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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 31

    TETRAMETHRIN
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1989

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 98:
    Tetramethrin

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154352 3

    World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction  or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area
    or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
    or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Environmental exposure and fate
         2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro
              test systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         RESPONSE
         4.1. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health from exposure to a
    chemical or combinations of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes.  The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and clearly explained, to all who
    could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on regulatory
    information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC)  and
    from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes people in the occupational health
    services, ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade
    unions, who deal with the safe use of chemicals and the prevention of
    environmental health hazards, and those workers who want more
    information on this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms
    that will be familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2
    inevitably contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been
    included for readers who would like to have further background
    information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME


    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                            Tetramethrin

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Molecular formula:                      C19H25NO4

    CAS chemical name:                      Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid,
                                            2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-
                                            propenyl)-,(1,3,4,5,6,7-
                                            hexahydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-
                                            isoindol-2-yl) methyl ester

    Common trade names and synonyms:        tetramethrine, phthalthrin,
                                            neo-pynamin, FMC-9260

    CAS registry number:                    7696-12-0

    RTECS registry number:                  GZ173000

    Relative molecular mass:                331.45

    Tetramethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.  It is a mixture
    of four stereoisomers.  Neo-pynamin Forte is a mixture of the two
    isomers that have the highest insecticidal activity and a cis:trans
    ratio of 1:4.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Some physical and chemical properties of tetramethrin are given in the
    International Chemical Safety Card (section 6).

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Residue analysis can be carried out by quantification using
    dual-wavelength densitometry (370-230 nm).  Gas chromatography with a
    flame ionization detector is used for analysis of the technical
    product.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    A few hundred tonnes of tetramethrin are manufactured and used
    annually worldwide, primarily for indoor pest control.  It is
    formulated as an aerosol, an emulsifiable concentrate, and in mosquito
    coil, and is also prepared in combination with other insecticides and
    synergists.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    The general population may be exposed to tetramethrin primarily
    through its use as an indoor pest control.  When tetramethrin is used
    as recommended, the aerial levels and those of its 1R isomer are
    unlikely to exceed 0.5 mg/m3, and the compound will degrade rapidly. 
    Therefore, the exposure of the general population is expected to be
    very low. Tetramethrin is not used on food crops.

    2.2  Environmental Exposure and Fate

    Rapid degradation occurs when a thin film of tetramethrin is exposed
    to sunlight. The major photoreactions during a 2-h exposure (30%
    conversion) were: epoxidation at the isobutenyl double bond; oxidation
    at the  trans-methyl of the isobutenyl group to hydroxymethyl,
    aldehyde, and carboxylic acid; and hydroperoxidation to allylic
    hydroperoxide.

    No data are available on the exact levels of tetramethrin in the
    environment, but with the current domestic pattern of use and when
    tetramethrin is used as recommended, environmental exposure is
    expected to be very low. Degradation to less toxic products is rapid.

    2.3  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    In rats, tetramethrin radiolabelled in the acid or alcohol moiety is
    readily taken up, metabolized, and excreted after oral or subcutaneous
    administration.  Approximately 95% is excreted in 5-7 days in the
    urine and faeces in more or less equal amounts.  The tissue residues
    from both administration routes are very low. The metabolic reactions
    are: ester cleavage; loss of the hydroxymethyl group from the alcohol
    moiety; reduction of the 1-2 bond of the alcohol moiety; oxidation at
    the isobutenyl methyl moiety of the acid and at the 2-, 3-, and
    4-positions of the alcohol moiety; conjugation of the resultant acids
    and alcohols with glucuronic acid; and cis/trans isomerization.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    Only very limited information is available.  Tetramethrin is highly
    toxic for fish, the 96-h LC50 values for two species being 19 and
    21 g/litre.  A third species showed a 48-h LC50 of 200 g/litre and
    a no-observed-effect-level of 50 g/litre.  The no-observed-effect-
    level for Daphnia is 50 g/litre. Tetramethrin has very low toxicity
    to birds but is toxic for honey bees. Because tetramethrin is rapidly
    degraded, and provided its use is limited to buildings, as
    recommended, the potential that it has for producing effects on the
    environment is unlikely to be realised.

    2.5  Effects on Experimental Animals and In Vitro Test Systems

    The acute oral toxicity of tetramethrin is low. The LD50 for rats
    is >5000 mg/kg with both the racemic mixture and the 1R, cis/trans
    isomer, whereas for mice it is about 2000 mg/kg (racemate) and
    1060 mg/kg (1R, cis/trans). The acute dermal toxicities in both the rat and
    mouse, as well as in the rabbit, are also low (the LD50 in rats and
    mice is >5000 mg/kg, while in rabbits it is >2000 mg/kg (all studies
    were done with racemic mixture).  In acute inhalation studies, the
    LC50 in rats and mice was 2500 mg/m3 for the racemic mixture and
    >1180 mg/m3 for the 1R, cis/trans isomer.  The toxic signs include
    hyperexcitability, tremor, ataxia, and depression (general signs
    combined from all the acute studies). Mice were somewhat more
    susceptible than rats, but no differences were observed in
    susceptibility between males and females.  Tetramethrin, either as the
    racemic mixture or the 1R, cis/trans isomer, is virtually
    non-irritating to the rabbit eye and is non-irritating to rabbit skin. 
    In addition, neither the racemic mixture nor the 1R, cis/trans isomer
    is a sensitizer in guinea-pigs.

    Tetramethrin is a type 1 pyrethroid.  In mammals, tremor (T-syndrome)
    is the characteristic poisoning symptom.

    When rats were fed tetramethrin at dietary levels of up to 5000 mg/kg
    diet for 91 days, reduced body weight gain was observed at 5000 mg/kg.
    The results from 3- or 6-month feeding studies using the 1R, cis/trans
    isomer in rats at dietary levels ranging from 25 mg/kg diet to
    3000 mg/kg diet indicated that the no-observed-effect level was
    200 mg/kg diet for males and 300 mg/kg diet for females (observations
    included decreases in the body weight gain and in final body weight,
    and effects on the kidneys and the liver).  The effects on the liver
    were thought to be an adaptive response to the feeding of the corn oil
    vehicle.

    The no-observed-effect level in a 26-week study in dogs was 1250 mg/kg
    diet.

    When mice and rats were exposed to aerosolized tetramethrin by
    inhalation at a concentration of 200 mg/m3 for 3-4 h/day for up to 4
    weeks, no significant compound-related changes were observed. An
    additional inhalation study in which rats were exposed to a mist
    (1.2-1.5 m diameter droplets) of 1R, cis/trans isomer in deodorized
    kerosene at concentrations up to 87 mg/m3, 3 h/day, 7 days/week for
    28 days, indicated a no-observed-effect level of 49 mg/m3. Toxic
    signs were noted only during the exposure period.

    Neither tetramethrin nor its 1R, cis/trans isomers were mutagenic in a
    variety of  in vivo and  in vitro test systems, which investigated
    gene mutations, DNA damage, DNA repair, and chromosomal effects.

    Three 104-week chronic/oncogenicity feeding studies have been
    conducted on tetramethrin, two in rats and one in mice.  In mice,
    tetramethrin was fed at dose levels up to 1500 mg/kg diet.  No
    oncogenic effects were observed.  Decreased pituitary and
    thyroid/parathyroid weights were observed at 60 mg/kg diet or more. 
    The no-observed-effect level for systemic effects was 12 mg/kg diet in
    mice.  In the rat studies, the test animals were exposed to
    tetramethrin at dose levels up to 5000 mg/kg diet  in utero and
    through long-term feeding. In both studies in rats, body weight gains
    were significantly lower in animals exposed to 3000 mg/kg diet or
    more.  In addition, increases in liver weight were observed at these
    dose levels.  The no-observed-effect level for systemic effects in
    both studies in rats was 1000 mg/kg diet.  The incidence of testicular
    interstitial cell tumours at 3000 mg/kg diet or more was higher than
    the level in the concurrent control group in both studies.  Testicular
    interstitial cell tumours occur spontaneously in aged rats, and the
    incidence can vary greatly in the control groups. This tumour is
    thought to be hormonally mediated.  There was no evidence of
    malignancy and no evidence of this type of tumour in mice. It has been
    concluded that the tumorigenic effect, if real, is most unlikely to
    affect human beings.

    Tetramethrin was not teratogenic or embryotoxic at dose levels up to
    1000 mg/kg body weight in rats and up to 500 mg/kg body weight in
    rabbits (the highest dose levels tested). In a fertility study in
    which rats were given tetramethrin in dose levels up to 1000 mg/kg
    body weight per day, the no-observed-effect level for the parents'
    reproductive ability and growth of the fetuses was 300 mg/kg body
    weight per day.  In a perinatal and post-natal reproduction study in
    rats, the no-observed-effect level was 100 mg/kg body weight per day
    (the highest level tested).

    When dose levels of 1000 to 6000 mg/kg diet were tested in a
    one-generation reproduction study on tetramethrin in rats, the
    no-observed-effect level was 1000 mg/kg diet.  Levels of
    100-3000 mg/kg of the 1R, cis/trans isomer were tested in a
    two-generation reproduction study, which gave a no-observed-effect
    level of 500 mg/kg diet.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    Although tetramethrin and its 1R-isomer have been used for many years,
    there have been no reports of poisoning or adverse effects in human
    beings.

    There are no indications that tetramethrin or its 1R-isomer will have
    an adverse effect on human beings if it continues to be used in low
    concentrations and only to control household pests.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  General Population: The exposure of the general population to
    tetramethrin, as it is currently used, is expected to be low.  It is
    not likely to present a hazard if used as recommended.

    (b)  Occupational Exposure: When good work practices, hygiene
    measures, and safety precautions are followed, tetramethrin is not
    likely to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed.

    (c)  Environment: It is highly unlikely that tetramethrin or its
    degradation products will reach levels that could cause adverse
    environmental effects.

    3.2  Recommendations

    Although tetramethrin and its 1R-isomer have been used for many years
    with no reports of adverse effects in human beings, observations of
    human exposure should continue.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        RESPONSE

    4.1  Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Tetramethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. There have been no
    reports of poisoning in the general population or in those who have
    been occupationally exposed.  Experimental studies in animals show
    that after massive over-exposure or accidental ingestion, neurological
    signs and symptoms (e.g., tremor, ataxia, etc.) could occur.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    tetramethrin, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first aid recommendations, are given in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    No specific antidote is known. Treat symptomatically. Chemical
    pneumonitis resulting from aspiration of the solvent into the lungs
    occurs when liquid formulations are used.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Regularly exposed workers should undergo pre-employment and annual
    general medical examinations.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  DO NOT
    USE WATER to extinguish fires.  Use dry powder, carbon dioxide, or
    alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.  Cool nearby drums with water
    spray.

    Whenever pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire, instruct
    the fire service to wear protective clothing and breathing apparatus. 
    Inform the fire service and the relevant authorities that pyrethroids
    are toxic for fish, and that water should be used only to cool the
    unaffected stock.  In this way, the accumulation of polluted run-off
    from the site is prevented.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, in a locked
    area, designated for pesticide storage only.  Keep out of reach of
    children, unauthorized personnel, and animals, and away from food and
    animal feed.  Prevent spills from leaking into watercourses.

    4.4  Transport

    For transport purposes, pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or as
    "low hazard".  Formulations based on flammable solvents may be subject
    to local transport controls.  Before transport, ensure that containers
    are sound and that labels are securely fixed and undamaged.  Comply
    with local transport regulations.

    Do not transport in the same compartments as food and animal feed.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Keep spectators away from leaking or spilled product.  Prohibit
    smoking and the use of naked flames in the immediate vicinity.
    Transfer any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a
    clean, empty drum, and label the drum.

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp sawdust, sand, or earth, or other
    absorbent material and place in a secure container for safe disposal
    (see below).  Contain a large spillage by building a barrier of earth
    or sandbags.  Prevent liquid from spreading to other cargo,
    vegetation, or waterways.

    Decontaminate empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium 
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum.  Puncture containers to prevent reuse.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste that contains tetramethrin should be burnt in an appropriate
    high-temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no
    incinerator is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products
    should be decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a
    suitable hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the 
    active ingredient to a safe level.

    For emulsifiable material, use 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
    solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda)
    solution.

    For non-emulsifiable material, use a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of
    caustic soda or washing soda and a water/oil soluble solvent such as
    denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene glycol, or
    isopropanol.

    Cover the material with a hydrolysing agent and let it stand for 7
    days.  Before disposal, the waste must be analysed to ensure that the
    active ingredient has been degraded to a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    where there is any danger of run-off or seepage to streams,
    watercourses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or to the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    When used as recommended, it is unlikely that tetramethrin and its
    degradation products will reach levels of adverse environmental
    significance.  Tetramethrin is toxic for fish, but because of the very
    low exposure levels that usually occur, it would only cause a problem
    if spilled.

    Do not contaminate ponds, waterways, or ditches with tetramethrin or
    its containers.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus
     oxychloride.  It should be displayed at, or near, entrances to areas
     where there is potential exposure to phosphorus trichloride and
     phosphorus oxychloride, and on processing equipment and containers. 
     The card should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All
     persons potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        TETRAMETHRIN

    CAS chemical name: Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-,
    (1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) methyl ester
    CAS registry no: 7696-12-0
    RTECS registry no: GZ 173000
    Molecular formula: C19H25NO4

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIESc          Racemic isomer         (1R)-isomer           OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Physical state                crystalline solid      viscous liquid        Tetramethrin is a mixture of four stereo-isomers;
    Colour                        colourless             yellow or brown       technical tetramethrin is stable
    Odour                         pyrethrum-like                               to heat at 50 C for 6 months, but unstable
    Relative molecular mass       331.45                 331.45                to light and air and to alkaline conditions;
    Melting point (C)            60-80                  -                     it is a synthetic pyrethroid which is mainly
    Water solubility (30 C)      4.6 mg/litre           2-4 mg/litre          used to control household insects
                                                         (23 C)
    Solubility in organic         solublea               solubleb
     solvents
                                   20                     25
    Relative density              d20 1.108              d25 1.11

    Vapour pressure (20 C)       3.5 x 10-8 mmHg        2.4 x 10-9 mmHg
                    (30 C)       7.1 x 10-6 mmHg

                   

    a Methanol (53 g/kg); hexane (20 g/kg); xylene (1 kg/kg); acetone, toluene.
    b Hexane (>1 kg/kg), methanol, xylene.
    c No data are available for boiling point and  n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: Some formulations may             Use proper application techniques;           Remove contaminated clothing; wash
    cause skin irritation                   proper skin protection                       skin with soap and water

    EYES: Slightly irritating               Wear face shield or goggles                  Flush immediately with clean water
                                                                                         for at least 15 min

    INHALATION: Dust or droplets            Avoid inhalation of fine dust and            Fresh air
    may cause irritation                    mist

    INGESTION: Unlikely                     Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    occupational hazard                     work; wash hands before eating,
                                            drinking, and smoking

    Accidental or deliberate                                                             Obtain medical attention; if breathing
    ingestion could cause                                                                has stopped, apply artificial respiration
    neurological signs and symptons
    such as tremor and ataxia

    A hazard of ingested liquid                                                          Do not induce vomiting
    formulations is aspiration
    into lungs

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for                  Do not contaminate ponds,
    fish                                    waterways, or ditches with product
                                            or used containers

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Absorb spillage with lime,              Store in locked, well-ventilated             DO NOT USE WATER: some liquid formulations
    damp sawdust, sand, or earth;           storeroom, away from children,               may be highly flammable; use
    sweep up, place in closed               unauthorized personnel, animals,             dry powder, carbon dioxide, or alcohol-
    container, and dispose of               and food and animal feed                     resistant foam; cool nearby drums with
    safely; do not contaminate                                                           water spray
    personnel, ponds, or waterways

                                                                                                                                         
    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Burn in high-temperature                National Occupational Exposure Limit:
    incinerator with effluent
    scrubbing; or, treat with               National Poison Control Centre:
    5% caustic soda as a 
    hydrolysing agent for 7 days;           Local trade names:                           
    comply with local regulations

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  It is a representative but non-exhaustive
    overview of current regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    Regulations and guidelines about chemicals can be fully understood
    only within the framework of country's legislation, and are always
    subject to change. Therefore, they should always be verified with the
    appropriate authorities.

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The Division of Vector Biology and Control, World Health Organization,
    has classified tetramethrin as a technical product that is not likely
    to present an acute hazard (WHO, 1988).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on the following
    page.

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    No information is available.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    -    Hazard Class 6.1: poisonous substances;
    -    Packing Group III: substance presenting a relatively low risk of
         poisoning in transport.

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 2


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Workzone            USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)        5 mg/m3              1985

    FOOD                            Germany, Federal    Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                    Republic of         - Specified plant products                   0.1 mg/kg            1984
                                                        - Other plant products                       0.01 mg/kg           1984

                                    Netherlands         Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        - milk                                       0.05* mg/kg          1987
                                                        - other food                                 0*(0.05) mg/kg       1987
                                                        - (sum of cis & trans)



              

    * Indicates limit of detection.
    

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin, and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feed.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In some countries, permits are required to empty pyrethroids into
    waters.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1983)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Tetramethrin (EHC 98, 1990)
       Tetramethrin (ICSC)
       Tetramethrin (UKPID)