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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 22

    CYPERMETHRIN
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 82:
    Cypermethrin

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154344 2
    ISSN 0259 - 7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Effects on animals and human health
         2.3. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection, first
              aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  Cypermethrin

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Molecular formula:            C22H19O3NCl2

    Chemical name: (IUPAC)        (RS9-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS)
                                   cis-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-
                                  dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylate

    Chemical name: (CAS)          (RS)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl
                                  (1RS)- cis-trans-3-(2,2-
                                  dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-
                                  cyclopropane carboxylate

    CAS registry number:          52315-07-8 (formerly 69865-47-0)

    RTECS registry number:        GZ1250000

    Synonyms:                     NRDC 149, WL43467, PP 383, CG-A 55186

    Common trade names:           Ammo, Avicade, Barricade, CCN 52,
                                  Cymbush, Folcord, Imperator, Kafil
                                  super, Polytrin, Ripcord, Stockade.

    Relative molecular mass:      416.3

    Cypermethrin is the ISO name for the pure racemic compound, consisting
    of 8 stereo isomers.  The technical products commonly available
    contain more than 90% cypermethrin and the ratio of  cis to  trans
    isomers varies from 50:50 to 40:60.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Technical cypermethrin varies from a viscous, yellow liquid to a
    semi-solid crystalline mass at ambient temperatures.

    Some physical and chemical properties are listed in the International
    Chemical Safety Card on pages 20-23.

    Cypermethrin is highly stable to light and at temperatures below
    220C.  It is resistant to acidic rather than alkaline media with an
    optimum stability at pH 4.  Cypermethrin hydrolyses under alkaline
    conditions in a similar way to simple aliphatic esters.  Dilute
    aqueous solutions are subject to photolysis, which occurs at a
    moderate rate.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    The most widely adopted procedures for the determination of
    cypermethrin residues in crops, soil, animal tissues and products, and
    environmental samples are based on extraction of the residue with an
    organic solvent, clean-up of the extract, as necessary, by
    solvent-solvent partition and adsorption-column chromatography,
    followed by determination of the residue using gas chromatography
    with electron capture detector (GC/ECD).  The identity of residues can
    be confirmed by GC with mass selective detection (GC-MSD) or by
    thin-layer chromatography (TLC) followed by GC/ECD.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Cypermethrin was first synthesized in 1974 and first marketed in 1977
    as a highly active synthetic pyrethroid insecticide effective against
    a wide range of pests in agriculture, public health, and animal
    husbandry.  In agriculture, its main use is against foliage pests and
    certain surface soil pests, such as cutworms, but, because of its
    physical and chemical properties, it is not recommended against
    soil-borne pests below the surface.

    In 1980, 92.5% of all the cypermethrin produced in the world was used
    on cotton; in 1982, world production was 340 tonnes of the active
    material.  It is used primarily in the form of an emulsifiable
    concentrate, but ultra-low-volume concentrates, wettable powders, and
    joint formulations with other pesticides are available.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    The levels of cypermethrin residues in food commodities after good
    agricultural practice are generally low.  The residue levels will be
    further reduced during food processing.  In food of animal origin,
    residues may range between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg product.  Residue levels
    found in non-food commodities are generally higher, up to 20 mg/kg
    product.  Total-diet studies are not available, but the available
    residue information indicates that the oral intake by the general
    population is well below the ADI, and expected to be negligible.

    2.2  Effects on Animals and Human Health

    The absorption and elimination of cypermethrin was rapid in the
    different mammalian species tested.  The major metabolic reaction is
    cleavage of the ester bond followed by hydroxylation and conjugation
    of the cyclopropane and phenoxybenzyl moieties.  The highest levels of
    cypermethrin are found in body fat, which is consistent with the
    lipophilic nature of the compound.  The half-life in the fat of rats
    is about 12-9 days  for the cis-isomer and 3-4 days for the
     trans-isomer.

    The acute toxicity of cypermethrin for mammals is of a moderate order. 
    The oral LD50 for the rat ranged from 200-4000 mg/kg body weight. 
    Short-term and long-term toxicity studies on rats, mice, and dogs have
    shown effects on growth,  the liver and kidneys,  the nervous system, 
    and the blood.  A no-observed-adverse-effect level of 7.5 mg/kg body
    weight has been adopted by the Task Group.

    Cypermethrin was not carcinogenic in mice or rats fed diets containing
    the compound over a 2-year period.  Cypermethrin was not teratogenic
    in either rats at 70 mg/kg body weight or rabbits at 30 mg/kg body
    weight.  No effects on reproductive performance were seen in a
    3-generation reproduction study on rats administered 10 mg
    cypermethrin/kg diet.  In a variety of mutagenicity studies,
    cypermethrin was shown to be mainly without mutagenic activity.

    The mechanism of the action of cypermethrin on the nervous system has
    been extensively studied.  From these studies and the available
    occupational studies, it seems that the skin sensation seen in workers
    handling cypermethrin generally lasts only a few hours and does not
    persist for more than one day after exposure.  Other neurological
    signs have not been observed.  These skin sensations may be considered
    as an early warning that exposure has occurred and that work practice
    should be reviewed.  Cypermethrin may cause eye irritation and may be
    a sensitizer for certain persons.

    No cases of accidental poisoning have been reported as a result of
    occupational exposure.

    2.3  Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    When cypermethrin is applied to crops, residues may occur in soils and
    surface waters, but biological degradation is fairly rapid and
    residues do not accumulate in the environment.  Photodegradation is
    unlikely to play an important role.  The main route of degradation is
    cleavage of the ester linkage to give two main degradation products
    containing the cyclopropane, and the phenoxybenzyl moieties.  The
    half-life in the soil is determined by many factors, but is in the
    range of 2-4 weeks.  Breakdown products in plants are bound as
    glucosides.  Because of its rather fast breakdown forming less toxic
    breakdown products, and the low dose rates used in good agricultural
    practice, it is unlikely that cypermethrin will reach significant
    levels in the environment.

    Cypermethrin at high dose levels may exert transient effects on the
    soil microflora.  Earthworms and other soil organisms are generally
    resistant to cypermethrin.  Because of strong adsorption to soil, only
    low levels of cypermethrin may leak into surface water.  These may
    have transient effects, mainly on surface-breathing insects.

    Cypermethrin is very toxic for fish and aquatic invertebrates.  The
    presence of suspended solids decreases the toxicity by a factor of at
    least 2, because of the adsorption of cypermethrin on the solids.

    Accumulation studies have shown that cypermethrin is rapidly taken up
    by fish (accumulation factor approximately 1000).  The half-life of
    residues in the rainbow trout was 8 days.  In view of the low
    concentrations of cypermethrin that are likely to arise in water
    bodies and their rapid decline, it is concluded that, under practical
    conditions, residues in fish will not reach measurable levels.

    The toxicity of cypermethrin for birds is low.  However, bees appeared
    to be very sensitive in laboratory tests.  Under field conditions, the
    effect on bees is minimal, because cypermethrin seems to have a
    repellent effect on them.

    3. CONCLUSIONS

     General population exposure: Under recommended conditions of use the
    exposure of the general population to cypermethrin is negligible and
    is unlikely to present a hazard.

     Occupational exposure: With reasonable work practices, hygiene
    measures, and safety precautions, the use of cypermethrin is unlikely
    to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed to it.  The
    occurrence of "facial sensations" is an indication of exposure.  Under
    these circumstances work practices should be reviewed.

     Environment: With recommended application rates, it is unlikely that
    cypermethrin or its degradation products will attain levels of
    environmental significance.  The fact that cypermethrin is highly
    toxic for fish and honey bees is only likely to cause a problem in the
    case of spillage or overspraying.

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.  Only one case of
    poisoning has been described in the general population and none during
    occupational exposure.  The results of experimental animal studies
    suggest that, following massive overexposure or accidental ingestion,
    neurological signs and symptoms, e.g., ataxia, convulsions, could
    occur.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    cypermethrin, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first aid recommendations, are listed on the International Chemical
    Safety Card on pages 20-23.

    4.1.1  Advice to Physicians

    No specific antidote is known.  If indicated, empty stomach.  Treat
    symptomatically.  The main hazard with liquid formulations is
    aspiration of the solvent into the lungs, resulting in chemical
    pneumonitis.

    4.1.2  Health Surveillance Advice

    Occurrence of "facial sensations" is an indication of skin exposure. 
    Under these circumstances, work practices should be reviewed.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  Use
    dry powder, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth for
    dealing with fires.  Do not use water.  Cool nearby drums with water
    spray.

    If pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire or in a fire
    involving other products, advise the fire service that protective
    clothing and breathing apparatus should be worn.  Also, warn the
    authorities that pyrethroids are highly toxic for fish, and that the
    use of water should be confined to the cooling of unaffected stock,
    thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the site.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, under lock
    and key, and out of the reach of children, animals, and unauthorized
    personnel.  Store in an area designated for insecticide storage,
    preferably without drains. 

    Store away from other chemicals, foodstuffs, and animal feed.

    4.4  Transport

    Pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or "low hazard" for transport
    purposes.  Formulations based on flammable solvents may be subject to
    local transport controls.  Ensure that containers are sound and that
    labels are securely fixed and undamaged before dispatch.  Comply with
    local transport regulations.

    Do not load together with food and animal feed.

     Accident procedures:

    (a)  Avoid exposure - if possible by the use of appropriate protective
         clothing and masks.  Keep spectators away from leaking or spilled
         product and prevent smoking or the use of naked flames in the
         immediate vicinity.

    (b)  Extinguish fires with dry powder, carbon dioxide,
         alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.

    (c)  Prevent liquid from spreading to other cargo, vegetation, or
         waterways by containing it with the most readily available
         barrier material, e.g., earth or sand.

    (d)  Absorb spilled liquid and cover contaminated areas with earth,
         lime, sand, or other absorbent material.  Sweep up and place in a
         secure container for subsequent safe disposal.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Avoid exposure, if possible by the use of appropriate protective
    clothing and masks.

    Empty any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a
    clean empty drum and label.

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp sawdust, sand, or earth and dispose of
    safely (see below).  If spillage is large, contain it by building a
    barrier of earth or sandbags.

    Decontaminate empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum.  Puncture containers to prevent reuse.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste containing cypermethrin should be burnt in a proper high
    temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no incinerator
    is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products should be
    decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a suitable
    hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the  active
    ingredient to a safe level.

    (a)   For emulsifiable material: 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
         solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda)
         solution can be used.

    (b)   For non-emulsifiable material: a 1:1 mixture (by volume) can be
         used of either of the above solutions and a water/oil soluble
         solvent, such as denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene
         glycol, or isopropanol.

    The material should be covered with hydrolysing agent and put aside to
    stand for 7 days.  Before disposal of the resultant waste, the
    material must be analysed to ensure that the active ingredient has
    been degraded to a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    where there is any danger of run-off or seepage into streams,
    water-courses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.

    Puncture empty containers in order to avoid reuse.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    With recommended applications rates, it is unlikely that cypermethrin
    and its degradation products will reach levels of environmental
    significance.  Cypermethrin is very toxic for fish and honey bees,
    but, because of the very low exposure levels that normally occur, this
    may only cause a problem in the case of spillage or overspraying.

    Avoid spraying over bodies of water.  Do not contaminate ponds,
    waterways, or ditches with the product or with used containers.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, cypermethrin. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to cypermethrin,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the 
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.



        CYPERMETHRIN

    CAS chemical name: (RS)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl(1RS)- cis-trans-
    3-(2,2-dichloro-ethenyl)-2.2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylate
    CAS registry no. 52315-07-8; RTECS registry no. GZ1250000
    C22H19O3NCl2

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Relative molecular mass            416.3                              Technical cypermethrin is a yellowish-brown liquid to 
                                                                          semi-solid, with a mild chemical odour.  It is stable 
    Melting point                      up to 80C (depending on           to light and more stable in an acidic than in an
                                       purity and  cis or  trans form)       alkaline medium. It decomposes on heating above 220C.
                                                                          Readily absorbed via ingestion and inhalation and to a
    Water solubility                   0.01 mg/litre (20C)               lesser extent via the skin. It is a highly active synthetic
                                                                          pyrethroid used as a stomach and contact insecticide.
    Solubility in organic solvents                                        The technical product is a mixture of eight steroisomers
    (at 20C)
     xylene                            >450 g/litre
     hexane                            103 g/litre 
    Log  n-octanol/water partition
      coefficient                      6.3
    Density                            1.12 (20C)
    Vapour pressure                    1.4 x 10-9 mmHg (20C)

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN:  tingling or burning sensation,   Decrease exposure by using proper            Remove contaminated clothing, wash skin
    or numbness                             application technique, proper skin           with water and soap
                                            protection, face shield; wear protective
                                            clothing when handling the concentrate

    EYES:  splashing may cause severe       Wear face shield or goggles                  Flush immediately with clean water for at
    irritation                                                                           least 15 minutes

    INHALATION: irritant to                 Avoid inhalation of fine dust and            Fresh air
    respiratory system                      mist

    INGESTION:  unlikely occupational       Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    hazard                                  work, wash hands

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion      Do not induce vomiting                       Obtain medical attention immediately; if
    could lead to neurological signs and                                                 breathing has stopped, apply artificial
    symptoms, such as ataxia and                                                         respiration
    convulsions; main hazard of ingested
    liquid formulations is aspiration                                                    Do not induce vomiting
    into lungs

    ENVIRONMENT: very toxic for             Avoid the spraying of water;
    fish and honey bees                     do not contaminate ponds,
                                            waterways, or ditches with the
                                            product or used containers

                                                                                                                                         

    Spillage                                Storage                                      Fire and Explosion
                                                                                                                                         

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp         Store in locked, well ventilated             Some liquid formulations may be highly
    sawdust, sand or earth; sweep up        storeroom, away from feed                    flammable;  use dry powder, carbon
    and place in closed container and       and foodstuffs, children and                 dioxide, or alcohol-resistant foam; cool
    dispose of safely; avoid                unauthorized personnel                       nearby drums with water spray
    contamination of personnel, ponds, 
    and waterways

                                                                                                                                         

    Waste disposal
                                                                                                                                         

    Burn in high-temperature                National Occupational                        
    incinerator with effluent               Exposure Limit:
    scrubbing; alternatively, treat 
    with 5% caustic soda as a               National Poison Control Centre:              
    hydrolysing agent; comply with
    local regulations                       Local trade names:

    FIGURE 1

    FIGURE 2
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this paragraph has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  Its intention is to give the reader a
    representative but non-exhaustive overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    Cypermethrin has been discussed several times by the Joint FAO/WHO
    Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR).  In 1981, the JMPR established
    an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for cypermethrin of 0-0.05 mg/kg body
    weight.

    WHO has classified cypermethrin as "irritant to eyes and sensitizer of
    skin" in the list of "technical products unlikely to present an acute
    hazard in normal use" (WHO, 1986).  WHO has also issued a data sheet
    on cypermethrin (WHO/FAO, 1975-85).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on page 25.

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    Cypermethrin is officially approved for use as a pesticide in many
    countries, in each of which specific uses are defined, as well as
    limitations and precautions.  Its toxicity classification is also
    determined according to the country or region concerned.








              

    a  The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
       change and should always be verified with appropriate regulatory
       authorities before application.


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium              Country/           Exposure limit description                         Value                 Effective
                                           organization                                                             date
                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD                FAO/WHO            Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                      0.05 mg/kg            1985
                                                                                              body weight

                        FAO/WHO            Maximum residue limits (MRL)                       0.02-2.0 mg/kg        1982
                                           (in specified products)

                        Brazil             Acceptable limit                                   0.01-0.5 mg/kg        1985

                        Sweden             Maximum tolerable concentration                    2 mg/kg               1985
                                           (provisional limit)

                        USA                Acceptable residue limit                           0.05-0.5 mg/kg        1985
                                           (in specified products)
                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    -    Hazard Class 6.1: poisonous substance

    -    Packing Group III: a substance presenting a relatively low risk
         of poisoning in transport.

    The following label should be used:

    FIGURE 3

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol: 

    FIGURE 4

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feeding stuff.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, permits are required for discharge of pyrethroids from any
    point source into national waters.  This requirement contains detailed
    instructions.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)   Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986)   International code of conduct on the distribution and
     use of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986)   Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues.  Part 8.  Recommendations for methods of analysis of
    pesticide residues, 3rd ed., Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)   Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)   Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)   Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)  Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides.
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)   IARC Monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)   IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (Unpublished WHO document VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)   Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Departmnent of Labor (Publication No. DHSS(NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1989)   EHC No. 82: Cypermethrin. Geneva, World Health
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    WHO/FAO  (1975-87)   Data sheets on pesticides. (Unpublished WHO
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Cypermethrin (EHC 82, 1989)
       Cypermethrin (ICSC)
       CYPERMETHRIN (JECFA Evaluation)
       Cypermethrin (PIM 163)
       Cypermethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Cypermethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Cypermethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)
       Cypermethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)