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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 25

    RESMETHRINS
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE
    Resmethrin   Bioresmethrin   Cismethrin





    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 92:
    Resmethrins

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

    ISBN 92 4 154346 9
    ISSN 0259 - 7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure to resmethrins
         2.2. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.3. Evaluation of effects on the environment
         2.4. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems
         2.5. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Resmethrin is an ester of chrysanthemic acid and
    5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl alcohol.  It is a racemic mixture of 4 optical
    isomers:  [1R, trans]-, [1R, cis]-, [1S, trans]-, and [1S, cis]-isomer.
    In technical products the ratio of these isomers is roughly 4:1:4:1.
    The [1R, trans]-isomer is called bioresmethrin and the [1R, cis]-
    isomer, cismethrin.  Among the isomers, the [1R, trans]-isomer has the
    highest insecticidal activity, followed by the [1R, cis]-isomer.

    Molecular formula:            C22H26O3

    Chemical formula:

    STRUCTURAL FORMULA 1

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    The physical and chemical properties of resmethrin and its selected
    isomers are given in the International Chemical Safety Card on pages
    20-23.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    The determination of residues and of environmental samples can be
    carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV
    detector (206 nm) at levels as low as 0.05 mg/kg.  Gas chromatography
    with a flame-ionization detector is used for the analysis of technical
    products.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    It is estimated that 20-30 tonnes of resmethrin are produced and used
    each year.  It is mainly used for the control of insects that are of
    importance in public health and in the home, but it is also used on
    stored grain and for the control of whitefly in greenhouses.

    It is formulated as an aerosol, an oil formulation, or an emulsifiable
    concentrate, sometimes in combination with other insecticides and/or
    synergists.

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure to Resmethrins

    Human exposure to the resmethrins is mainly via inhalation when the
    formulations are sprayed in the form of a mist.  Air levels following
    conventional household aerosol spraying are not expected to exceed
    0.5mg/m3.

    The only significant potential dietary exposure is following the use
    of resmethrin on stored grain.  Residues of up to 4 mg/kg might be
    present in grain, but this would be reduced to zero in white bread. 
    However, reduced residues may be present in wholemeal bread.  A food
    additive tolerance has been established by the US Environmental
    Protection Agency (US EPA) permitting resmethrin residues of up to
    3 mg/kg in or on food commodities resulting from the use of the compound
    in food handling areas.  An ADI of 0.1250 mg/kg body weight per day
    was established by the US EPA on the basis of the
    no-observed-adverse-effect levels observed in long-term toxicity
    studies on experimental animals.  No data are available on
    occupational exposure to the resmethrins.

    2.2  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    When 14C-(alcohollabelled)-[1RS, trans]-resmethrin was administered
    orally to rats at a rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, the radiocarbon was
    eliminated slowly in the  urine (36%) and faeces (64%) within 3 weeks. 
    More than 50% of the 14C was secreted into bile during 72 h and
    circulated enterohepatically.  The major metabolic reactions were
    ester cleavage, oxidation at the  trans-methyl of the isobutenyl
    group to alcohol, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, oxidation at the 4'-,
    alpha, and 4-positions of 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl alcohol (BFA), and
    conjugation.

    Rats fed 14C-(acid or alcohol labelled) bioresmethrin or cismethrin
    at a rate of 1 mg/kg excreted 5-benzyl-3-furancarboxylic acid (BFCA),
    4'-hydroxy-BFCA, and alpha-hydroxy-BFCA together with
    2- trans-hydroxymethyl- and 2-carboxyl derivatives of chrysanthemic
    acid (CA).  Derivatives of  cis/trans-isomerized CA were also found. 
    The residual metabolites in the body were derived from the alcohol
    moiety of bioresmethrin.

    2.3  Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    Resmethrin is rapidly photodegraded.  In sunlight, aqueous solutions
    have a half-life of 47 min (pure water) and 20 min (sea water).  A
    range of photoproducts are formed from ester cleavage and oxidation
    reactions.

    Resmethrin is also very rapidly degraded in soil so that less than 2%
    of the applied parent compound remains after 16 days.  Complete
    mineralization to carbon dioxide is a very important degradation
    process (38% after 16 days).  Under outdoor conditions, rapid
    photodegradation and microbial degradation in the soil ensure that
    residues will not persist to any extent in the environment.

    In laboratory studies, resmethrins are very toxic for fish (96-h
    LC50 values: 0.3-5.5 g/litre) but less toxic for  Daphnia and
    aquatic insect larvae.  However, under field conditions, the effects
    are considerably less than might be predicted from the laboratory
    studies because of the low water solubility of the resmethrins and
    their ready degradation.

    The toxicity of the resmethrins for birds is low (LD50 >
    5000 mg/kg) and they do not produce any effects on avian reproduction.

    2.4  Effects on Experimental Animals and In Vitro Test Systems

    The acute toxicities of resmethrin and bioresmethrin in experimental
    animals, by various routes of exposure, were low - oral LD50s of
    resmethrin ranging from 690 mg/kg in the mouse to >5000 mg/kg in the
    rat.  Acute oral LD50s of bioresmethrin were 225 mg/kg in the
    rabbit, and 10000mg/kg in the mouse.  Cismethrin was moderately toxic
    in the mouse, oral LD50s ranging from 152 to 160 mg/kg.  The acute
    toxicities of resmethrin metabolites were in the same range in the
    rat, but somewhat higher in the mouse. The symptoms of poisoning were
    characterized by tremors, hyperactivity, and convulsions (T-syndrome). 
    Resmethrin belongs to the Type I pyrethroid group.

    While technical grade resmethrin is a slight skin irritant, it is not
    a sensitizer.

    In a 90-day rat study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 66 mg/kg
    diet per day was established for resmethrin, whereas in another 2-year
    rat study the lowest effect level appeared to be 500 mg/kg of diet,
    corresponding to 25 mg/kg body weight per day.  In a 6-month feeding
    study on dogs, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was 10 mg/kg body
    weight per day.

    In a 90-day rat inhalation study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level
    of 0.1g resmethrin/m3 was established.

    The no-observed-adverse-effect levels for bioresmethrin were 400 mg/kg
    in a 91-day dietary study in rats, corresponding to 33 mg/kg body
    weight per day, and 80 mg/kg body weight per day in a 90-day study in
    dogs.

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level for (1R),-( trans. cis)-resmethrin
    in a 24-week dietary study on the rat was 1500 mg/kg diet,
    corresponding to 78mg/kg body weight per day.

    Resmethrins are not mutagenic in a variety of test systems, including
    gene mutations, DNA damage, DNA repair, and chromosomal effects.

    Resmethrin was not carcinogenic in the mouse or the rat when fed at
    dietary levels of up to 1000 mg/kg for 85 weeks and 5000 mg/kg for 112
    weeks, respectively.

    Resmethrin was not teratogenic in the rat, mouse, or rabbit at dose
    levels up to 100 mg/kg body weight.

    A dose of 40 mg resmethrin/kg body weight appeared to be the
    no-observed-adverse-effect level for fetotoxicity in the rat.

    In a 3-generation reproduction study on rats, a decrease in pup
    weights and a slight increase in the number of dead pups were observed
    at the 500 mg resmethrin/kg level.

    2.5  Effects on Human Beings

    Although the resmethrins have been used for many years, no data have
    been reported on human toxicity.  Thus, extrapolation data from
    experimental animal and in vitro studies must be used to determine the
    potential toxicity for human beings.

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  General population

    Under recommended conditions of household and other public health use,
    exposure of the general population to resmethrins is negligible and is
    unlikely to present a hazard.  Under conditions recommended for use in
    food-handling and storage areas, as well as for post-harvest
    treatment, the exposure of the general population to resmethrins in
    the diet is unlikely to exceed the ADI established by the US EPA.

    (b)  Occupational exposure

    With reasonable work practices, hygiene measures, and safety
    precautions, the use of resmethrins is unlikely to present a hazard
    for those occupationally exposed to it.

    (c)  Environment

    At recommended application rates, it is unlikely that resmethrins or
    the degradation products will reach levels of environmental
    significance.  In spite of its high toxicity for fish, a problem is
    likely to occur only in the case of spillage or overspraying.

    3.2  Recommendations

    The label for the household use of resmethrins should include adequate
    instructions for use and storage and, where appropriate, a warning of
    flammability.

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Resmethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.  No cases of
    poisoning have been reported in the general population or through
    occupational exposure.  The results of experimental animal studies
    suggest that, following massive overexposure or accidental ingestion,
    neurological symptoms, such as tremors and convulsions, could occur.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    resmethrin, together with preventive and protective measures and first
    aid recommendations are listed on the International Chemical Safety
    Card on pages 20-23.

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    No specific antidote is known.  Treat symptomatically.  The main
    hazard with liquid formulations is aspiration of the solvent into the
    lungs, resulting in chemical pneumonitis.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Pre-exposure and annual general medical examinations should be carried
    out on workers regularly exposed to resmethrins.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  Use
    dry powder, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, sand. or earth for
    dealing with fires.  DO NOT use water.  Cool nearby drums with water
    spray.

    If pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire, or in a fire
    involving other products, advise the fire service that protective
    clothing and breathing apparatus should be worn.  Also, warn the
    authorities that pyrethroids are highly toxic for fish, and that the
    use of water should be confined to the cooling of unaffected stock,
    thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the site.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, under lock
    and key, and out of reach of children, animals, and unauthorized
    personnel.  Store in an area designated for insecticide storage,
    preferably without drains. 

    Store away from foodstuffs and animal feed.

    4.4  Transport

    Pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or "low hazard" for transport
    purposes.  Formulations based on flammable solvents may be subject to
    local transport controls.  Before dispatch, ensure that containers are
    sound and that labels are securely fixed and undamaged.  Comply with
    local transport regulations.

    Do not load together with foodstuffs or feed.

     Accident procedures

    -    Avoid exposure, if possible by the use of appropriate protective
         clothing and masks.  Keep spectators away from the leaking or
         spilled product and prevent smoking or the use of naked flames in
         the immediate vicinity.

    -    Extinguish fires with dry powder, carbon dioxide,
         alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.

    -    Prevent liquid from spreading to other cargo, vegetation, or
         waterways by containing it with a barrier made of the most
         readily available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    -    Absorb spilled liquid and cover contaminated areas with earth,
         lime, sand, or other absorbent material and place in a secure
         container for subsequent safe disposal.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Avoid exposure, if possible by the use of appropriate protective
    clothing and masks.

    Empty any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a
    clean empty drum, and label.

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp sawdust, sand, or earth and dispose of
    safely (see below).  If spillage is large, contain it by building a
    barrier of earth or sandbags.

    Decontaminate empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum.  Puncture containers to prevent re-use.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste containing resmethrin should be burnt in a proper
    high-temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no
    incinerator is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products
    should be decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a
    suitable hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the
    active ingredient to a safe level.

     For emulsifiable material: 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
    solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda) solution
    can be used.

     For non-emulsifiable material: use a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of
    either of the above solutions and a water/oil soluble solvent, such as
    denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene glycol, or
    isopropanol.

    Cover the material with the hydrolysing agent and put aside to stand
    for 7 days.  Before disposal of the resultant waste, the material must
    be analysed to ensure that the active ingredient has been degraded to
    a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    anywhere where there is any danger of run-off or seepage into streams,
    watercourses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    With recommended techniques and rates of application, it is unlikely
    that resmethrin and its degradation products will reach levels of
    environmental significance.  Resmethrin is very toxic for fish and 
    honeybees, but, because of the the very low exposure levels that
    normally occur, this is likely to cause a problem only in the case of
    spillage.

    Avoid spraying over bodies of water.  Do not contaminate ponds,
    waterways, or ditches with the product or used containers.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, resmethrins. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to quintozene,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the 
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        RESMETHRIN
    CAS chemical name:  [5-(phenylmethyl)-3-furanyl]methyl-2,2-dimethyl-
    3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylate
    Chemical formula: C22H26O3
    CAS registry no.: 10453-86-8:     RTECS registry no.: GZ1310000

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                                  OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                    Resmethrin        Bioresmethrin      Cismethrin
                                                                                                                                         
    Physical state                  waxy solid        viscous oil        -               Resmethrin is a mixture of 4 stereo-isomers;
                                                                                         bioresmethrin is the [1R,trans]-isomer
    Colour                          colourless        practically        -               and cismethrin is the [1R-cis]-isomer;
                                                      colourless                         resmethrin is decomposed rapidly
                                                                                         on exposure to air or light and in
    Odour                           chrysanthemate    -                  -               alkaline media; it is a synthetic pyrethroid
                                                                                         mainly used for household purposes and 
    Relative molecular mass         338.48            338.48             338.48          in stables

    Melting point (C)              43-48              30-35             -

    Boiling point (C)              180               180                -
                                    (0.01 mmHg)       (0.01 mmHg)

    Water solubility (30C)         1 mg/litre        <0.3 mg/litre      -

    Solubility in organic           solublea          soluble            soluble
      solvents

    Density (20C)                  1.050             1.050              -

    Vapour pressure (mmHg)          1.1  10-8        1.4  10-4         -
                                      (30C)            (25C)

     n-Octanol/water                 2.9  103         6.2  104          -
      partition coefficient

              
    a Methanol (81 g/kg), hexane (220g/kg), xylene (1 kg/kg), kerosene (10%), isopropanol, methylene chloride.

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: irritating to skin                Proper application technique,                Remove contaminated clothing; wash skin 
                                                                                         proper skin protectionwith water and soap

    EYES: irritating to eyes                Face shield; goggles                         Flush immediately with clean water for at 
                                                                                         least 15 minutes

    INHALATION: irritant to                 Avoid inhalation of fine dust and            Fresh air
    respiratory system                      mist

    INGESTION: unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink, or smoke during           -
    hazard                                  working hours; wash hands before
                                            eating, drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion      -                                            Obtain medical attention immediately; if
    could lead to neurological symptoms,                                                 breathing has stopped, apply artificial
    such as tremors and convulsions;                                                     respiration; do not induce vomiting
    main hazard of ingested liquid
    formulations is aspiration into the
    lung

    ENVIRONMENT: very toxic for fish        Do not contaminate ponds,                    -
    and honeybees                           waterways, or ditches with product
                                            or used containers

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp         Store in locked, well ventilated             Some liquid formulations may be highly
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up,      storeroom, away from feed                    flammable; DO NOT use water - use
    place in closed container, and          and foodstuffs, children and                 dry powder, carbon dioxide, or alcohol-
    dispose of safely; avoid                unauthorized personnel                       resistant foam; cool nearby drums with
    contamination of personnel, ponds,                                                   water spray
    and waterways

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                                         

    Burn in high temperature incinerator       National Occupational                     
    with effluent scrubbing; alternatively,    Exposure Limit:
    treat with 5% caustic soda as a
    hydrolysing agent; comply with local 
    regulations                                National Poison Control Centre:

                                               Local trade names:

    FIGURE 1
    
    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other United Nations sources.  The intention is to give the
    reader a representative but not exhaustive overview of current
    regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) discussed and
    evaluated bioresmethrin at its meetings in 1975 and 1976.  However, an
    acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not established.

    WHO has classified bioresmethrin as a technical product unlikely to
    present an acute hazard in normal use and resmethrin and cismethrin as
    slightly hazardous (WHO, 1986).  A Data Sheet (No. 34) on
    bioresmethrin has been issued (WHO/FAO, 1978).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    In the USA, the maximum residue limit in or on food items resulting
    from use of resmethrin in food-handling and storage areas is 3 mg/kg
    (1983).

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    No information available.





              

    a  The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
       change and should always be verified with the appropriate
       regulatory authorities before application.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    Hazard Class 6.1:             poisonous substance

    Packing Group III:            a substance presenting a relatively low
                                  risk of poisoning in transport.

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    The bottom half of the label should bear the inscription:

          Harmful, stow away from foodstuffs.

    The FAO specifications for bioresmethrin plant protection products
    (technical product and formulations) advises on methods for checking
    the composition and purity of bioresmethrin.  The bioresmethrin
    content shall be declared (g/litre or g/kg at 20C) and may not
    deviate by more than 5% from this.

    Containers should be lined, where necessary, with a suitable material
    or the interior surfaces treated to prevent corrosion and/or
    deterioration of the contents.  They should comply with pertinent
    national and international transport and safety regulations.

    The legislation of the European Community requires that resmethrins be
    labelled as dangerous substances, using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin, and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feeding stuff.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, permits are required for discharge of pyrethroids from any
    point source into national waters; detailed instructions are provided.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)   Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)   Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)   Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986a)   International code of conduct on the distribution and
     use of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986b)   Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues.  Part 8.   Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues. 3rd ed. Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)   Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)   Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)   Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)   Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides.
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)   IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)   IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Resmethrins (EHC 92, 1989)