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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 13

    CHLORDANE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 34:
    Chlordane  This report contains the collective views of an
    international group of experts and does not necessarily represent
    the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment
    Programme, the International Labour Organisation, or the World
    Health Organization 

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the
    United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour
    Organisation, and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154330 2

    (c) World Health Organization 1988

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in
    this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
    whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health
    Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
    city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation
    of its frontiers or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar
    nature that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the
    names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital
    letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
        1.1. Identity
        1.2. Physical and chemical properties
        1.3. Analytical methods
        1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
        2.1. Chlordane toxicity
        2.2. Human exposure to chlordane
        2.3. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
        3.1. Conclusions
        3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND
        PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
        4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and
            protection, first aid
            4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning
                    4.1.1.2  Medical advice
        4.2. Health surveillance advice
        4.3. Safety in use
        4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
            4.4.1. Explosion hazards
            4.4.2. Fire hazards
        4.5. Storage
            4.5.1. Leaking containers in store
        4.6. Transport
        4.7. Spillage and disposal
            4.7.1. Spillage
                    4.7.1.1 Solid products
                    4.7.1.2 Liquid products
                    4.7.1.3 All products
            4.7.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
        7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
        7.2. Exposure limit values
        7.3. Specific restrictions
        7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
        7.5. Waste disposal
        7.6. Other measures

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety prepares for
    publication a series of Environmental Health Criteria (EHC)
    documents, each of which includes an assessment of the effects on
    human health and the environment of exposure to a specific chemical,
    or group of chemicals, and gives guidelines for setting exposure
    limits.  The Health and Safety Guides complement the criteria
    documents and are intended to facilitate the application of the
    guidelines in national chemical safety programmes.

    The first three sections of each Health and Safety Guide highlight
    the relevant technical information from the corresponding EHC
    document.  Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective
    measures and action to be taken in an emergency.  All health staff
    should be thoroughly familiar with this information to ensure that
    they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency.  Hazards for
    the environment and their prevention are discussed in section 5. 
    Each Guide indicates the information to be included in an
    International Chemical Safety Card, which should be prominently
    displayed in all areas where there is a possibility of exposure to
    the chemical(s).  The information included in the final section on
    current national regulations and standards has been obtained from
    the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC)
    and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership for the Health and Safety Guides includes the
    staff of occupational health services and government ministries and
    agencies, and personnel in industry and the trade unions who are
    concerned with the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards.  The information on the prevention of,
    and protection against, accidents will be of vital interest to all
    workers who are involved in the production and handling of toxic
    chemicals.  A bibliography has been included for readers who require
    further background information.

    The information in this Guide will be revised in due course, and the
    eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 

    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using this Guide would
    be very helpful and should be addressed to:

            The Manager
            International Programme on Chemical Safety
            Division of Environmental Health
            World Health Organization
            1211 Geneva 27
            Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING
    POINT TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1 Identity

    Common name:                Chlordane

    Chemical formula:           C10H6Cl8

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1:

    Common trade names:         Aspon, Belt, CD 68, Chlorindan,
                                Chlorkil, Chlordane, Corodan,
                                Cortilan-neu, Dowchlor, HCS 3260, Intox,
                                Kypchlor, M140, Niran, Octachlor,
                                Octaterr, Ortho-Klor, Starchlor,
                                Synklor, Topichlor, Toxichlor,
                                Velsicol-1068

    CAS chemical name:          1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,
                                7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene

    CAS registry number:        57-47-9

    RTECS registry number:      PB9800000

    Relative molecular mass:    409.8

    1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties

    Technical chlordane is a light yellow to amber-coloured viscous
    liquid.  The melting point of the alpha-isomer is 106-107C and that
    of the gamma-isomer, 104-105 C.  It has a density of 1.59-1.63 g/ml
    and a vapour pressure of 1 x 10-5 mmHg at 25C.  It is practically
    insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents.

    The term chlordane actually refers to a complex mixture of chlordane
    isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and by-products.  Technical
    chlordane is a mixture of at least 26 different components, mainly,
    however, alpha- and gamma-chlordane, as well as heptachlor. 
    Chlordane is available in five basic formulations, including 5%
    granules, oil solutions containing chlordane at 2-200 g/litre, and
    emulsifiable concentrates containing chlordane at 400-800 g/litre.

    1.3 Analytical methods

    Determination of chlordane residues is difficult because of the
    complex nature of the components and the fact that each component
    degrades independently.  Resulting residues may bear little relation
    to the proportions in the technical product.  Extraction from crops,
    other plant products, dairy products, plants, and oils was achieved
    with an 80-110% efficiency using acetonitrile for extraction,
    petroleum ether for partitioning, and clean-up on a Florisil column. 
    Gel permeation chromatography can also be used for clean-up,
    particularly with human adipose tissue.

    The method of choice for the qualitative and quantitative estimation
    of chlordane isomers is gas-liquid chromatography with
    electron-capture detection.  Confirmation of gas chromatographic
    analysis can be carried out with gas-liquid chromatography/mass
    spectrometry, a method that can also give a better determination of
    some of the components, such as heptachlor epoxide.

    Analysis for total organically-bound chlorine remains the preferred
    method for the determination of technical chlordane and the active
    ingredient (chlordane) in formulations.

    1.4 Production and uses

    Chlordane was first produced commercially in the USA in 1947.  In
    1974, production in the USA amounted to 9.5 million kg.  Both the
    amounts of chlordane produced and those used have decreased
    considerably in recent years.

    Chlordane has been used as an insecticide for more than 35 years. 
    It is a versatile, broad-spectrum, contact insecticide and is used
    mainly for non-agricultural purposes (primarily for the protection
    of structures, but also on lawn and turf, ornamental trees, and
    drainage ditches).  Furthermore, it is used on corn, potatoes, and
    livestock.

    Recently, the use of chlordane has been increasingly restricted in
    many countries (section 7.3).

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1 Chlordane Toxicity

    Chlordane is readily absorbed in both animals and man through the
    skin,  ingestion, and probably also inhalation.  Some accumulation
    occurs in the body on repeated exposure - mainly in adipose tissue. 
    Elimination from the body is fairly slow.  The biological half-life
    in various species, including man, is of the order of a few weeks.

    The oral LD50 values of chlordane in the rat range from 200 to
    590 mg/kg body weight.  Thus, chlordane is moderately toxic in acute
    exposures.

    Acute poisoning in man and animals is characterized by
    manifestations of central nervous system stimulation, such as
    disorientation, tremors, and convulsions.  Death may follow
    respiratory failure.

    In experimental animals (rats and dogs), prolonged exposure to
    levels in the diet exceeding 3-5 mg/kg resulted in the induction of
    hepatic microsomal enzymes and, at a later stage, liver hypertrophy
    with histological changes.  At higher levels (i.e., >15 mg/kg body
    weight per day), chlordane is hepatotoxic.

    At dosages above 30 mg/kg diet, chlordane interferes with
    reproduction in rats and mice.  There are no indications for
    teratogenicity in the rabbit at 15 mg/kg body weight per day.

    Chlordane produces hepatocellular carcinomas in mice.  It is not
    generally active in short-term tests designed to measure genetic
    activity.  Chlordane can interfere with cell to cell communication
    in vitro, a characteristic of many promoting agents.

    2.2 Human Exposure to Chlordane

    Food is the major source of exposure of the general population to
    chlordane, but the use of chlordane on food crops has decreased and
    residues in food of animal origin are low.  Significant exposure to
    chlordane can occur in buildings where chlordane has been used for
    termite or other insect control.

    No adverse health effects have been reported in workers engaged in
    the manufacture of chlordane or in pest-control operations. 
    However, several cases of accidental and suicidal poisoning in man
    have been reported.  The acute lethal dose for man is estimated to
    be 25-50 mg/kg body weight.

    2.3 Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    Chlordane is stable to light.  It is readily adsorbed on soil
    particles and therefore there is probably no significant migration
    through the soil profile or leaching into ground-water.  Some
    volatilization into air from treated soils, and some run-off into
    surface waters can take place.

    Chlordane is persistent in soil and sediments, especially in the
    form of its alpha- and gamma-isomers, which are, to a certain
    extent, translocated into crops grown on the soil.

    Chlordane is used primarily to control soil pests.  Technical
    chlordane is a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons and contains
    heptachlor, which might contribute to the insecticidal properties of
    the technical formulation.

    About half of the chlordane applied to soil disappears in the first
    season, presumably by volatilisation or by "run-off" into surface
    waters.  Remaining residues persist for several seasons.  If
    chlordane is applied annually for several successive seasons,
    residues accumulate in the soil.  Most chlordane persists in the
    cultivated layers, since there is little leaching into subsoil.

    The high rate of metabolism of chlordane in warm-blooded animals
    probably means that there is little possibility of accumulation in
    these animals or magnification in food chains at this level. 
    Concentration factors are generally modest in aquatic organisms;
    this combined with its low solubility in water means that chlordane
    presents a limited hazard for aquatic vertebrates.

    Long-term effects are not sufficiently well-documented concerning
    whether there is a potential hazard for fish, but this seems
    unlikely from the information available, as far as temperate areas
    are concerned.  The toxicity of the compound increases at higher
    temperatures.  Mortality rates in tropical fish species at
    concentrations well within the solubility of the compound, suggest
    that chlordane may be a greater aquatic hazard at lower latitudes.

    The high toxicity of chlordane for earthworms may constitute its
    greatest potential environmental hazard.  The long-term effects of
    reduced numbers of earthworms in the soil cannot be readily assessed
    because the ecology of the animal is still poorly understood.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1 Conclusions

    Although there is no evidence that chlordane is a human carcinogen,
    the suspicion, principally arising from the mouse carcinogenicity
    studies, cannot be entirely ignored.  Further research is required
    to look into this problem.  Nevertheless, with the present state of
    knowledge, it is concluded that:

    (a) As long as occupational hygiene procedures are maintained to
        keep exposure levels to a minimum, whether or not by the
        imposition of maximum allowable concentrations, there is little
        reason to believe that workers will be at risk from handling, or
        contact with, chlordane.

    (b) Members of the general population should not suffer any adverse
        effects from chlordane residues in food, provided that intake is
        kept within the ADI set by the  FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on
        Pesticide Residues.

        In certain regions of the world, the exposure of the general
        population to chlordane may be increased if it is used in
        buildings for the control of termites.

    (c) Apart from the possible long-term adverse effects on aquatic
        organisms in tropical areas and the depleted soil fertility that
        may arise, in time, from the suppression of the earthworm
        population, chlordane does not seem to pose a problem for the
        environment during its normal use as a termiticide and in other
        non-agricultural applications.

    3.2  Recommendations

    (a) Figures relating to the current production and use of chlordane
        should be made available;

    (b) More information on human exposure from sources other than food,
        such as its use in termite control, is required.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 34: Chlordane

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1 Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Chlordane is an organochlorine insecticide.  It is toxic and can be
    hazardous for human beings if incorrectly or carelessly handled.  It
    is therefore essential that the correct precautions are observed
    during handling and use.

    For details see the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 22-25.

    4.1.1 Advice to Physicians

    4.1.1.1 Symptoms of poisoning

    Chlordane is toxic when ingested, through skin contact (especially
    liquid formulations), and by inhalation of dust from powder
    concentrates.  It acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system.

    Symptoms, following accidental ingestion or over-exposure, may
    include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness in the legs,
    and convulsions.

    4.1.1.2 Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive and directed
    against convulsions and anoxaemia.  If swallowed, vomiting should
    not be induced and emetics are contraindicated, because many liquid
    formulations contain hydrocarbons and there is risk of aspiration
    pneumonia.  Instead, the stomach should be emptied as soon as
    possible by careful gastric lavage, with a cuffed endotracheal tube
    in place to avoid aspiration into the lungs.   This should be
    followed by intragastric administration of 3-4 tablespoons of
    activated charcoal and 30 g of magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate
    in a 30% aqueous solution.  Oily purgatives are contraindicated.  No
    fats, oils or milk should be given.

    If convulsions occur, anticonvulsants should be given, e.g.,
    diazepam 10 mg slowly intravenously (children 1-5 mg), repeated as
    necessary; or thiopental sodium, or hexobarbital sodium slowly
    intravenously in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, with a maximum
    total dose of up to 750 mg for an adult, or paraldehyde at 5 ml by
    intramuscular injection.  These short-acting anticonvulsants should
    always be followed by phenobarbital given  orally at 3 mg/kg (up to
    a total of 200 mg for an adult), or phenobarbital sodium given
    intramuscularly at 3 mg/kg body weight (also up to 200 mg for an
    adult).

    Morphine and its derivatives, epinephrine and noradrenaline should
    never be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained.  Respiratory inadequacy,
    which may be accentuated by barbiturate anticonvulsants, should be
    corrected; oxygen and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.

    4.2 Health Surveillance Advice

    A complete medical history should be taken and a physical
    examination made annually.  Special attention should be paid to
    liver and kidney function.

    4.3 Safety in Use

    Handling liquid formulations:

        -   Wear protective neoprene or PVC gloves, cotton overalls,
            rubber boots and face shield.

        -   Handling powder formulations:

        -   Avoid raising a dust cloud.  Wear protective neoprene or PVC
            gloves, cotton overalls, and dust mask. 

    4.4 Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.4.1 Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.4.2 Fire hazards

    Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Fires should be extinguished with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon
    dioxide, or powder.

    With sufficient burning or external heat, chlordane will decompose
    emitting toxic fumes. Fire-fighters should wear self-contained
    breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full protective clothing.

    The use of a water spray should be confined to the cooling of
    unaffected stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted 
    run-off from the site.

    4.5 Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings preferably dedicated
    to insecticides.

    Keep products out of reach of children and unauthorised personnel. 
    Do not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.5.1 Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (see
    section 4.3).  Empty any product remaining in damaged/leaking
    containers into a clean empty drum, which should then be tightly
    closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for
    powders), and dispose of safely.

    Emptied leaking containers should be rinsed with at least 1 litre of
    water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls, empty and
    add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Do not re-use containers
    for any other purpose.  Puncture containers to prevent re-use.

    4.6 Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding the movement of
    hazardous goods. Do not transport with feed or foodstuffs.  Make
    sure that containers are in good condition and labels undamaged
    before despatch. 

    4.7 Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1 Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required and appropriate personal protection should be used (see
    section 4.3).

    4.7.1.1 Solid products

    Sweep up and absorb remaining spilled product with moist sawdust,
    sand, or earth and transfer in suitable container to safe place for
    disposal (see section 4.7.2).

    4.7.1.2 Liquid products

    Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo,
    vegetation, or waterways, by making a barrier of the most suitable
    available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth, sweep up and
    place it in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
    for disposal (see section 4.7.2). 

    4.7.1.3 All products

    As soon as possible after the spillage and before re-use, cover all
    contaminated areas with damp sawdust, sand, or earth.  Sweep up and
    place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
    for disposal.  Since chlordane is toxic for fish, care should be
    taken to avoid run-off into water courses.

    4.7.2 Disposal

    Surplus product and contaminated absorbants and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Chlordane is not readily
    decomposed chemically or biologically and is relatively persistent. 
    Waste material should be burned only in  a proper incinerator
    designed for organochlorine waste disposal (1000C and 30-min
    residence time with effluent gas scrubbing).  If this is not
    possible, bury in an approved dump or landfill where there is no
    risk of contamination of surface- or ground-water.  Comply with any
    local legislation regarding disposal of toxic wastes.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Chlordane may pose a toxic hazard for many aquatic and terrestrial
    species.  It is highly toxic to earthworms, and as a result there
    may be an effect on soil fertility.  Chlordane is fairly persistent
    in soil and may bioaccumulate and biomagnify.

    Industrial discharges during manufacture, formulation, and use
    should not be allowed to pollute the environment and should be
    treated properly.

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly (see section 4.7).

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, chlordane. It should be displayed at,
     or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     chlordane, and on processing equipment and containers.  The card
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of
     the  National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names. 


        INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    CHLORDANE

    (CAS chemical name: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene)

    (CAS registry number: 57-47-9; RTECS registry number: PB9800000)

    (C10H6Cl8)

                                                                                                                                      

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                              OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                      

    Melting point (C):                                              Technical chlordane is a viscous light yellow to amber
       alpha-isomer                     106 - 107                    coloured liquid; stable in storage at ambient temperatures;
       gamma isomer                     104 - 105                    it is a mixture of at least 26 different components,
                                                                     mainly alpha and gamma chlordane, as well as
    Density                             1.59 - 1.63 g/ml             heptachlor; its chlordane content is 64-67%; it is a
                                                                     broad-spectrum insecticide used mainly for 
    Vapour pressure (mmHg at 25C)      1  10-5                     non-agricultural purposes; its use has been increasingly
                                                                     restricted
    Relative molecular mass             409.8

    Solubility:
       in water (25C)                  9 g/litre (practically
                                          insoluble)
       in most organic solvents         soluble

                                                                                                                                      

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                   FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                      

    SKIN: Overexposure may cause             Avoid skin contact; wear                    Remove contaminated clothing 
    poisoning                                protective clothing, PVC or                 immediately, wash skin with water and
                                             neoprene gloves, rubber boots               soap

    EYES: Irritation, redness                Wear face-shield or goggles                 Flush with clean water for 15 minutes;
                                                                                         if irritation persists, seek medical
                                                                                         attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate            Wear dust mask

    INGESTION: Unlikely occupational         Do not eat, drink, or smoke
    hazard                                   during work

    Accidental or intentional ingestion                                                  Obtain medical attention immediately;
    may cause poisoning                                                                  do not induce vomiting; keep at rest
                                                                                         lying face downwards

    REPEATED EXPOSURE
    THROUGH SKIN, OR BY
    INHALATION OR
    INGESTION: Poisoning may occur           Precautions and personal protection         In case of poisoning, same as above
    after a considerable time due to a       as above; take shower and put on
    slow build up of toxicant in the body    clean clothing after work

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for aquatic           Do not spill on feed or
    and terrestrial life                     in water ways

                                                                                                                                      

    SPILLAGE                                 STORAGE                                     FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                      

    Take appropriate personal                Products should be stored in                Liquid formulations will burn and emulsifiable
    precautions; prevent liquid              locked buildings preferably                 concentrates are miscible with water;
    from spreading or contaminating          dedicated to insecticides                   extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant
    other cargo, vegetation, or                                                          foam, carbon dioxide, or powder; with sufficient
    waterways, with a barrier of the                                                     burning or external heat, chlordane
    most suitable available material,        Keep products out of reach of               will decompose emitting toxic fumes; the
    e.g., earth or sand                      children and unauthorized                   smoke and fumes could be injurious
                                             personnel; do not store near                through inhalation, or absorption through
    Absorb spilled liquid with               foodstuffs or animal feed                   the skin; therefore, fire-fighters require
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up                                                    protective clothing and self-contained
    and place it in a closeable container                                                breathing apparatus; confine the use of water
    for later safe disposal                                                              spray to cooling of unaffected stock, thus
                                                                                         avoiding polluted run-off from the site


                                                                                                                                      

    WASTE DISPOSAL                           NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                      

    Chlordane is not readily decomposed      National Occupational Exposure              UN No. 2762, 2995, 2996
    chemically or biologically               Limit:
    and is relatively persistent;
    waste material should be burned
    in a proper incinerator designed         National Poison Control Centre
    for organochlorine waste disposal;
    if this is not possible, bury in
    an approved dump or landfill where
    there is no risk of contamination        Local trade names
    of surface or ground water;
    comply with any local legislation
    regarding disposal of toxic wastes

                                                                                                                                      
    
    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  Its intention is to give the reader a
    representative but not exhaustive overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1 Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    An IARC Working Group (IARC, 1982) concluded that the available
    epidemiological studies on chlordane were inadequate for the
    evaluation of the cancer risk for man and that there was limited
    evidence of the carcinogenicity of chlordane for experimental
    animals.  This conclusion was confirmed in 1987.

    WHO has recommended a guideline value of 0-0.3 g/litre for
    chlordane (total isomers) in drinking-water (WHO, 1982).

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR)  reviewed
    residues and toxicity data on chlordane on several occasions in the
    past (1965, 1967, 1970, 1977, 1984, and 1986).  In 1972, it
    re-established residue tolerences for food ranging from 0.2 to
    0.5 mg/kg for the sum of alpha- and gamma-isomers of chlordane and
    oxychlordane.  An acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human beings of
    0-0.0005 mg/kg body weight was established in 1986.

    In the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard, the
    LD50 "for classification purposes" is the oral value of 460 mg/kg
    and the liquid active ingredient is in Class II (moderately
    hazardous).  This means that liquid formulations containing 20%
    active ingredient or less or solid formulations containing 90%
    active ingredient or less fall into Class III (slightly hazardous).

    A data sheet on chlordane is available from the Division of Vector
    Biology and Control, World Health Organization, in the series "Data
    Sheets on Pesticides" (WHO/FAO, 1975-78).

            

    a   The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
        change and should always be verified with the appropriate
        regulatory authorities before application.

    7.2 Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pages 28-31.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.3 Specific Restrictions

    The use of chlordane is prohibited in several countries, including
    Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Finland, the German Democratic Republic,
    Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, Sweden, the USA, the USSR, and
    Yugoslavia.  In Canada, the registration of chlordane limited it to
    use as a restricted class termiticide, from 1985 onwards. The
    European Community legislation prohibits the marketing and use of
    plant protection products containing chlordane.  The use of
    chlordane is restricted in Cyprus and Venezuela.  It must be
    registered for import, export, or manufacture in India.  Chlordane
    has not been used in Norway since 1968.

    7.4 Labelling, Packaging and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classified chlordane in:

    Hazard class 6.1:       poisonous substance

    Packing group III:      a substance presenting a relatively low risk
                            of poisoning in transport (chlordane
                            concentrations 55%)


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                      

    Medium       Specification     Country/          Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                 Effective
                                   organization                                                                           date
                                                                                                                                      

    AIR          Occupational      Argentina         Maximum permissible Concentration (MPC)                              1979
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3
                                                     - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)             2 mg/m3

                                   Austria           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                          1983 (r)
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3

                                   Belgium           Threshold limit value (TLV)                    0.5 mg/m3

                                   Germany,          Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                                1985 (r)
                                     Federal         - 8-h time-weighted average                    0.5 mg/m3
                                     Republic of     - Short-term exposure level (STEL)             5 mg/m3
                                                         (30 min, 1 x per shift)

                                   Italy             Threshold limit value (TLV)                    0.5 mg/m3               1985 (r)

                                   Netherlands       Maximum limit (MXL)
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3

    AIR          Occupational      Romania           Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                              1975 (r)
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.3 mg/m3
                                                     - Ceiling value (CLV)                          0.6 mg/m3

                                   Switzerland       Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                                1984 (r)
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3

                                   United            Recommended limit (RECL)                                             1985 (r)
                                   Kingdom           - 8-h time-weighted average                    0.5 mg/m3
                                                     - Short-term exposure level (STEL)             2 mg/m3
                                                        (10-min time-weighted average)
            
    a Limit of determination.

                                                                                                                                      

    Medium       Specification     Country/          Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                 Effective
                                   organization                                                                           date
                                                                                                                                      

                                   USA               Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                                     1974
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3

    AIR          Occupational      USSR              Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                1987
                                                     - Ceiling value (CLV)                          0.01 mg/m3

                                   Yugoslavia        Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                1977 (r)
                                                     - Time-weighted average (TWA)                  0.5 mg/m3

    FOOD         Intake from       FAO/WHO           Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                  0.0005 mg/kg          1986

                                   USSR              Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                  0.0005 mg/kg

    FOOD         General           Argentina         Maximum limit                                  0-0.3 mg/kg           1971 (r)

    FOOD         General           USA               Acceptable residue limit (ARL)                                       1981 (r)
                                                     - Raw agricultural products                    0.03-0.3 mg/kg

                                   USSR              Prohibited in all food products

    FOOD         Plant             Brazil            Acceptable limit                               0.3 mg/kg             1979 (r)

                                   Czechoslovakia    Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                          1978
                                                     - Imported food only                           0.1-0.3 mg/kg

                                   European          Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                          1988
                                   Community         - Cereals                                      0.02 mg/kg

                                   FAO/WHO           Extraneous residue limit                       0.02-0.5 mg/kg        1985 (r)

            
    a Limit of determination.

                                                                                                                                      

    Medium       Specification     Country/          Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                 Effective
                                   organization                                                                           date
                                                                                                                                      

                                   Germany,          Maximum residue limit (MRL)                    0.01-0.05 mg/kg       1984
                                     Federal
                                     Republic of

                                   India             Maximum tolerable concentration                0.05-0.3 mg/kg        1976

    FOOD         Plant             Kenya             Maximum limit                                  0.02-0.5 mg/kg        1978 (r)

                                   Netherlands       Maximum tolerable concentration                0.02-0.1 mg/kg        1987 (r)

    FOOD         Plant             Sweden            Maximum tolerable concentration                0.1 mg/kg             1985

    FOOD         Animal            European          Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                          1988
                                     Community       - In specified products                        0.002-0.05 mg/kg
                                                       (see section 7.6) mg/kg

                                   FAO/WHO           General limit
                                                     - In fat                                       0.02-0.05 mg/kg

    FOOD         Animal            Germany,          Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                          1984
                                     Federal         - Oxychlordane                                 0.01-0.05  mg/kg
                                     Republic of

                                   Netherlands       Maximum tolerable concentration                                      1987 (r)
                                                     - In fat                                       0.05 mg/kg

    GOODS                          Germany,          Maximum residue level (MRL)
                                     Federal         - In tobacco                                   0.2 mg/kg
                                     Republic of

            
    a Limit of determination.

                                                                                                                                      

    Medium       Specification     Country/          Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                 Effective
                                   organization                                                                           date
                                                                                                                                      

    WATER        Ambient           Mexico            Maximum permissible concentration                                    1973
                                                     - Coastal                                      0.002 mg/litre
                                                     - Estuarine                                    0.002 mg/litre
                                                     - Water treated for drinking                   0.003 mg/litre

    WATER        Drinking-         WHO               Guideline value                                0.3 g/litre          1983 (r) 


            
    a Limit of determination.
    
    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 01

    St Andrew's Cross over an ear of wheat (black); Background: white.
    The bottom half of the label should bear the inscriptions: harmful,
    stow away from foodstuffs.

    The FAO specification for plant protection products for chlordane
    (technical product and formulations) advises on the composition and
    purity of chlordane and methods for the checking.

    In the technical product, the two chlordane isomers should total
    approximately 50%, and none of the other components (manufacturing
    impurities and stabilizers) should exceed 10%.

    The European Community Legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance, using the following symbol:

    FIGURE 02

    The label must read: harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed;
    possible risk of irreversible effects; wear suitable protective
    clothing and gloves.

    The European Community legislation on labelling of pesticides
    preparations classifies chlordane in Class II/D for the purpose of
    determining the label for preparations containing chlordane and
    other active ingredients.

    7.5 Waste Disposal

    In the USA, chlordane (technical mixture and formulations) is
    classified as a toxic pollutant for which the EPA has set effluent
    limitations and pre-treatment standards.  Permits are required for
    discharge from any point source into US waters.  Hazardous waste
    incinerators must achieve 99.99% destruction of this substance.

    7.6 Other Measures

    The European Community legislation requires that Member States
    should prescribe that, from the time that cereals are put into
    circulation (wheat, millet, grain sorghum, triticale, etc.), they
    may not contain (in and on) chlordane residue levels exceeding
    0.02 mg/kg (applicable latest by June 1988).

    The European Community legislation requires that Member States
    should prescribe that, from the time that foodstuffs of animal
    origin (meat, poultry, milk, butter, cheese, etc.) are put into
    circulation, they may not contain chlordane residue levels (sum of
    cis and trans isomers and oxychlordane expressed as chlordane)
    exceeding 0.05 mg/kg in the fat of meat and poultry or exceeding
    0.002 mg/kg (sum of cis and trans isomers and oxychlordane expressed
    as chlordane) in raw cow's milk, whole cream cow's milk, butter,
    cheese (applicable latest by June 1988).

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of
     pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice. Rome, Food and
    Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants
    de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC Monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1983)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International
    Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment
    Programme.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for
     waste chemicals. Geneva, International Register of Potentially
    Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (Unpublished report No. VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials.
    New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of
     dangerous goods, 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards, 3 Vols, Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1984)  Environmental Health Criteria 34: Chlordane. Geneva,
    World Health Organization, 82 pp.

    WHO  (1986)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard. Guidelines to classification 1986-87. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (Unpublished report VBC/86.1).

    WHO/FAO  (1975-87)  Data sheets on pesticides. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (No. 36).

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)  The pesticide manual, 7th
    ed. Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection
    Council.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Chlordane (EHC 34, 1984)
       Chlordane (PIM 574)
       Chlordane (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Chlordane (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Chlordane (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Chlordane (AGP:1970/M/12/1)
       Chlordane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2)
       Chlordane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Chlordane (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Chlordane (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Chlordane (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Chlordane (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)