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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 34

    FENVALERATE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1989

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 95:
    Fenvalerate

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154355 8
    ISSN 0259-7268

    World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction  or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area
    or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
    or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION 

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Environmental fate
         2.3. Kinetics and metabolism
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and human health from exposure to a
    chemical or combinations of chemicals, or to physical or biological
    agents. They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes.  The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes people in the occupational health
    services, ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade
    unions, who are involved in the safe use of chemicals and the
    prevention of environmental health hazards, and also workers who would
    like more information on this topic.  An attempt has been made to use
    only terms that are familiar to the user. However, sections 1 and 2
    inevitably contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been
    included for readers who would like to have further background
    information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                       Fenvalerate

    Chemical formula:

    STRUCTURAL FORMULA 1

    Molecular formula:                 C25H22ClNO3

    CAS registry no.                   51630-58-1

    Relative molecular mass:           419.9 C

    Synonyms and trade names:          Belmark, Pydrin, S-5602, SD43775,
                                       Sumicidin, WHO 2000 (OMS 2000),
                                       WL43775.

    Fenvalerate is the first synthetic pyrethroid having no cyclopropane
    ring in the molecule.  It has four stereoisomers and the composition
    is approximately 1:1:1:1 (racemic) for each isomer.  Technical grade
    fenvalerate is 90-94% pure.

    It is formulated as emulsifiable concentrates, ultra-low volume
    concentrates, dust powders, or wettable powders.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    The technical product is a yellow or brown viscous liquid with a mild
    chemical odour.  It is almost insoluble in water, but soluble in most
    organic solvents.  Fenvalerate is stable to light, heat, and moisture,
    but is unstable in alkaline media. Some physical and chemical
    properties of fenvalerate are given in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (section 6).

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    For residue and environmental analysis, gas chromatography with
    electron-capture detection is used, the minimum detection level being
    0.005 mg/kg.  For product analysis, gas chromatography with flame
    ionization detection can be used.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Approximately 1000 tonnes of fenvalerate are used annually worldwide. 
    It is used primarily in agriculture but also in homes and gardens for
    insect control, and on cattle, alone or in combination with other
    insecticides.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    The general population may be exposed to fenvalerate mainly through
    residues in food.  Residue levels in crops that have been grown with
    good agricultural practices are generally low.  The resulting exposure
    of the general population is expected to be very low, but precise data
    from total-diet studies are lacking.

    Analysis of residues in stored grain showed that more than 70% of the
    applied dose remained on the wheat after 10 months at 25 C. After
    milling and baking, white bread has about the same residue level as
    white flour (approximately 0.06-0.1 mg/kg).

    Information on occupational exposure to fenvalerate is very limited.

    2.2  Environmental Fate

    In soil, degradation occurs via ester cleavage, diphenyl ether
    cleavage, ring hydroxylation, hydration of the cyano group to amide,
    and further oxidation of the fragments formed.  It eventually yields
    carbon dioxide as a major final product. Studies on the leaching
    potential of fenvalerate and its degradation products showed that very
    little downward movement occurs in soils.

    In water and on soil surfaces, fenvalerate is photodegraded by
    sunlight.  Ester cleavage, hydrolysis of the cyano group,
    decarboxylation to yield 2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-
    4-methylpentanenitrile (decarboxy-fenvalerate), and other radical
    initiated reactions have occurred.

    On plants, fenvalerate has a half-life of approximately 14 days. 
    Ester cleavage is a major reaction, followed by oxidation and/or
    conjugation of the fragments formed.  Decarboxylation to yield
    decarboxy-fenvalerate also occurs.

    In general, the degradative processes that occur in the environment
    lead to less toxic products.

    Degradation of fenvalerate in the environment is fairly rapid with
    half-lives of 4 to 15 days in natural water, 8 to 14 days on plants, 1
    to 18 days on soil, and 15 days to 3 months in soil.

    There is virtually no leaching of fenvalerate in the soil.  Thus, it
    is unlikely that the compound will reach significant levels in the
    aquatic environment.

    2.3  Kinetics and Metabolism

    The fate of fenvalerate in rats and mice has been studied using
    fenvalerate radiolabelled in the acid moiety, the benzyl group, or the
    cyano group.  The administered radioactivity, except that of the
    cyano-labelled compound, is readily excreted (up to 99% in 6 days). 
    The major metabolic reactions are ester cleavage and hydroxylation at
    the 4'-position. Various oxidative and conjugation reactions occurred
    that led to a complex mixture of products. When studies are carried
    out with fenvalerate radiolabelled in the cyano group, elimination of
    the radioactive dose is less rapid (up to 81% in 6 days).  The
    remaining radioactivity is retained mostly in the skin, hair, and
    stomach as thiocyanate. A minor, but very important, metabolic pathway
    is the formation of a lipophilic conjugate of [2R]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)
    isovalerate.  This conjugate, which is implicated in the formation of
    granuloma, was detected in the adrenals, liver, and mesenteric lymph
    nodes of rats, mice, and some other species.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    In laboratory tests, fenvalerate was highly toxic for aquatic
    organisms with LC50 values ranging from 0.008 g/litre for newly
    hatched mysid shrimps to 2g/litre for stoneflies. The no-observed-
    effect level in life-cycle tests using  Daphnia galeata mendotae
    was <0.005 g/litre.  Fenvalerate is also highly toxic for
    fish, the 96-h LC50 values ranging from 0.3 g/litre for larval
    grunion to 200 g/litre for adult  Tilapia. A 28-day no-observed-
    effect level for early life stages of the sheepshead minnow was
    0.56 g/litre. Fenvalerate is less toxic for aquatic algae and
    molluscs, 96-h LC50 values being >1000 g/litre.

    During field tests and in actual use, this potentially high toxicity
    to aquatic organisms is not manifested.  Some aquatic invertebrates
    are killed when water is oversprayed, but the effect on populations of
    organisms is temporary.  There are no reports of fish kills in the
    field.  This reduced toxicity during field use is related to the
    strong adsorption of the compound to sediments.

    Fenvalerate  is highly toxic for honey bees with a topical LD50 of
    0.41 g/bee. It acts as a strong repellent to bees which, therefore,
    reduces its toxic effect.  There is no evidence of significant kills
    of honey bees during actual use.  Fenvalerate is more toxic to
    predator mites than to the target pest species.

    Fenvalerate, when given orally or in the diet, has very low toxicity
    to birds.  LD50 values are 1500 mg/kg body weight or more with an
    acute oral dosage. An LC50 value for dietary exposure of bobwhite
    quail has been reported at >15 000 mg/kg diet.

    Fenvalerate is readily taken up by aquatic organisms. 
    Bio-concentration factors ranged from 120 to 4700 for various
    organisms (algae, snail, Daphnia, and fish).  The fenvalerate taken up
    by aquatic organisms is rapidly lost on transfer to clean water.  In
    practice, therefore, the compound can be regarded as having no
    tendency to bioaccumulate.

    2.5  Effects on Experimental Animals and In Vitro Test Systems

    Fenvalerate has a moderate to low acute oral toxicity although LD50
    values vary considerably with the animal species and the
    administration routes (82 to >3200 mg/kg).  The acute clinical signs
    of poisoning appear rapidly but symptoms disappear within 3 to 4 days. 
    The toxic signs caused by fenvalerate and by its [2S, alpha S] isomer
    include restlessness, tremors, piloerection, diarrhoea, abnormal gait,
    choreoathetosis, and salivation (CS-syndrome). It is classified as a
    type II pyrethroid. Electrophysiologically, it produces bursts of
    spikes in the cockroach's cercal motor nerve.  There is, however, no
    clear-cut link between electrophysiological findings in insects and
    toxicity to mammals. 

    Rats fed fenvalerate (2000 mg/kg) in their diet for 8 to 10 days
    showed typical signs of acute intoxication.  Rats fed fenvalerate
    (3000 mg/kg) in their diet had reversible morphological changes in
    their sciatic nerve.  Histopathological changes in the sciatic nerve
    were also observed in both rats and mice given a single oral dose of
    fenvalerate at lethal or sublethal levels.

    Hens given fenvalerate orally at 1000 mg/kg per day for 5 days did not
    show any clinical or morphological signs of delayed neurotoxicity.

    The acute intraperitoneal toxicity of fenvalerate metabolites was
    studied in mice.  None was more toxic than fenvalerate itself.

    In subacute and subchronic toxicity studies, mice, rats, dogs, and
    rabbits were given fenvalerate at various concentrations by  oral,
    dermal, and inhalation routes for 3 weeks to 6 months.  In 4-week
    inhalation studies in both rats and mice, the no-observed-effect-level
    (NOEL) was 7 mg/m3. In a 90-day study  in  rats, the NOEL was
    125 mg/kg diet.  However, in a 2-year feeding study in rats, the NOEL
    was 250 mg/kg diet (12.5 mg/kg body weight), and in a 24- to 28-month
    study, the NOEL was 150 mg/kg diet (7.5 mg/kg body weight).  In a
    2-year study in mice, the NOEL was 50 mg/kg diet (6 mg/kg body
    weight), and in a 20-month study, the NOEL was 30 mg/kg diet
    (3.5 mg/kg body weight). In a 90-day feeding study in dogs, the NOEL
    was 12.5 mg/kg body weight. Although some fenvalerate formulations
    have caused skin and eye irritation, technical fenvalerate was not an
    irritant and had no sensitizing effects.

    In long-term toxicity studies, microgranulomatous changes were
    observed in mice, especially when treated with the [2R, alpha S]-
    isomer of fenvalerate at 125 mg/kg in the diet for 1 to 3 months.
    These changes were reversed when fenvalerate was eliminated from the
    diet.  The causative agent for this change was identified as the
    cholesterol ester of 2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid, a lipophilic
    metabolite of fenvalerate from the [2R, alpha S]-isomer.  The NOEL for
    these microgranulomatous changes in mice was 30 mg fenvalerate per kg
    in the diet.

    In a long-term toxicity study, microgranulomatous changes were also
    observed in rats at 500 mg/kg in the diet.  The NOEL for these
    microgranulomatous changes was 150 mg/kg in the diet.

    Fenvalerate, when fed at dietary levels up to 3000 mg/kg for 78 weeks
    and 1250 mg/kg for 2 years, was not carcinogenic to mice.  Nor was it
    carcinogenic to rats when fed at dietary levels up to 1000 mg/kg for 2
    years.

    Fenvalerate did not show any mutagenic or chromosome damaging
    activities in several  in vitro and  in vivo assays.

    Fenvalerate is not teratogenic to mice or rabbits at doses up to
    50 mg/kg body weight per day.  It did not show any toxic effects on
    reproductive parameters in a three-generation rat reproduction study
    at doses up to 250 mg/kg diet.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    In exposed workers, fenvalerate can cause skin sensations and
    paresthesia that develop after a latent period of approximately
    30 min, peak by 8 h, and disappear within 24 h.  Numbness, itching,
    tingling, and burning are symptoms frequently reported.  Some
    poisoning incidents resulted from occupational over-exposure when
    safety precautions were not taken.

    There are no indications that fenvalerate, when used as recommended,
    will have an adverse effect on human beings.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

     General population: The exposure of the general population to
    fenvalerate is expected to be very low and is not likely to be a
    hazard when used as recommended.

     Occupational exposure: When proper work practices, hygiene measures,
    and safety precautions are followed, it is unlikely that fenvalerate
    will be an occupational hazard.

     Environment: It is unlikely that fenvalerate or its degradation
    products, when used as recommended, will reach levels of environmental
    significance.  Under laboratory conditions, fenvalerate is highly
    toxic for fish, aquatic arthropods, and honey bees.  However, under
    field conditions, long-lasting adverse effects are not likely to occur
    when fenvalerate is used as recommended.

    3.2  Recommendations

    Although fenvalerate has been used for many years, and only a few
    cases of temporary effects from occupational exposure have been
    reported, observations of human exposure should continue.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Fenvalerate is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide of moderate to low
    acute toxicity.  It is unlikely to present an acute hazard when used
    as recommended.  There have been no reports of poisoning in the
    general population.  Some non-fatal poisoning incidents occurred
    during occupational exposure after repeated sprayings when no safety
    precautions were taken.  Experimental studies in animals suggest that
    neurological signs and symptoms, such as ataxia, tremors, and
    convulsions, could occur after massive over-exposure or accidental
    ingestion.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    fenvalerate, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first-aid recommendations, are given in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (see section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    There is no specific antidote.  Chemical pneumonitis resulting from
    aspiration of the solvent into the lungs is a hazard that occurs when
    liquid formulations are used.  Therefore, do not induce vomiting;
    empty the stomach only on the advice of a physician and only with
    equipment that will not cause aspiration into the lungs.  Treat
    symptomatically.  If convulsions occur, diazepam (10 or 20 mg for an
    adult) should be given slowly, intravenously or rectally, and repeated
    if necessary.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Regularly exposed workers should undergo a general medical examination
    annually.  Facial skin sensations are an indication of an
    over-exposure that should be corrected.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  DO NOT
    USE WATER to extinguish fires.  Use dry powder, carbon dioxide, or
    alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.  Cool nearby drums with water
    spray.

    Whenever pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire, advise the
    fire service to wear protective clothing and breathing apparatus. 
    Inform the fire service and other relevant authorities that
    pyrethroids are highly toxic for fish, and that water should be used
    only to cool the unaffected stock.  In this way, the accumulation of
    polluted run-off from the site is prevented.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, in a locked
    area, preferably with no drains, designated for insecticides only. 
    Keep out of reach of children, unauthorized personnel, and away from
    animals.

    Store away from food and animal feed.

    4.4  Transport

    For transport purposes, pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or as
    "low hazard". Formulations based on flammable solvents may be subject
    to local transport controls.  Before transport, ensure that containers
    are sound and that labels are securely fixed and intact. Comply with
    local transport regulations.

    Do not transport in compartments that contain food and animal feed.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Keep spectators away from leaking or spilled product. Prohibit smoking
    and the use of naked flames in the immediate vicinity.

    Transfer any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a
    clean, empty drum, and label the drum.

    Absorb spillage and cover contaminated areas with lime, damp sawdust,
    sand, earth, or other absorbent material and place in a secure
    container for safe disposal (see below).  Contain a large spillage by
    building a barrier of earth or sandbags.  Prevent liquid from
    spreading to other cargo, vegetation, or waterways.

    Decontaminate empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum.  Puncture containers to prevent reuse.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste that contains fenvalerate should be burnt in an appropriate
    high-temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no
    incinerator is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products
    should be decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a
    suitable hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the 
    active ingredient to a safe level.

    For emulsifiable material, use 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
    solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda)
    solution.

    For non-emulsifiable material, use a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of
    caustic soda or washing soda (as above) and a water/oil soluble
    solvent such as denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene
    glycol, or isopropanol.

    Cover the material with a hydrolysing agent and let it stand for 7
    days.  Before disposal, the waste must be analysed to ensure that the
    active ingredient has been degraded to a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    where there is any danger of run-off or seepage to streams,
    watercourses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or to the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    When used as recommended, it is unlikely that fenvalerate or its
    degradation products will reach levels of environmental significance. 
    Fenvalerate is very toxic for fish and honey bees, but due to the very
    low exposure levels that usually occur, it will only cause a problem
    if spilled.  It has a low toxicity to birds.

    Avoid spraying fenvalerate over water.  Do not contaminate ponds,
    waterways, or ditches with fenvalerate or its containers.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, fenvalerate.  It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to fenvalerate,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the
     National Poison Centre, and for local trade names.


        FENVALERATE

    CAS Index name (9CI): Benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-,
    cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester

    Cas registry no. 51630-58-1
    Molecular formula: C25H22ClNO3

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Physical state                     viscous liquid                     Fenvalerate is a racemic mixture of four
    Colour                             yellow or brown                    stereoisomers. The technical grade is 90-94%
    Odour                              mild chemical                      pure. It is stable to light, heat, and
    Relative molecular mass (C)       419.9                              moisture, and unstable in alkaline media.
    Boiling point (C) (37 mmHg)       300
    Water solubility                   2 g/litre
    Solubility in organic solvents     solublea
                                        25                                It is used primarily as an insecticide on
    Density (25 C)                    d25 1.175                          cotton and other crops, in animal health
                                                                          protection, and in the home and garden.

    Vapour pressure (25 C)            0.037 mPa

    Octanol-water partition
     coefficient (log Pow)           6.2

                     

    a   Acetone (>1 kg/kg); hexane (155 g/kg); xylene (>1 kg/kg);
        ethanol, cyclohexanone, ether, kerosene, chloroform.

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: Exposure may cause skin           Proper application techniques,               Remove contaminated clothing;
    sensations, especially on the           skin protection, and hygiene                 wash contaminated skin with soap
    face, that disappear in a few           measures                                     and water
    hours

    EYES: Some formulations may             Wear face shield or goggles                  Flush immediately with clean water
    cause irritation                                                                     for at least 15 min

    INHALATION: Irritating to               Do not inhale fine dust and                  Fresh air
    respiratory system                      mist

    INGESTION: Unlikely                     Do not eat, drink, or smoke during                          -
    occupational hazard                     work; wash hands before eating,
                                            drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion                  -                                Obtain medical attention immediately.
    could lead to neurological signs                                                     If breathing has stopped, apply 
    and symptoms such as ataxia,                                                         artificial respiration
    tremors, and convulsions; main
    hazard of ingested liquid 
    formulations is aspiration into                     -                                Do not induce vomiting
    lungs

    ENVIRONMENT: very toxic for             Do not contaminate ponds,                                   -
    fish and honey bees                     waterways, or ditches with product
                                            or used containers

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp         Store in locked, well-ventilated             DO NOT USE WATER; some liquid
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep          storeroom, away from children,               formulations may be highly 
    up, place in closed container,          unauthorized personnel, and                  flammable; use dry powder, carbon
    and dispose of safely; do not           food and animal feed                         dioxide, or alcohol-resistant
    contaminate personnel, ponds,                                                        foam; cool nearby drums with
    or waterways                                                                         water spray

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Burn in high-temperature                National Occupational Exposure Limit:
    incinerator with effluent scrubbing.
    Or, treat with 5% caustic soda          National Poison Control Centre:
    as a hydrolyzing agent; comply
    with local regulations                  Local trade names:

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  It is a representative but non-exhaustive
    overview of current regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    Regulations and guidelines about chemicals can be fully understood
    only within the framework of a country's legislation, and are always
    subject to change.  Therefore, they should always be verified with the
    appropriate authorities.

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) evaluated
    fenvalerate at its meetings in 1979, 1981, 1982, 1984, and 1986. In
    1986, an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0-0.02 mg/kg body weight was
    established.

    In the WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard,
    technical fenvalerate is classified in class II as moderately
    hazardous (WHO, 1988).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on the following
    page.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is shown, indicated by
    (r).

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    There are restrictions, limitations, and safety precautions in some of
    the countries where fenvalerate has been registered that should always
    be consulted before fenvalerate is used.


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0-0.02 mg/kg         1986
                                                                                                     body weight

    FOOD        Plant               FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                (residues)                              (specified vegetables)                       0.1-10 mg/kg         1986

    FOOD        Plant               Brazil              Acceptable limit                             0.1-1 mg/kg
                (residues)

                                    FRG                 Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.02-2 mg/kg         1984

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration (MRL)        1 mg/kg              1985

    FOOD        Animal              FRG                 Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.05 mg/kg      1984
                (residues)

                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    -    Hazard class 6.1: poisonous substance
    -    Packing Group III: a substance that has a relatively low risk of
         poisoning during transport

    The label should appear as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feeding stuff.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In some countries, permits are required to empty pyrethroids into
    waters.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986)  International code of conduct on the distribution and use
     of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986)  Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues. Part 8.  Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues. 3rd ed., Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)  Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides. 
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)  IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (unpublished document WHO/VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I. (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed., New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHSS(NIOSH) 01-123).

    WHO  (In press)  Environmental Health Criteria No. 95:  Fenvalerate. 
    Geneva, World Health Organization.

    WHO  (1988)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard. Guidelines to classification 1988-89.Geneva, World Health
    Organization (unpublished document WHO/VBC/88.953).

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B. (1983)  The pesticide manual. 7th ed.
    Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Fenvalerate (EHC 95, 1990)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (UKPID)
       Fenvalerate (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)