferred
    method for the determination of tecnazene residues.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Tecnazene is used as a sprout inhibitor on stored potatoes and as a
    fungicide in smoke generators in greenhouses.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1 Tecnazene Toxicity

    WHO classified tecnazene in the category of technical products
    unlikely to present an acute hazard in normal use, based on an oral
    LD50 in the rat of 17 500 mg/kg body weight.

    Tecnazene is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in animals after oral
    administration; as the dose increases, larger amounts are passed
    unchanged in the faeces.

    On the basis of long-term studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect
    levels are:

        rat:        750 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 38 mg/kg body weight
                    per day;

        mouse:      1500 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 200 mg/kg body weight
                    per day; and

        dog:        15 mg/kg body weight per day (administered orally by
                    capsule).

    At higher dosage levels, growth inhibition occurs in the dog and
    increases in plasma-alkaline phosphatase levels are found.

    In the studies reported, tecnazene has been found not to be either
    embryotoxic or teratogenic.  There is no information on mutagenicity
    or other related short-term tests.  On the basis of the results of
    an oral feeding study on the mouse and the rat, there are no
    indications of carcinogenicity.

    The only adverse reaction in man has been dermal sensitization.

    2.2 Human Exposure to Tecnazene

    Exposure of the general population is expected to be mainly via
    residues in food.  Data available indicate that these are below the
    FAO/WHO maximum residue limits.

    No data are available on tecnazene levels in air and water and on
    the levels that occur during occupational exposure.

    No cases of human poisoning have been reported.

    2.3 Evaluation of Health Risks for Man

    The experimental animal data available indicate that tecnazene
    (purity greater than 99%) has a low degree of toxicity, even in
    long-term studies.

    An acceptable daily intake for man has been estimated by FAO/WHO at
    0.01 mg/kg body weight.

    In the absence of human exposure data, other than residues in food,
    a factual hazard assessment of the present total exposure cannot be
    made.

    The data available on tecnazene indicate a low degree of concern in
    relation to human health effects.

    2.4 Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    In the absence of information on levels in the environment and
    effects on the environment, such an evaluation cannot be made.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1 Conclusions

    (a) The general population does not seem to be at risk from exposure
        to tecnazene.

    (b) With the exception of one report of dermal sensitization in
        agricultural workers, tecnazene does not seem to present a
        problem occupationally.

    (c) No data on effects on the environment are available, except that
        there are no effects  on the bacteria involved in the nitrogen
        cycle.  Since the use of this chemical is mainly confined to
        greenhouses, there is little concern regarding risks for the
        general environment.

    3.2 Recommendations

    (a) More data should be made available on tecnazene levels in
        greenhouse crops.

    (b) The level of hexachlorobenzene as an impurity in tecnazene
        should be kept as low as possible.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 42: Tecnazene

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1 Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Tecnazene is an organochlorine fungicide and plant growth regulator
    that is only slightly toxic.  Nevertheless, the correct precautions
    should be observed in its handling and use.

    For details see the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 18-21.

    4.1.1 Advice to Physicians

    Poisoning is unlikely to occur unless a massive overdose is
    swallowed.  In this case, it is not necessary to induce vomiting. If
    gastric lavage is undertaken, a cuffed endotracheal tube should
    already be in place.  Otherwise a clear airway should be maintained,
    and respiration should be safeguarded.

    4.2 Health Surveillance Advice

    No routine medical supervision is required.

    4.3 Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.3.1 Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2 Fire hazards

    Liquid formulations of tecnazene containing organic solvents may be
    flammable.  Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon
    dioxide, or powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat,
    tecnazene will decompose emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters need
    to wear self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of
    unaffected stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off
    from the site.

    4.4 Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated
    to pesticides.

    Keep products out of the reach of children and unauthorized
    personnel.  Do not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1 Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (see
    International Chemical Safety Card).  Empty any product remaining in
    damaged/leaking containers into a clean empty drum, which should
    then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for
    powders), and dispose of safely (see section 4.6.2).

    After emptying, leaking containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre of water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Puncture the
    container to prevent re-use.

    4.5 Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding the movement of
    hazardous goods. Do not transport in the same compartment as
    foodstuffs.  Check that containers are sound and labels undamaged
    before despatch.

    4.6 Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1 Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required and appropriate personal protection should be used (see
    International Chemical Safety Card).

    4.6.1.1 Solid products

    Sweep up and absorb remaining spilled product with moist sawdust,
    sand, or earth and transfer in a suitable container to a safe place
    for disposal.

    4.6.1.2 Liquid products

    Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo,
    vegetation, or waterways, by making a barrier of the most suitable
    material available, e.g., earth or sand.

    Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth, sweep up and
    place it in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
    for disposal.

    4.6.1.3 All products

    As soon as possible after spillage and before re-use, cover all
    contaminated areas with damp sawdust, sand, or earth.  Sweep up and
    place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
    for disposal.  Care should be taken to avoid run-off into water
    courses.

    4.6.2 Disposal

    Surplus product, and contaminated absorbants and containers should
    be disposed of in an appropriate way.  Waste material should be
    burned in  a proper incinerator designed for organochlorine waste
    disposal (1000C and 30 min residence time with effluent gas
    scrubbing).  If this is not possible, bury in an approved dump or
    landfill where there is no risk of contamination of surface- or
    ground-water.  Comply with any local legislation regarding disposal
    of toxic wastes.  Puncture the container to prevent re-use.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Although there are no indications that tecnazene constitutes a
    hazard for the environment, as a matter of principle, discharges
    arising during manufacture, formulation, or use should not be
    allowed to pollute the environment and should be treated and
    disposed of properly (see section 4.6).

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, tecnazene. It should be displayed at,
     or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     tecnazene, and on processing equipment and containers.  The card
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of
     the National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names. 


    
    INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    TECNAZENE

    (C6HCl4NO2) (CAS chemical name: 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene)

    (CAS registry number: 117-18-0)

                                                                                                                             

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                           OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

                                                                                                                             

    Melting point (C)                    99                      Colourless, odourless, crystalline solid; the technical
                                                                  grade is more than 99% pure and may contain less than
    Vapour pressure (room temperature)    appreciably volatile    1% hexachlorobenzene; tecnazene is generally very
                                                                  stable; in solution, it is slowly decomposed by ultraviolet
    Relative molecular mass               260.88                  radiation; it is used as a sprout inhibitor on stored
    Solubility in:                                                potatoes and as a greenhouse fungicide
    - water (20C)                        0.44 mg/litre
                                            (practically
                                            insoluble)
    - ethanol (25C)                      40 g/litre
    - most other organic solvents         readily soluble

                                                                                                                             

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                    PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                  FIRST AID

                                                                                                                             

    SKIN: repeated skin                 Avoid skin contact, wear clean overalls    Remove contaminated clothing; wash skin
    contamination may cause             and protective impermeable gloves          with water and soap
    sensitization

    EYES: May cause irritation,         Avoid working in a dusty atmosphere        Flush with clean water for 15 minutes; if
    redness                                                                        irritation persists, seek medical attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate       Avoid working in a dusty atmosphere

    INGESTION: Unlikely                 Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    occupational hazard                 work; wash hands before eating,
                                        drinking, or smoking

    Massive accidental or intentional                                              Obtain medical attention; do not induce
    ingestion may cause poisoning                                                  vomiting

    REPEATED EXPOSURE
    THROUGH SKIN, OR BY
    INHALATION OR
    INGESTION: Unlikely to cause        Precautions and use of personal            In case of poisoning, same as above
    adverse effects, unless massive     protection as above; take shower and
    exposure; however, may cause        put on clean clothing after work
    skin sensitization

    ENVIRONMENT:                        Avoid pollution of the environment
                                        with waste material or discharges 

                                                                                                                             

    SPILLAGE                              STORAGE                                 FIRE AND EXPLOSION

                                                                                                                             

    Take appropriate personal             Products should be stored in            Liquid products containing organic solvents
    precautions; prevent liquid           locked buildings preferably             may be flammable; emulsifiable concentrates
    from spreading or contaminating       dedicated to insecticides               are miscible with water; extinguish fires
    other cargo, vegetation, or                                                   with alcohol-resistant foam, CO2, or
    waterways, by making a barrier                                                powder; with sufficient burning or external
    of the most suitable available        Keep products out of reach of           heat, tecnazene may decompose, emitting
    material, e.g., earth or sand         children and unauthorized               toxic fumes; the smoke and fumes could be
                                          personnel; do not store near            injurious through inhalation, or
    Absorb spilled liquid with            foodstuffs or animal feed               absorption through the skin; therefore,
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep                                                protective clothing and self-contained breathing
    up and place it in a closeable                                                apparatus will be required; confine the use
    container for later safe disposal                                             of water spray to cooling of unaffected
                                                                                  stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of
                                                                                  polluted run-off from the site

                                                                                                                             

    WASTE DISPOSAL                            NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                             

    Waste material should be burned           National Occupational Exposure
    in a proper incinerator designed          Limit:
    for organochlorine waste disposal;
    if this is not possible, bury in an
    approved dump or landfill where           National Poison Control Centre:
    there is no risk of contamination
    of surface or ground water; comply
    with any local legislation regarding      Local Trade Names:
    disposal of toxic wastes

                                                                                                                             
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other United Nations  sources.  The intention is to give
    the reader a representative, but not exhaustive overview of current
    regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1 Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) reviewed
    residues and toxicity data on tecnazene in 1974, 1978, 1981, and
    1983.  Although further toxicological information is still desirable
    on tecnazene, the meeting concluded that the no-observed-adverse-
    effect levels for the rat, mouse, and dog were 750 mg/kg in the diet,
    1500 mg/kg in the diet, and 15 mg/kg body weight (by capsule),
    respectively, and estimated the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for
    man to be 0-0.01 mg/kg body weight.

    WHO, in its "Guidelines to the use of the WHO Recommended
    Classification of Pesticides by Hazard" (WHO, 1986), classified
    tecnazene in the list of technical products unlikely to present an
    acute hazard in normal use.

    7.2 Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on page 23.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.3 Specific Restrictions

    In the USA, the hexachlorobenzene content of technical tecnazene
    must not exceed 0.1%.

    7.4 Labelling, Packaging and Transport

    No specific guidelines have been found.


            

    a   The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
        change and should always be verified with the appropriate
        regulatory authorities before application.

    7.5 Waste Disposal

    In the USA, any non-domestic waste containing tecnazene must be
    treated as hazardous waste.  Specific instructions are given for
    incineration.

    In Finland, any waste containing tecnazene is classified as
    hazardous waste and must be treated according to specific
    instructions.

    
    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification      Country/           Exposure limit description                    Value                 Effective
                                   organization                                                                           date

                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD        Intake from        FAO/WHO            Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                 0.01 mg/kg            1983
                                                                                                    body weight

    FOOD        Plant              FAO/WHO            Maximum residue level                         0.1-2 mg/kg

                                   Germany,           Maximum residue limit (MRL)                   0.05-0.3 mg/kg        1984
                                     Federal
                                     Republic of

                                   Finland            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                   0.5 mg/kg             1987

                                   Kenya              Maximum limit (potatoes)                      2-5 mg/kg

                                   Netherlands        Maximum residue limit (MRL)                   0a(0.01) mg/kg        1987

                                   Sweden             Maximum tolerable concentration               0.5 mg/kg             1985

                                   USA                Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
                                                      - Raw agricultural products (potatoes)        2-5 mg/kg

                                                                                                                                         

    a Limit of determination.
    

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of
    pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
    pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants
    de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of
     Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1983)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International
    Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment
    Programme.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for
     waste chemicals. Geneva, International Register of Potentially
    Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization (Report
    No. VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials.
    New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of
     dangerous goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols, Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1984)  Environmental health criteria 42: Tecnazene. Geneva,
    World Health Organization, 23 pp.

    WHO  (1986)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard. Guidelines to classification 1986-87. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (Unpublished report VBC/86.1).

    WHO/FAO  (1975-87)  Data sheets on pesticides. Unpublished
    documents, Division of Vector Biology and Control. Geneva, World
    Health Organization.

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)  The pesticide manual. 7th
    ed. Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection
    Council.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Tecnazene (EHC 42, 1984)
       Tecnazene (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Tecnazene (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Tecnazene (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Tecnazene (Pesticide residues in food: 1994 evaluations Part II Toxicology)