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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 23

    QUINTOZENE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 41:
    Quintozene

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154335 3
    ISSN 0259 - 7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Quintozene toxicity
         2.2. Human exposure to quintozene
         2.3. Evaluation of health risks for man
         2.4. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.2.1. Explosion hazards
              4.2.2. Fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
              4.3.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
                        4.5.1.1   Solid products
                        4.5.1.2   Liquid products
                        4.5.1.3   All products
              4.5.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  Quintozene

    Chemical formula:             C6Cl5NO2

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Common trade names:           Avicol, Botrilex, Brassicol, Earthcide,
                                  Fartox, Folosan, Fomac 2, Fungiclor, GC
                                  3944-3-4, Kobu, Kobutol, KP 2,
                                  NCI-C00419, Olpisan, PCNB, Pentagen,
                                  Terraclor, Terrafum, Tilcarex, Tritisan
                                  (a complete list of trade names is
                                  available from IRPTC (1983)

    CAS chemical name:            pentachloronitrobenzene

    CAS registry number:          82-68-8

    Relative molecular mass:      295.36

    Hexachlorobenzene is often found as a contaminant in quintozene and
    levels can range up to 3% (in the past, levels as high as 30% were
    found, but regulations have been introduced in many countries to
    restrict these levels).

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Quintozene is a pale yellow-to-white (depending on the purity) solid
    with a musty odour and a melting point of 142-146C.  It is soluble in
    carbon disulfide, benzene, chloroform, ketones, and aromatic and
    chlorinated hydrocarbons, but is practically insoluble in water. 

    It is quite stable in soil, but eventually degrades to
    pentachloroaniline (PCA).

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection is used
    for the analytical determination of quintozene.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Quintozene has been used as a soil fungicide and as a seed dressing
    since the 1930s.  It is available as a wettable powder, dust,
    emulsifiable concentrate, granules, or in combination products.

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Quintozene Toxicity

    On the basis of the oral LD50 in the rat of 12 000 mg/kg, WHO (1986)
    classified quintozene in the category of technical products unlikely
    to present an acute hazard in normal use.

    No-observed-adverse-effect levels in long-term studies on the rat and
    the dog were 1.25 and 0.75 mg/kg body weight (25 and 30 mg/kg diet),
    respectively.  In long-term studies on rats and at higher dosages
    (63 mg/kg diet), quintozene gave rise to liver hypertrophy with some
    histopathological changes; dogs administered 5000 mg quintozene/kg
    diet exhibited more severe liver damage with fibrosis.  In short-term
    studies on female rats, quintozene caused induction of mixed-function
    oxidases.

    Quintozene is partly metabolized and partly excreted unchanged and
    does not accumulate in tissues.

    Purified quintozene is not considered to be teratogenic.

    Quintozene is generally negative in short-term tests for genetic
    activity.

    Equivocal or negative findings have been reported in carcinogenicity
    studies on rats and mice.a Hexachlorobenzene, an impurity in
    technical quintozene, is carcinogenic for mice, rats, and hamsters.

    Quintozene is a weak skin  sensitizer, but not an irritant.

    With the exception of a single case of conjunctivitis in an
    occupational setting, no other cases of poisoning or adverse effects
    have been reported in man.

    2.2  Human Exposure to Quintozene

    The general population can be exposed through residues in food,
    especially in oils and fats.   Information on exposure from other
    sources is lacking.  No cases of accidental or occupational
    overexposure have been reported.



              

    a  In a recent (1986) NTP study on purified PCNB in mice, no
       evidence of carcinogenicity was found at high dose levels.


    2.3  Evaluation of Health Risks for Man

    With the exception of some data on residues in food, no human exposure
    data are available for quintozene.  It is therefore difficult to
    evaluate the hazard for man of present exposures to this substance. 
    Nevertheless, the low toxicity of quintozene that has been
    demonstrated in short-term and long-term animal studies indicates a
    low degree of concern in relation to human health effects.

    2.4  Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    Quintozene persists in soil with a half-life within the range of 4-10
    months.  Part of it is lost from the soil by volatilization. 
    Biodegradation, mainly to pentachloroaniline, is an important route of
    conversion.  Photodegradation is not important.

    The only significant adverse effect reported for quintozene is on
    earthworms.  In laboratory tests, quintozene applied as a soil
    fungicide, at recommended doses, appeared to have long-term toxic
    effects on the earthworm.  Unfortunately, no observations of the
    effects on earthworms of quintozene alone, during field use, are
    available.

    There is no evidence that quintozene represents a threat to non-target
    organisms.  It has a very low acute toxicity for fish and Daphnia.

    Its bioaccumulation by fish is low, and no effects have been reported
    on terrestrial plants, birds, or microorganisms.

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  The general population does not appear to be at risk from
         residues of quintozene in food.

    (b)  Exposure of the general population via air and drinking-water
         could not be evaluated because of lack of data.

    (c)  Occupational exposure has not been reported to cause any adverse
         effects.

    (d)  There is limited information on the effects of quintozene in the
         general environment.  It has been shown to be toxic for
         earthworms in laboratory tests.  Data on other organisms suggest
         that quintozene does not pose a problem in the general
         environment.

    (e)  Quintozene does not biomagnify.

    (f)  The major toxicological concern with quintozene is the presence
         of hexachlorobenzene as an impurity.

    3.2  Recommendations

    Levels of impurities in quintozene, especially hexachlorobenzene,
    should be kept to a minimum.

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Quintozene is a practically non-toxic organochlorine fungicide. 
    Nevertheless, the correct precautions should be observed in its
    handling and use.

    For details see the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 18-21.

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    Poisoning is unlikely to occur unless a massive overdose is swallowed. 
    In this case, it is not necessary to induce vomiting. If gastric
    lavage is undertaken, a cuffed endotracheal tube should be used. 
    Otherwise, a clear airway should be maintained and respiration should
    be safeguarded.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    No routine medical supervision is required.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.2.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.2.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, quintozene will
    decompose, emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters should be equipped
    with self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of unaffected
    stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the
    site.

    4.3  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated to
    pesticides, and kept out of reach of children and unauthorized
    personnel.  They should not be stored near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.3.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (see the
    International Chemical Safety Card on pages 18-21).  Empty any product
    remaining in the damaged/leaking containers into a clean empty drum,
    which should then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for powders),
    and dispose of safely (section 4.5.2).

    After emptying, leaking containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre of water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Puncture the
    container to prevent re-use.

    4.4  Transport

    Local requirements regarding movements of hazardous goods should be
    complied with. The product should not be transported in the same
    compartment as foodstuffs.  Containers should be checked before
    despatch to ensure that they are sound and that the labels are
    undamaged.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, the necessary precautions should be
    taken and appropriate personal protection should be used (see the
    International Chemical Safety Card on pages 18-21).

    4.5.1.1  Solid products

    The remaining spilled product should be absorbed on moist sawdust,
    sand, or earth, swept up, and transferred in a suitable container to a
    safe place for disposal (section 4.5.2).

    4.5.1.2  Liquid products

    The liquid can be prevented from spreading or contaminating other
    cargo, vegetation, or waterways, by making a barrier of the most
    suitable material available, e.g., earth or sand.

    Spilled liquid should be absorbed on sawdust, sand, or earth, swept up
    and placed in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
    for disposal (section 4.5.2).

    4.5.1.3  All products

    As soon as possible after the spillage and before re-use, all
    contaminated areas should be covered with damp sawdust, sand, or
    earth.  This should be swept up and placed in a closeable container
    for later transfer to a safe place for disposal.  Care should be taken
    to avoid run-off into water courses.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, contaminated absorbents, and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Waste material should be burned in 
    a proper incinerator designed for organochlorine waste disposal
    (1000C and 30 min residence time with effluent gas scrubbing).  If
    this is not possible, it should be buried in an approved dump or
    landfill where there is no risk of contamination of surface or ground
    water.  Local legislation regarding disposal of toxic wastes should be
    complied with.  Containers must be punctured to prevent re-use.

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Although there is limited information on the effects of quintozene in
    the general environment, it has been shown to be toxic for earthworms. 
    Data on other organisms suggest that quintozene is not a problem in
    the general environment.  Its bioaccumulation by fish is low.  It does
    not biomagnify.

    Discharges arising from the manufacture, formulation, and use of
    quintozene should not be allowed to pollute the environment and should
    be treated properly.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, quintozene. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to quintozene,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the 
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        QUINTOZENE
    C6Cl5NO2
    CAS chemical name: pentachloronitrobenzene
    CAS registry number: 82-68-8

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Melting point (C)                 142 - 146                          Pale yellow-to-white solid with a musty odour; technical
    Density (25C)                     1.718                              grade may contain hexachlorobenzene as a contaminant;
    Vapour pressure (kPa at 20C)      10-8 x 667                         it is rather stable in soil; it is used as a fungicide
    Relative molecular mass            295.36                             in agriculture, horticulture, and in soil and seed
    Solubility in:                                                        treatment
      water (20C)                     0.44 mg/litre
                                       (practically insoluble)
      ethanol (25C)                   2%
      most other organic solvents      soluble

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: Repeated contamination may        Avoid skin contact, wear                     Remove contaminated clothing; wash
    cause sensitization                     clean overalls and protective                skin with water and soap
                                            gloves; launder contaminated
                                            clothing before re-use

    EYES: May cause irritation,             Avoid working in a dusty                     Flush with clean water for 15 minutes;
    redness                                 atmosphere                                   if irritation persists, seek medical
                                                                                         attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate           Avoid working in a dusty atmosphere

    INGESTION: Unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink, or smoke
    hazard                                  during work; wash hands before
                                            eating, drinking, or smoking

    Massive accidental or intentional                                                    Obtain medical attention; do not induce
    ingestion may cause poisoning                                                        vomiting

    REPEATED EXPOSURE - SKIN,               Same as above; take shower                   In case of poisoning, same as above
    INHALATION, INGESTION:                  and put on clean clothing after
    unlikely to cause adverse effects,      work
    unless massive exposure; may,
    however, cause skin sensitization

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for                  Do not pollute the environment with 
    earthworms                              waste material or discharges 

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal               Products should be stored in                 Liquid formulations containing organic
    precautions; prevent liquid             locked buildings preferably                  solvents may be flammable; emulsifiable
    from spreading or contaminating         dedicated to insecticides; keep              concentrates are miscible with water;
    other cargo, vegetation, or             products out of reach of children            extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant 
    waterways, with a barrier of the        and unauthorized personnel; do               foam, CO2, or powder; with sufficient 
    most suitable material available,       not store near foodstuffs or animal          burning or external heat, quintozene will
    e.g., earth or sand                     feed                                         decompose, emitting toxic fumes; the
                                                                                         smoke and fumes could be injurious
    Absorb spilled liquid with                                                           through inhalation, or absorption through
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up                                                    the skin; therefore, protective clothing and 
    and place it in a closeable container                                                self-contained breathing apparatus should
    for later safe disposal                                                              be worn; the use of water spray should 
                                                                                         be confined to the cooling of unaffected 
                                                                                         stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of 
                                                                                         polluted run-off from the site

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Waste material should be burned in      National Occupational Exposure
    a proper incinerator designed for       Limit:
    organochlorine waste disposal;
    if this is not possible, bury in
    an approved dump or landfill where      National Poison Control Centre:
    there is no risk of contamination
    of surface or ground water; comply
    with any local legislation              Local Trade Names:
    regarding disposal of toxic wastes

                                                                                                                                         
    
    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  The intention is to give the reader a
    representative, but non-exhaustive, overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.  

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by  International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) reviewed
    residue and toxicity data on quintozene in 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, and
    1977.  The conclusion in 1977 was that 25 mg/kg diet, equivalent to
    1.25 mg/kg body weight was a no-observed-adverse-effect-level in the
    rat and 30 mg/kg diet,  equivalent  to  0.75 mg/kg  body weight,  in 
    the  dog.   On  the  basis of these data, the estimate of an
    acceptable daily intake (ADI) for man was 0-0.007 mg/kg body weight.

    IARC (1974) did not come to a conclusion on the carcinogenicity of
    quintozene, because of lack of data at the time.  FAO/WHO (1978)
    concluded that there were no indications that administration of
    quintozene resulted in carcinogenic activity.

    In the WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and
    guidelines to classification (WHO, 1986), quintozene is classified in
    the category of technical products unlikely to present an acute hazard
    in normal use.

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pages 23-25.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data were taken is indicated by (r) 




              

    a  The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
       change and should always be verified with the appropriate
       regulatory authorities before application.


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Work-place          Bulgaria            Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)      0.5 mg/m3

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1977
                                                        - Ceiling value for vapour, aerosol          0.5 mg/m3

    AIR         Ambient             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - 1  /day                                   0.01 mg/m3
                                                        - Average per day                            0.006 mg/m3

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0.007 mg/kg          1977
                                                                                                     body weight

                                    USSR                Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0.007 mg/kg          1983

    FOOD        Plant               Brazil              Acceptable limit                             0.01-5 mg/kg

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.1 mg/kg       1978

                                    FAO/WHO             Maximum residue level                        0.01-5 mg/kg

                                    Finland             Maximum residue limit                        0.2-0.3 mg/kg        1987

                                    Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.3 mg/kg       1984
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of

                                    Kenya               Maximum limit                                0.02-10 mg/kg

                                    Netherlands         Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1987
                                                        - Certain foodstuffs                         0.02-3 mg/kg

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.2-1 mg/kg

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit                     0.1-1 mg/kg
                                                        (interim tolerance limit)

    FOOD        Animal              Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.2 mg/kg       1984
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.005-0.1 mg/kg      1983

    FEED                            Argentina           Maximum limit                                0 mg/kg              1969

                                    USSR                Prohibition                                  0 mg/kg              1981

    GOODS                           Argentina           Maximum limit                                                     1971
                                                        - Tobacco                                    0 mg/kg

                                    Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.2 mg/kg            1984
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of
    

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    The use of quintozene is permitted with certain restrictions in, among
    other countries, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Japan, the
    Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the USA, and the USSR.  In the USA,
    the hexachlorobenzene level must be reduced to less than 0.1% in
    technical products.  In the Netherlands, the technical material used
    in the formulation may not contain more than 1 g hexachlorobenzene and
    10 g pentachlorobenzene per kg.  The use of quintozene was prohibited
    in Italy in 1973.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    No specific guidelines found.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, any non-domestic waste containing quintozene must be
    treated as hazardous waste.  Specific instructions are given for
    incineration.  Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, unless
    in compliance with a specified permit or procedure, owners/operators
    of vessels or onshore or offshore facilities must notify the USA
    government of any release of pentachloronitrobenzene (quintozene), in
    or on navigable waters, adjoining shorelines, the contiguous zone, or
    beyond the contiguous zone, or to any other environmental media (air,
    land, or ground water) in an amount equal to or greater than one pound
    (0.454 kilogram).  The United States Environmental Protection Agency,
    on March 16 1987, proposed raising this reportable quantity to
    100 pounds (45.4 kilograms), but has not yet done so.

    In Finland, any waste containing quintozene is classified as hazardous
    waste and must be treated according to specific instructions.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP (1987)   Guidelines  for  safe  transport  of  pesticides. 
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1983)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register of Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (Unpublished WHO document VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards, 3 Vol. Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH) 01-123).

    WHO  (1984)  EHC No. 41: Quintozene. Geneva, World Health
    Organization, 38 pp.

    WHO  (1986)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard and guidelines to classification 1986-87. Geneva, World
    Health Organization (Unpublished document VBC/86.1).

    WHO/FAO  (1975-87)  Data sheets on pesticides. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (Unpublished documents).

    WORTHING,  C.R.  &  WALKER,  S.B.  (1983)  The pesticide manual. 7th
    ed. Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Quintozene (EHC 41, 1984)
       Quintozene (ICSC)
       Quintozene (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Quintozene (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Quintozene (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Quintozene (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Quintozene (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Quintozene (Pesticide residues in food: 1995 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)