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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 17

    ENDOSULFAN
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 40:
    Endosulfan

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154340 X
    ISSN 0259 - 7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1988

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Endosulfan toxicity
         2.2. Human exposure to endosulfan
         2.3. Evaluation of health risks for man
         2.4. Fate in the environment
         2.5. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and
              protection, first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                        4.1.1.1   Symptoms of poisoning
                        4.1.1.2   Medical advice
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Safety in use
         4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.3.1. Explosion hazards
              4.3.2. Fire hazards
         4.4. Storage
              4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.5. Transport
         4.6. Spillage and disposal
              4.6.1. Spillage
                        4.6.1.1 Solid products
                        4.6.1.2 Liquid products
                        4.6.1.3 All products
              4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal
         7.6. Other measures

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  Endosulfan (ISO, BSO, ANSI, ESA),
                                  benzoepin (JMAF)

    Chemical structure:

    FIGURE 1

    Molecular formula:            C9H6Cl6O3S

    CAS chemical name:            6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,
                                  9,-9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,
                                  3-benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide.

    Trade names:                  Beosit, Malix, Thiodan, Thiofor,
                                  Thiomul, Thionex, Thimul 

                                  Formulations under other trade names may
                                  also exist 

    Development codes:            HOE 002671, NIA 5462

    CAS registry number:          115-29-7

    RTECS registry number:        RB 9275000

    Relative molecular mass:      406.9

    Technical endosulfan is a brown crystalline substance consisting of
    alpha- and beta-isomers in the ratio of approximately 70:30.  Its
    purity is 94-96%.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Pure grade endosulfan is a colourless crystalline solid.  Its
    solubility in water is low, being less than 0.5 mg/litre at 20C, but
    increases with decreasing pH.  Solubility in other solvents varies
    from 5-65%.

    Technical endosulfan is usually sold in the form of brown crystalline
    flakes with a faint odour of sulfur dioxide.  It is stable to
    sunlight, sensitive to moisture, unstable in alkaline media, and
    subject to slow hydrolysis.

    Endosulfan is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, water
    dispersible powder, dispersion, dust, granules, and as an
    ultra-low-volume (ULV) formulation.

    Some physical and chemical properties of pure and technical endosulfan
    are listed in the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 22-25.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Standard analytical methods for the determination of endosulfan in the
    technical product, and in formulations, include saponification and
    titration of the sulfur dioxide formed with iodine, or gas
    chromatography.  The method of choice for the determination of
    residues is gas chromatography with electron capture detection.  In
    considering residue levels, the sum of the alpha- and beta-isomers
    plus the metabolite endosulfan sulfate, which is similar in toxicity
    to the parent compound, have to be considered.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Present world production of technical grade endosulfan is estimated to
    be of the order of 10 000 tonnes per year.

    Endosulfan is used in a formulation as a non-systemic contact and
    stomach insecticide, mainly in agriculture, in the control of the
    tsetse fly, and in the control of home garden pests.

    Endosulfan controls a wide range of sucking and chewing insect pests,
    notably of the orders of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera,
    Homoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera, and some species belonging to the
    order of Acarina.  It is especially used on non-food crops, such as
    cotton and tobacco, and on food crops, such as vegetables, fruits,
    corn, cereals, oilseeds, potatoes, tea, and coffee.  It is also used
    on numerous other crops.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Endosulfan toxicity

    WHO (1986) classified endosulfan in the category of technical products
    that are moderately hazardous, based on an oral LD50 in the rat of
    80 mg/kg body weight.

    Endosulfan can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, or skin
    contact.  It is readily metabolized and eliminated and does not
    accumulate in the body.

    Acute intoxication may result in neurological manifestations, such as
    irritability, restlessness, muscular twitchings, and convulsions that
    may end in death.

    The long-term, no-observed-adverse-effect level in rats was 30 mg/kg
    diet (equivalent to 1.5 mg/kg body weight) and 0.75 mg/kg body weight
    in dogs.  At higher dose levels, testicular and renal damage occurred
    in the rat.

    Endosulfan was essentially negative in short-term tests for genetic
    activity.  It did not show any carcinogenic activity in mice or rats,
    but studies were limited by inadequate reporting or survival.a

    Several cases of suicidal and occupational poisoning have been
    reported, the latter resulting, in most cases, from neglecting safety
    precautions.

    2.2  Human exposure to endosulfan

    Food is the main source of exposure of the general population to
    endosulfan.  Endosulfan residues in food (the sum of its alpha- and
    beta-isomers and endosulfan sulfate) have been found to be generally
    well below FAO/WHO maximum residue limits.

    In occupationally-exposed persons, both skin contact and inhalation
    can be important routes of absorption, when adequate safety
    precautions are not taken.


              

    a    Adequate proprietary data on reproductive toxicity,
         teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity have become available since
         this evaluation was made in 1984; new carcinogenicity studies on
         the rat and the mouse are in progress.

    2.3  Evaluation of Health Risks for Man

    The main hazard associated with endosulfan is acute intoxication
    through overexposure.  Such situations may be due to intentional or
    accidental overexposure or to gross negligence in occupational
    situations.

    In all other exposure situations, especially as far as the general
    population is concerned, the toxicity profile and the present exposure
    pattern do not indicate any appreciable hazard.

    2.4  Fate in the Environment

    Both endosulfan isomers are fairly resistant to photodegradation, but
    the metabolites endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol are susceptible
    to photolysis.  The half-life of endosulfan in water is estimated to
    be 4 days, but anaerobic conditions and/or a low pH will lengthen the
    half-life.  In water, it is mainly degraded to endosulfan diol.

    In soil, the alpha-isomer disappears more rapidly than the
    beta-isomer.  Endosulfan sulfate, the major degradation product in
    soil, is relatively persistent.  These compounds are not prone to
    leaching.

    Biodegradation in soil and water is dependent on climatic conditions
    and on the types of microorganism present.

    2.5  Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    Endosulfan does not appear to be a problem with regard to persistence
    in biota.  It is not readily bioaccumulated.  In aquatic organisms,
    loss soon balances uptake and a fairly low plateau level of residues
    is achieved.

    Fish are extremely sensitive to endosulfan and the killing of fish has
    been reported as a result of the discharge of endosulfan into rivers. 
    Agricultural run-off has not caused such a problem.  However,
    application of endosulfan to wetlands at recommended rates may well
    result in the killing of fish.  Large-scale field experience with
    endosulfan has not resulted in any long-term adverse effects on the
    environment.

    Because there is little or no biomagnification, endosulfan applied at
    recommended rates is not hazardous for terrestrial animals.  Toxicity
    for bees is low to moderate.  Toxicity for birds is high in a
    laboratory setting, but no poisonings have been reported under field
    conditions.

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  The general population does not appear to be at risk from
         endosulfan residues in food.  Exposure of the general population
         via air and drinking-water is generally low.

    (b)  Occupational exposure has resulted in some incidents of
         poisoning.  These appear to have occurred,  however, only when
         adequate safety precautions were not taken.

    (c)  In terms of the general environment, endosulfan is highly toxic
         for some aquatic species, particularly fish.  Endosulfan is
         moderately toxic for honey bees.

    (d)  Endosulfan does not accumulate in food-chains and is eliminated
         rapidly from the body.

    3.2 Recommendations

    (a)  Precautions should be taken to avoid contamination of surface and
         drinking-water supplies during spraying.  Where necessary,
         residue levels of endosulfan in drinking-water should be reduced
         by proper water treatment.

    (b)  In countries where endosulfan is used for tsetse fly control,
         exposed populations should be monitored for potential adverse
         health effects.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First
         Aid

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide.  It is toxic and can be
    hazardous for human beings if incorrectly or carelessly handled.  It
    is therefore essential that the correct precautions are observed in
    handling and use.  For details see the International Chemical Safety
    Card on pages 22-25.

    4.1.1  Advice to Physicians

    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning

    Endosulfan is hazardous by mouth, by skin contact (especially liquid
    formulations) and, to a lesser extent, by inhalation.  It acts as a
    stimulant of the central nervous system.

    Following accidental ingestion or gross overexposure, symptoms may
    include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness in the legs,
    and convulsions, sometimes leading to death.

    4.1.1.2  Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive and directed
    against convulsions and anoxaemia.

    If endosulfan is swallowed, vomiting should not be induced and emetics
    are contraindicated, because many liquid formulations contain
    hydrocarbons and there is a risk of aspiration pneumonia.  Instead,
    the stomach should be emptied as soon as possible by careful gastric
    lavage (with a cuffed endotracheal tube already in place), avoiding
    aspiration into the lungs.  This should be followed by intragastric
    administration of 3-4 tablespoons of activated charcoal and 30 g
    magnesium or sodium sulfate in a 30% aqueous solution.  Oily
    purgatives are contraindicated.  No fats, oils, or milk should be
    given.

    If convulsions occur, anticonvulsants should be given immediately,
    e.g., 10 mg of diazepam, slowly, intravenously (children 1-5 mg),
    repeated as necessary; or thiopental sodium or hexobarbital sodium
    slowly, intravenously, in a dose of 10 mg/kg with a maximum total dose
    of up to 750 mg for an adult, or paraldehyde 5 ml by intramuscular
    injection.  These short-acting anticonvulsants should always be
    followed by phenobarbital given orally at 3 mg/kg (up to 200 mg for an
    adult), or phenobarbital sodium given intramuscularly at 3 mg/kg (also
    up to 200 mg for an adult).

    Morphine and its derivatives, epinephrine, and noradrenaline should
    never be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained.  Respiratory inadequacy,
    which may be accentuated by barbiturate anticonvulsants, should be
    corrected and oxygen and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.

    4.1.2  Health Surveillance Advice

    A complete medical history and physical examination of regularly
    exposed workers should be made on an annual basis.

    4.2  Safety in Use

    Handling liquid formulations:      Wear protective neoprene or PVC
                                       gloves, cotton overalls, rubber
                                       boots, and face shield.

    Handling powder formulations:      Avoid raising a dust cloud.  Wear
                                       protective gloves and dust mask. 
                                       Follow the advice relating to
                                       personal hygiene.

     Application in the field

    Aerial application:                Ensure that flag-men (markers) do
                                       not stand in the spray-path of the
                                       aircraft; do not spray over surface
                                       waters and avoid spraying over
                                       ditches, canals, rivers, streams,
                                       ponds, or lakes.

    Ground spraying:                   Wear suitable protective clothing
                                       (i.e., cap or hat, cotton overalls
                                       or long-sleeved cotton shirt and
                                       long trousers, boots or shoes);
                                       when spraying tall crops or when
                                       there is a risk of accidental
                                       contamination by the spray, also
                                       wear impermeable hood and jacket;
                                       at all times avoid exposure to the
                                       spray mist; do not spray into the
                                       wind.

    Hand-held ULV application:         Wear suitable protective clothing
                                       (i.e., cap or hat, cotton overalls
                                       or long-sleeved cotton shirt and
                                       long trousers, boots or shoes; read
                                       and observe the instructions that
                                       apply to the equipment being used;
                                       pay proper attention to wind speed
                                       and direction; always spray in a
                                       down-wind direction; do not spray
                                       if there are other people
                                       immediately down-wind.

    After application:                 Take off heavily splashed or
                                       contaminated clothing; wash hands
                                       and exposed skin before eating,
                                       drinking, or smoking; wash
                                       overalls, boots, hat, and other
                                       protective clothing thoroughly,
                                       especially the inside of gloves;
                                       keep application equipment in good
                                       condition, and free from leaks and
                                       external contamination; keep
                                       contents tightly closed in original
                                       labelled container when not fully
                                       used; do not reuse empty container
                                       for any other purpose; keep
                                       container in a safe place away from
                                       food, children, and animals; empty
                                       containers must be washed out and
                                       disposed of as advised in sections
                                       4.4.1 and 4.6.2.

    4.3  Explosion and Fire  Hazards

    4.3.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation, or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, endosulfan will
    decompose, emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters should be equipped
    with  self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of unaffected
    stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the
    site.

    4.4  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings -- preferably buildings
    dedicated to insecticides.

    Keep the products out of reach of children and unauthorized personnel. 
    Do not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (section
    4.2).  Empty any product remaining in damaged/leaking containers into
    a clean empty drum, which should then be tightly closed and suitably
    labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for powders),
    and dispose of safely.

    After emptying, the leaking containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Puncture the
    container to prevent reuse.

    4.5  Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding movement of hazardous
    goods.  Do not transport in the same compartment as foodstuffs.  Check
    that containers are sound and labels undamaged before despatch.

    4.6  Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required, and appropriate personal protection should be used (section
    4.2).

    4.6.1.1  Solid products

    Sweep up and absorb remaining spilled product with moist sawdust,
    sand, or earth, and transfer the sweepings in a suitable container to
    a safe place for disposal.

    4.6.1.2  Liquid products

    Prevent the liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo,
    vegetation, or waterways, by making a barrier of the most suitable
    available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth, sweep up and place
    it in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place for
    disposal.

    4.6.1.3  All products

    As soon as possible after the spillage and before reuse, cover all
    contaminated areas with damp sawdust, sand, or earth.  Sweep up and
    place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place for
    disposal.  Since this insecticide is highly toxic for fish, care
    should be taken to avoid run-off into water courses.

    4.6.2  Disposal

    Any surplus product, contaminated absorbents, and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Waste material should be burned in 
    a proper incinerator designed for organochlorine waste disposal
    (1000C and 30 min residence time with effluent gas scrubbing).  If
    this is not possible, bury in an approved dump or landfill where there
    is no risk of contamination of surface or ground water.  Comply with
    any local legislation regarding disposal of toxic wastes.  Puncture
    container to prevent reuse.

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Endosulfan is highly toxic for fish and some other aquatic organisms,
    and moderately toxic for honey bees.  It is not readily bioaccumulated
    and it does not persist in the environment.

    Industrial discharges from manufacture, formulation, and technical
    applications should not be allowed to pollute the environment and
    should be properly treated (section 4.6.2).

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, endosulfan. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to endosulfan,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.  Space is available on the
     card for insertion of the National Occupational Exposure Limit, the
     address and telephone number of the  National Poison Control Centre,
     and for local trade names. 



        ENDOSULFAN

    CAS chemical name: 6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide
    Molecular formula: C9H6Cl6O3S
    RTECS registry number: RB 9275000     CAS Registry number: 115-29-7

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Pure substance:
    Melting point of alpha-isomer      109.2C                            Endosulfan is a non-systemic contact and stomach
                  of beta-isomer       213.3C                            insecticide effective against a wide range of sucking and
    Relative density at 20C           1.745                              chewing insect pests in agriculture, and public health
    Vapour pressure                    <0.1 Pa at 20C                   and technical fields of applications
                                       <1.4 Pa at 40C
    Relative molecular mass            406.9
    Solubility in water                0.5 mg/litre at 20C               Formulations include:
       in most organic                                                    emulsifiable concentrates water dispersible powders,
       solvents                        5-65 g/100 ml at 20C              dispersions, dusts, granules, and ultra-low-volume
                                                                          formulations

    Technical grade:
    Melting point                      80C
    Appearance                         brown crystalline flakes
    Odour                              faint odour of sulfur
                                       dioxide
    Ratio of isomers                   alpha- to beta-endosulfan
                                       approx. 70:30

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: may cause poisoning in            Avoid contact with skin;                     After contact with skin, wash immediately
    contact with skin                       wear suitable protective                     with plenty of water and soap; immediately
                                            clothing and gloves                          remove all contaminated clothing

    EYES: may cause irritation to           Avoid contact with eyes; wear                In case of contact with eyes, rinse 
    eyes                                    eye protection                               immediately with plenty of water and seek
                                                                                         medical advice

    INHALATION: dusts may cause             Do not breathe dusts or sprays
    poisoning by inhalation

    INGESTION: unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink or smoke during
    hazard                                  work; wash hands before eating,
                                            drinking or smoking

    Accidental or intentional ingestion                                                  If swallowed, seek medical advice
    may cause poisoning                                                                  immediately and show container or label;
                                                                                         do not induce vomiting where organic
                                                                                         solvents are present in emulsifiable 
                                                                                         concentrates; keep at rest, lying face 
                                                                                         downwards, and ensure a clear airway

    ENVIRONMENT: Dangerous for              Do not contaminate surface waters
    aquatic life, particularly fish

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal               Products should be stored in                 Liquid products containing organic solvents
    precautions; prevent liquid             locked buildings preferably                  may be flammable.  Extinguish fires with
    from spreading or contaminating         dedicated to insecticides; keep              alcohol-resistant foam, CO2 or powder.
    other cargo, vegetation, or surface     out of reach of children; keep               With sufficient burning or external heat
    waters and drainage systems,            away from food, drink and animal             endosulfan will decompose, emitting toxic
    with a barrier of most suitable         feeding stuffs                               fumes.  Fire-fighters should be equipped
    material, e.g., earth or sand                                                        with self-contained breathing apparatus,
                                                                                         eye protection, and full protective clothing;
    Absorb spilled liquid with                                                           confine the use of water spray to cooling of
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up and                                                unaffected stock, thus avoiding the
    place it in a closeable container                                                    accumulation of polluted run-off from the site
    for later safe disposal.
    Since this insecticide is dangerous
    for fish, care should be taken to
    avoid run-off into water courses

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Endosulfan waste material should        National Occupational Exposure               UN No. 2761, 2762, 2995, 2996
    be burned in a proper incinerator       Limit:
    designed for organochlorine waste
    disposal; if this is not possible,      National Poison Control Centre:
    bury in an approved dump or 
    landfill where there is no risk of      Local Trade Names:
    contamination of surface or ground 
    water; comply with any local 
    legislation regarding disposal of 
    toxic wastes

    FIGURE 2
                                                                                                                                         
    
    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  Its intention is to give the reader a
    representative but non-exhaustive overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the  legislation of that country.a

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has reviewed
    residues and toxicity data on endosulfan on several occasions in the
    past: 1965, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1982, and 1985.

    The 1985 meeting discussed the situation with regard to endosulfan and
    found it to be unsatisfactory.  The meeting concluded that a complete
    reevaluation was necessary, which should be based on current use
    patterns, with toxicological data obtained following up-to-date
    protocols and residue data obtained using the present analytical
    methods.  The reevaluation should also take into account the relevant
    information in the Environmental Health Criteria document on
    endosulfan.  The required data should be submitted for study by the
    1989 JMPR. Nevertheless, because of the absence of any indications of
    potential major adverse toxicological effects in man, the temporary
    acceptable daily intake (TADI) of 0.008 mg/kg body weight was
    extended.

    WHO (1975) issued a data sheet on endosulfan (No. 15) in its series of
    "Data sheets on chemical pesticides"  Based on a brief review of use,
    exposure, and toxicity, practical advice is given on labelling,
    safe-handling, transport, storage, disposal, decontamination,
    selection, training, and medical supervision of workers, and first aid
    and medical treatment.

    WHO has classified endosulfan as moderately hazardous (WHO, 1986).


              

    a    The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
         change and should always be verified withe appropriate regulatory
         authorities before application.

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are shown in the table on pages 28-31.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    The use of endosulfan is permitted with certain restrictions in
    Argentina, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Japan, Norway, Portugal,
    the USSR, the United Kingdom, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia.

    Absorption through the skin is indicated as a potentially hazardous
    route in the regulatory documents of Argentina, Australia, Belgium,
    Canada,  Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom,
    and the USA.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies endosulfan in:

    Hazard Class 6.1:        poisonous substance

    Packing Group II:        substances and preparations presenting a
                             serious risk of poisoning, when the content
                             of active ingredient is 80-100%.

    Packing Group III:       substance presenting a relatively low risk of
                             poisoning in transport, when the content of
                             active ingredient is 20-80% (solid) or 8-80%
                             (liquid).


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Work-place          Argentina           Maximum permissible concentration                                 1979
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3
                                                        - short-term exposure limit (STEL)           0.3 mg/m3

                                    Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3

                                    Bulgaria            Maximum permissible concentration            0.1 mg/m3

                                    Finland             Occupational exposure limit
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3            1981
                                                        - short-term exposure limit                  0.3 mg/m3            1981

                                    Netherlands         Maximum limit
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3

                                    Switzerland         Maximum worksite concentration (MAK)
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3

                                    United Kingdom      Recommended limit
                                                        - time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3
                                                        - short-term exposure level (STEL)           0.3 mg/m3
                                                          (10 min - TWA)

                                    USA                 Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - time weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3
                                                        - short term exposure limit (STEL)           0.3 mg/m3

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - ceiling value (CLV) (vapour + aerosol)     0.1 mg/m3              1977

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Ambient             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1984
                                                        - (1x/day)                                   0.017 mg/m3
                                                        - (av/day)                                   0.0017 mg/m3

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0.008 mg/kg body
                                                                                                     weight 

                                    USSR                Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0.002 mg/kg          1983

    FOOD        Plant               Argentina           Maximum limit                                0.5-2 mg/kg          1969

                                    Brazil              Acceptable limits                            0.01-2 mg/kg

                                    FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit                        0.02-30 mg/kg        1987

                                    Germany,            Maximum residue limit                        0.2-30.0 mg/kg       1984
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of

                                    Finland             Maximum residue limit                        0.5-1.0 mg/kg        1987

                                    Netherlands         Maximum residue limit                        0.05-30 mg/kg        1987

                                    EEC                 Maximum residue limit                        1 mg/kg              1984
                                                        (Root vegetables)                            0.2 mg/kg            1976

                                    India               Maximum tolerable concentration              0.2-2.0 mg/kg

                                    Kenya               Maximum limit                                0.1-30.0 mg/kg

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.2-0.5 mg/kg        1985

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD                            USA                 Acceptable residue limit                     24 mg/kg
                                                        (in dried tea)
                                                        Acceptable residue limit                     0.1-2 mg/kg

                                    USSR                Maximum residue limit for food               0.1-1.0 mg/kg        1984
                                                        products exported and imported by CMEA
                                                        countries

                                    USSR                Pesticide is prohibited in some food                              1983
                                                        products

    WATER       Ambient             Mexico              Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        (coastal)                                    0.0002 mg/litre      1973
                                                        (estuarine)                                  0.002 mg/litre       1973

    SOIL                            USSR                Permissible limit                            0.1 mg/kg
                                                                                                                                         
    

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 3

    FIGURE 4

    The FAO specifications for plant protection products containing
    endosulfan specify the composition and purity of the technical product
    and its formulations.  They also advise on methods for checking this.
    The endosulfan content should be stated and may not differ by more
    than 2% from this for the technical product (and up to 10% for some
    formulations).  The isomeric composition of the total endosulfan
    should be:

         64-67% alpha-isomer and 29-32% beta-isomer.

    In the WHO interim specifications for endosulfan technical and
    endosulfan emulsifiable concentrate, similar specifications and
    checking methods are given for its use in public health.

    The WHO specifications include the following provisions:

    (a) Technical endosulfan shall consist essentially of a mixture of the
    alpha- and beta-isomers (same isomeric composition as above for FAO)
    of endosulfan, together with related manufacturing compounds, and
    shall be in the form of beige to dark brown flakes with the tendency
    to agglomeration, free from extraneous impurities and added modifying
    agents.

    (b) Technical endosulfan shall be packed in suitable, clean
    containers, as specified in the order.

    All packages shall bear, durably and legibly marked on the container
    the following: 

         Manufacturer's name
         Endosulfan to Interim Specification WHO/IS/1.0205-1
         Batch or reference number, and date of test
         Net weight of contents
         Date of manufacture

    and the following minimum cautionary notice:

          Endosulfan is a sulfurous acid ester of a chlorinated cyclic
          diol.  It is poisonous if swallowed or inhaled as dusts or
          mists.  Avoid eye and skin contact; wear safety goggles,
          protective gloves, clean protective clothing, and a respirator
          when handling the material.  Wash thoroughly with soap and water
          after using.  Keep the material out of reach of children and
          well away from foodstuffs, animal feed, and their containers. 
          If poisoning occurs, call a physician.  Endosulfan is highly
          toxic to fish.  Keep the material and the emptied containers
          away from ground and surface water.

    (c) The emulsifiable concentrate shall consist of technical endosulfan
    dissolved in suitable solvents, with other necessary formulants added. 
    It shall be in the form of a stable liquid, free from suspended matter
    and sediment.  The technical endosulfan used in the manufacture of the
    concentrate shall comply with the requirements of Interim
    Specification WHO/IS/1.0205-1.

    (d) Endosulfan emulsifiable concentrate shall be packed in suitable,
    clean containers, as specified in the order.  All packages shall bear,
    durably and legibly marked on the container, the following:

         Manufacturer's name
         Endosulfan emulsifiable concentrate to Interim Specification
            WHO/IS/3.0205-1
         Endosulfan, ...... g/kg
         Batch or reference number and date of test
         Net weight of contents
         Instructions for dilution
         Date of formulation

    and the same minimum cautionary notice as for the technical material.

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 5

    The label must read:

          toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          irritating to eyes and skin; keep out of reach of children; keep
          away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs;  if you feel
          unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible). 

    The European Community legislation on labelling of pesticide
    preparations classifies endosulfan in Class I/b for the purpose of
    determining the label for preparations containing endosulfan and other
    active ingredients.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, any non-domestic waste containing endosulfan must be
    treated as a hazardous waste.  Specific instructions are given for
    notification and incineration.  Under the Comprehensive Environmental
    Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA),  as
    amended, unless in compliance with a specified permit or  procedure,
    owners/operators of vessels or onshore or offshore facilities must
    notify the USA government (National Response Center) of any release of
    endosulfan in or on navigable waters, adjoining shorelines, in the
    contiguous zone or beyond the contiguous zone or to any other
    environmental media (air, land or groundwater) in an amount equal to
    or greater than one pound (0.454 kg).

    In Finland, any waste containing endosulfan is classified as hazardous
    waste and must be treated according to specific instructions.

    7.6  Other Measures

    The European Community legislation requires that Member States shall
    prescribe that cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, paddy rice,
    buckwheat, millet, grain sorghum, triticale) may not contain (in and
    on cereals), from the time they are put into circulation, levels of
    residues of endosulfan (sum of alfa- and beta-isomers and of
    endosulfan sulfate, expressed as endosulfan) greater than maximum
    0.1 mg/kg, and, in and on maize, levels of residues greater than 0.2 mg/kg
    (applicable latest by June 1988).

    The European Community legislation requires that Member States shall
    prescribe that fruit and vegetables may not contain, from the time
    they are put into circulation, levels of residues of endosulfan (sum
    of alfa- and beta-isomers and of endosulfan sulfate, expressed as
    endosulfan) greater than 0.2 mg/kg for root vegetables and root
    fruits, and greater than 1 mg/kg for leaf vegetables.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice. Rome, Food and
    Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC Monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1983)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register of Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (Unpublished report No. VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods, 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols, Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1984)  Environmental Health Criteria 40: Endosulfan. Geneva,
    World Health Organization, 82 pp.

    WHO  (1986)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard. Guidelines to classification 1986-87. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (Unpublished report VBC/86.1).

    WHO/FAO  (1975-87)  Data sheets on pesticides. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (No. 15).

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)  The pesticide manual. 7th ed.
    Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Endosulfan (EHC 40, 1984)
       Endosulfan (PIM 576)
       Endosulfan (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Endosulfan (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Endosulfan (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Endosulfan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 1)
       Endosulfan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Endosulfan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Endosulfan (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Endosulfan (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Endosulfan (JMPR Evaluations 1998 Part II Toxicological)