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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 40

    CAMPHECHLOR
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1990

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 45:
    Camphechlor

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Camphechlor : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 40)

    1. Toxaphene - standards  I. Series

    ISBN 92 4 151040 4          (NLM Classification: WA 240)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1990

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Kinetics and metabolism
         2.3. Effects on animals
         2.4. Effects on human beings
         2.5. Effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         RESPONSE
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                     4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning
                     4.1.1.2  Medical advice
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Safety in use
         4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.3.1. Explosion hazards
              4.3.2. Fire hazards
         4.4. Storage
              4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.5. Transport
         4.6. Spillage and disposal
              4.6.1. Spillage
              4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
         5.1. Hazards
         5.2. Prevention

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  Camphechlor

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Molecular formula:            C10H10Cl8 (approximately)

    Common trade names:           Altox, Chem-Phene M5055, Chlor Chem
                                  T-590, Crestoxo, Estonox, Fasco-Terpene,
                                  Geniphene, Gy-Phene, Hercules 3956,
                                  Huilex, Penphene, Phenacide, Phenatox,
                                  Polychlorcamphen, Strobane-T, Toxakil,
                                  Toxaphene, Toxon 63

    CAS chemical name:            Toxaphene (a mixture of polychlorinated
                                  bicyclic terpenes with chlorinated
                                  camphenes predominating)

    CAS registry number:          8001-35-2

    Relative molecular mass:      413.8 (average)

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Camphechlor is an amber, waxy solid with a melting range of 65-90C. 
    Its vapour pressure is 3.3  10-5 mmHg at 20-25C.  Camphechlor may
    dechlorinate in the presence of alkali, sunlight (ultraviolet
    radiation), or at temperatures above 120C.  It is soluble in common
    organic solvents, but practically insoluble in water (0.4-3 mg/litre).

    The technical product is a complex mixture of chlorinated bicyclic
    terpenes containing 67-69% chlorine by weight, which result from the
    chlorination of pine resins.  Camphechlor has been separated into at
    least 177 C10-polychloro compounds, including Cl6, Cl7, Cl8,
    Cl9, and Cl10 derivatives, using absorption and gas-liquid
    chromatography.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Much difficulty has been encountered in the determination of
    camphechlor residues, as camphechlor is not a single compound, but a
    mixture of over 177 compounds.  In addition, it is often used in
    conjunction with other pesticides, and these may cause interference in
    analytical procedures for camphechlor residues.

    The analytical method most often used for the determination of
    camphechlor in air, water, soil, and food is gas chromatography with
    electron capture detection.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Camphechlor, which does not occur naturally in the environment, has
    been in use since 1949, and in 1975 was the most heavily-used
    insecticide in the USA.  Production in the USA has been estimated to
    range from 22700 to 40800 tonnes per year in the past.  Estimated
    consumption in the USA was 9360 tonnes in 1980 and 5400 tonnes in
    1982.  Since late 1982, use in the USA has been limited to scabies
    control on cattle and sheep, insect control on pineapples and bananas
    in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and emergency use against army
    worms and grasshoppers on cotton, corn, and grain.  These uses are
    restricted to certified spray operators wearing protective clothing. 
    Registered uses in Canada are minimal and decreasing.

    Camphechlor is a non-systemic contact and stomach insecticide with
    some acaricidal action.  The primary crops on which camphechlor is
    used are cotton, cereal grains, fruits, nuts, oil seeds, and
    vegetables.  Use on livestock is primarily for the control of ticks
    and mites.  Camphechlor is often mixed with other pesticides and
    appears to act as a solubilizer for insecticides with low solubility. 
    Synergistic properties have been reported for camphechlor when used
    with some other insecticides.

    Recently, the use of camphechlor has become increasingly restricted or
    has been prohibited in many countries (section 7.3).

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    Exposure of the general population is mainly through residues in food. 
    However, these are normally below residue tolerances.  Accidental
    overexposure has occurred as a result of contamination of food with
    camphechlor.

    Considerable occupational exposure to camphechlor may have occurred
    occasionally in the past, but only a few cases of adverse effects have
    been reported.  Work-place exposures above the permissible level have
    been reported.

    2.2  Kinetics and Metabolism

    Camphechlor is absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, as well as
    through the skin.  Detailed information is lacking on its metabolism,
    probably because of its complex composition.  Both hydroxylation and
    dechlorination products have been found as metabolites.  Excretion
    takes place via both urine and faeces.  A certain amount of
    accumulation in adipose tissue takes place on continuous exposure.

    2.3  Effects on Animals

    Camphechlor is moderately toxic, the oral LD50 values in the rat
    ranging from 60 to 120 mg/kg body weight.  With acute oral
    overexposure, it can give rise to salivation, vomiting,
    hyperexcitability, convulsions, and death.  It is an irritant for the
    skin.

    In short-term and long-term studies on animals, hypertrophy of the
    liver with increased microsomal enzyme activity and histological
    changes in the liver cells occurs at high dose levels (1000 mg/kg
    diet), depending on the test conditions and the species tested. 
    Induction of microsomal enzyme activity in the rat has been found at
    levels of camphechlor of 5 mg or more/kg diet.  Hypertrophy of the
    thyroid and adrenals and degeneration of the tubular epithelium of the
    kidney have also been reported.  At near lethal dosages, excitation of
    the central nervous system may occur.

    Camphechlor was shown not to have an effect on  reproduction at levels
    of up to 100 mg/kg diet in a 3-generation reproduction study  on 
    rats, and at 25 mg/kg diet in a 5-generation reproduction study on
    mice.  It was not teratogenic in an oral incubation study on rats and
    mice at 35 mg/kg body weight per day.  It was mutagenic in a bacterial
    test, but the results of a dominant-lethal test on mice were negative. 
    Camphechlor caused dose-related increases in hepatocellular carcinomas
    in mice and thyroid tumours in rats.

    2.4  Effects on Human Beings

    Several cases of poisoning have been described in human beings due to
    contamination of food with camphechlor or to the accidental ingestion
    of camphechlor formulations.  Symptoms consist of gastrointestinal
    complaints followed by motor seizures.  Some incidents in children
    have been lethal.

    Although a survey of a population of workers in a plant manufacturing
    camphechlor did not reveal any cases of ill-health referable to their
    employment, some illness has been reported in a few people coming into
    contact with this chemical.  A group of 8 women exposed to camphechlor
    were reported to have a higher incidence of chromosome abnormalities
    than the controls.  Available epidemiological studies are not adequate
    to evaluate the carcinogenicity of camphechlor for human beings.

    The lethal dose for a human being is estimated to be 2-7 g.

    2.5  Effects on the Environment

    Camphechlor is broken down in the environment by sunlight (ultraviolet
    radiation), high temperature, and by biodegradation.  There are no
    details on the relative breakdown of the components of the mixture. 
    Camphechlor is readily lost from the soil by evaporation, but, once it
    penetrates the soil, it is tightly bound to soil particles and very
    resistant to leaching.  Its half-life in soil has been reported to
    vary from 70 days to 12 years, depending on the type and condition of
    the soil.  In some waters, it has been shown to persist for years at
    concentrations that are toxic for fish.  Camphechlor is a widespread
    contaminant of aquatic ecosystems.

    Camphechlor is rapidly removed from crops by weathering and
    evaporation.

    It is toxic for aquatic species and some terrestrial species and has
    been shown to bioaccumulate, mainly in aquatic species.  Residues have
    also been found in non-aquatic organisms.

    Camphechlor has been used extensively as a fish poison to clear rough
    fish from lakes before introducing game fish.  The toxic effects have
    not only been directly on adult fish but also, via adult females, on
    the development of eggs and young.  Non-target aquatic organisms have
    also been affected.  Some invertebrates showed long-term deleterious
    effects of camphechlor poisoning.  The environmental levels of
    camphechlor in waters where the chemical has not been deliberately
    applied can exceed laboratory concentrations that have caused death or
    sublethal lesions in experimental fauna.  Thus, camphechlor presents a
    major hazard for aquatic organisms.

    Available field data suggest that birds have been adversely affected
    by camphechlor.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    1.  Although no serious adverse effects have been reported in workers
    resulting from occupational exposure to camphechlor, epidemiological
    studies remain inadequate, and this chemical should be considered for
    practical purposes as being potentially carcinogenic for human beings.

    2.  For the same reason, and recognizing the limitations of residue
    analysis for camphechlor, as well as the reluctance of the FAO/WHO
    Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues to issue an ADI, reservations must
    remain about the safety of this chemical in food, despite the
    relatively low residues so far reported.

    3.  Environmentally, camphechlor is a major hazard for aquatic and
    also some terrestrial species.

    4.  Taking into account these considerations, it is felt that the use
    of this chemical should be discouraged, except where there is no
    adequate alternative.

    3.2  Recommendations

    1.  Careful surveillance should be maintained over the future
    production of camphechlor and the nature and extent of its use.

    2.  Levels in the environment should continue to be comprehensively
    monitored.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        RESPONSE

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Camphechlor is an organochlorine insecticide.  It is toxic and can be
    hazardous for human beings if incorrectly or carelessly handled.  It
    is therefore essential that the correct precautions are observed
    during handling and use.

    For details, see the International Chemical Safety Card (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning

    Camphechlor is toxic by mouth, by skin contact (especially liquid
    formulations), and by inhalation of dust from powder concentrates.  It
    acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system.

    Following accidental ingestion or overexposure, symptoms may include
    headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness in the legs, and
    convulsions.

    Organochlorines can cause respiratory depression.  They also sensitize
    the heart to endogenous catecholamines, leading to ventricular
    fibrillation and cardiac arrest in severe cases.

    Respiratory depression may lead to metabolic acidosis, and, if
    necessary, blood gases should be checked.  The use of an ECG monitor
    is recommended if the symptoms are severe.

    4.1.1.2  Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive and directed
    against convulsions and anoxaemia. Because many liquid formulations
    contain hydrocarbon solvent, vomiting should  not be induced and
    emetics are contraindicated.  If swallowed, the stomach should be
    emptied as soon as possible by careful gastric lavage (with a cuffed
    endotracheal tube), avoiding  aspiration into the lungs.  This should
    be followed by intragastric administration of 3-4 tablespoons of
    activated charcoal and 30 g magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate in a
    30% aqueous solution.  Oily purgatives are contraindicated.  No fats,
    oils, or milk should be given.

    If convulsions occur, anti-convulsants should be given, e.g.,
    diazepam, 10 mg, slowly intravenously (children 1-5 mg), repeated as
    necessary; or thiopental sodium, or hexobarbital sodium, slowly
    intravenously in a dose of 10 mg/kg with a maximum total dose of up to
    750 mg for an adult.  Because of their short action, these
    barbiturates should always be followed by phenobarbital given orally
    at 3 mg/kg (up to 200 mg for an adult), or phenobarbital sodium given
    intramuscularly at 3 mg/kg (also up to 200 mg for an adult).

     Morphine and its derivatives, epinephrine and norepinephrine, should
    never  be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained.  If needed, oxygen and/or
    artificial respiration should be given.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Pre-employment and annual general medical examinations are advised for
    regularly exposed workers.  Special attention should be paid to liver
    and kidney function.

    4.2  Safety in Use

    Handling liquid formulations:      Wear protective neoprene or PVC
                                       gloves, cotton overalls, rubber
                                       boots, and a faceshield

    Handling powder formulations:      Avoid raising a dust cloud; wear
                                       protective gloves and dust mask;
                                       follow the advice relating to
                                       personal hygiene

    4.3  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.3.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation,  or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid products containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, camphechlor will
    decompose, emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters should wear
    self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    Confine the use of water spray to the cooling of unaffected stock,
    thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the site.

    4.4  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated to
    insecticides.

    Keep products out of reach of children and unauthorized personnel.  Do
    not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection.  Empty any
    product remaining in damaged/leaking containers into a clean empty
    drum, which should then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for powders),
    and dispose of safely.

    Emptied leaking liquid containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Do not re-use
    containers for any other purpose.  Puncture the container to prevent
    re-use.

    4.5  Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding movements of hazardous
    goods. Do not transport with feed or foodstuffs.  Make sure that
    containers are in good condition and labels undamaged before despatch.

    4.6  Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required and appropriate personal protection should be used.

    Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo and
    vegetation, and avoid pollution of surface waters and ground water by
    using the most suitable available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up and place
    in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place for
    disposal.

    As soon as possible after the spillage and before re-use, cover all
    contaminated areas with damp sawdust, sand, or earth.  Sweep up and
    place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place for
    disposal.  Care should be taken to avoid run-off into surface waters
    and drains.

    4.6.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, contaminated absorbents, and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Camphechlor is not readily
    decomposed chemically or biologically and is relatively persistent. 
    Waste material should be burned only in a proper incinerator designed
    for organochlorine waste disposal (1000C and 30-min residence time,
    with effluent gas scrubbing).  If this is not possible, bury in an
    approved dump or landfill where there is no risk of contamination of
    surface or ground water.  Comply with any local legislation regarding
    disposal of toxic wastes.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    5.1  Hazards

    Camphechlor is rather persistent in soil; in water, it may persist for
    years at concentrations toxic for fish.  It is a widespread
    contaminant of aquatic ecosystems.  It has been shown to
    bioaccumulate, mainly in aquatic species.  It is also toxic for
    terrestrial organisms, and some invertebrates have shown long-term
    deleterious effects.

    Camphechlor presents a major hazard for aquatic and also some
    terrestrial species.

    5.2  Prevention

    Industrial discharges from manufacturing, formulation, and technical
    applications should not be allowed to pollute the environment and
    should be treated properly.

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or into waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, camphechlor. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to camphechlor,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the 
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.



        CAMPHECHLOR

    CAS chemical name: Toxaphene-a mixture of polychlorinated bicyclic terpenes with chlorinated camphenes predominating

    CAS registry number: 8001-35-2

    RTECS registry number: XW5250000

    Molecular formula: C10H10Cl8, approximately

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Melting range (C)                        65 - 90                     Camphechlor is an amber, waxy solid with
    Vapour pressure (mmHg at 20-25C)         3.3  10-5                  a mild terpene-like odour; it is 
    Relative molecular mass                   413.8                       dehydrochlorinated by heat, strong sunlight, and
                                              (approximately)             certain catalysts, e.g., iron; in the absence 
    Solubility:                                                           of moisture, it is non-corrosive; it is a 
      in water (mg/litre)                     0.4 - 3 (practically        non-systemic contact and stomach insecticide 
                                                insoluble)                with some acaricidal action, often used in 
      in most organic solvents                readily soluble             combination with other pesticides

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    GENERAL: Potential human
    carcinogen; on repeated exposure
    camphechlor can accumulate in
    the body

    SKIN: Overexposure may cause            Avoid skin contact; wear                     Remove contaminated clothing 
    poisoning                               protective clothing, PVC                     immediately; wash skin with water 
                                            or neoprene gloves,                          and soap
                                            rubber boots

    EYES: Irritation, redness               Wear face-shield or                          Flush with clean water for 15 minutes; 
                                            goggles                                      if irritation persists, seek medical
                                                                                         attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate           Wear dust mask

    INGESTION: Unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink, or 
    hazard                                  smoke during work

    Accidental or intentional ingestion                                                  Obtain medical attention immediately; do 
    may cause poisoning                                                                  not induce vomiting; keep patient at rest 
                                                                                         lying face downward; ensure clear
                                                                                         airway; fat, milk, or oil should not be 
                                                                                         given

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for aquatic          Do not spill on animal feed
    and terrestrial life; bioaccumulates    or in waterways

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                      STORAGE                                FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal                     Products should be stored in           Liquid products will burn and emulsifiable
    precautions; prevent liquid from              locked buildings, preferably           concentrates are miscible with water;
    spreading or contaminating other cargo,       dedicated to insecticides              extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant
    vegetation, or waterways, with a                                                     foam, carbon dioxide, or powder; with 
    barrier of the most suitable                                                         sufficient burning or external heat, 
    available material, e.g., earth or sand                                              camphechlor will decompose, emitting toxic 
                                                                                         fumes; fire-fighters should wear protective 
    Absorb spilled liquid with                    Keep products out of reach of          clothing and self-contained breathing 
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up and         children and unauthorized              apparatus; confine the use of water spray to 
    place it in a closeable container             personnel; do not store near           the cooling of unaffected stock, thus 
    for later safe disposal                       foodstuffs or animal feed              avoiding polluted run-off from the site

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                                NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Camphechlor is not readily                    UN No. 2761, 2762, 2995, 2996
    decomposed chemically or biologically
    and is relatively persistent;
    waste material should be burned               National Occupational Exposure Limit:
    in a proper incinerator designed
    for organochlorine waste disposal;
    if this is not possible, bury in
    an approved dump or landfill where            National Poison Control Centre:
    there is no risk of contamination
    of surface or ground water;
    comply with any local legislation
    regarding disposal of toxic wastes            Local trade names:

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                         
    
    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other United Nations sources.  Its intention is to give the
    reader a representative but not exhaustive overview of current
    regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  The regulations and
    guidelines of all countries are subject to change and should always be
    verified with the appropriate regulatory authorities before
    application.

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    Camphechlor was evaluated by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide
    Residues (JMPR) in 1968 and 1973.  In 1973, the meeting concluded that
    it could not establish an ADI for a material that varied in
    composition according to the method of manufacture.

    IARC (1979) evaluated the carcinogenic hazard resulting from exposure
    to camphechlor and concluded that "there is sufficient evidence that
    toxaphene is carcinogenic in mice and rats.  In the absence of
    adequate data in humans, it is reasonable, for practical purposes, to
    regard toxaphene as if it presented a carcinogenic risk to humans".

    A data sheet on camphechlor (No. 20) is available from WHO/FAO
    (1975-89) in their series "Data Sheets on Pesticides".

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pp. 26-30.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    The use and sale of toxaphene for agriculture is prohibited in the
    EEC, Singapore, and Thailand.  It cannot be imported in Singapore or
    Thailand.  Its registration is prohibited in Ecuador.  In the German
    Democratic Republic, it must not be used to treat crops that will be
    fed to milking-cows or on certain food plants.  In Switzerland and
    Yugoslavia, its use is severely restricted.

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, toxaphene is prohibited for use as
    a plant protectant, but can be used in a restricted way to treat farm
    animals against parasites.  In the USA, most uses of toxaphene have
    been cancelled and farms producing certain types of tobacco must file
    a report showing when the substance was applied.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classified camphechlor in:

    - Hazard Class 6.1:           poisonous substance

    - Packing Group III:          a substance presenting a relatively low
                                  risk of poisoning in transport
                                  (camphechlor concentrations 40% solid or
                                  15% liquid)

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    The bottom half of the label should bear the inscription:

          harmful, stow away from foodstuffs.



        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Workplace           Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        (skin absorption)                            0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)

                                    Germany,            Maximum worksite concentration (MAK)
                                      Federal           - 8-h time-weighted average (TWA)            0.5 mg/m3            1985
                                      Republic of       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           5 mg/m3
                                                        (30 min, average value, 1  /shift)
                                                        (cutaneous absorption) (applies
                                                        when containing 60% chlorine)

                                    Finland             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1986 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    Italy               Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        (skin absorption)                            0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)
                                                        (carcinogen)

    AIR         Workplace           Netherlands         Maximum limit
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    Romania             Maximum permitted concentration (MPC)                             1986 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.3 mg/m3
                                                        - Ceiling value                              0.5 mg/m3

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Workplace           Switzerland         Maximum worksite concentration (MAK)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    USA                 Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                                  1974
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    USA                 Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1984
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3
                                                        - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           1 mg/m3
                                                        (skin absorption)

                                    Yugoslavia          Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1986 (r)

    AIR         Ambient             USSR                Preliminary safety level                                          1983
                                                        - 1  /day                                   0.007 mg/m3

    WATER       Ambient             Mexico              Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1973
                                                        - In receiving waters used for               0.005 mg/litre
                                                          drinking-water supply with 
                                                          conventional treatment as well as with
                                                          disinfection only and recreation
                                                        - In coastal waters                                               0.003 mg/litre
                                                        - In estuaries                               0.03 mg/litre

    WATER       Surface             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1973
                                                        - Surface water for fishing                  0 mg/litre

    WATER       Drinking-           USA                 Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1981
                                                        - Bottled water intended for human           0.005 mg/litre
                                                          consumption

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FEED                            USSR                Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1981
                                                        - dairy cattle                               0 mg/kg
                                                        - fattening cattle                           0.25 mg/kg

    FEED/FOOD                       USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
                                                          (interim tolerance limits in/on
                                                          raw agricultural products)
                                                        - in milk                                    0.05 mg/kg           1981
                                                        - in alfalfa hay                             1 mg/kg

    FEED/FOOD                       USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)                                    1981
                                                          (raw agricultural products)
                                                        - In specified plant and animal              0.1-7 mg/kg
                                                          products

    FOOD                            Brazil              Acceptable limit
                                                        - Plant (specified)                          0.3-7 mg/kg          1980
                                                        (safety interval: 30 days)

    FOOD        Animal              EEC                 Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1978
                                                        - Plant (general)                            0.4 mg/kg

                                    FAO/WHO             Guideline level
                                                        - Fat of meat of specified animals           5 mg/kg              1978
                                                        - Specified plant products                   0.5-2 mg/kg
                                                        - Milk and milk products (fat bases)         0.5 mg/kg

                                    Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1984 
                                      Federal           - Specified animal origin                    0.4 mg/kg
                                      Republic of       (mg/kg lipid weight of 
                                                        toxaphene with 67-69% chlorine)
                                                        - Plant (specified)                          0.4 mg/kg
                                                        - Plant (general)                            0.1 mg/kg
                                                        (applies to chlorinated camphene
                                                        with 67-69% chlorine)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    Kenya               Maximum limit
                                                        - Special food products                      2-7 mg/kg            1978

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
                                                        - In soybean oil                             6 mg/kg              1981

                                    USSR                Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1983
                                                        - Specified food products                    0.1 mg/kg
                                                        (pesticide prohibited in some
                                                        food products)

    GOODS                           Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1984
                                      Federal           - In tobacco                                 5 mg/kg
                                      Republic of         (applies to chlorinated camphene
                                                          with 67-69% chlorine)

    SOIL                            USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)        0.5 mg/kg            1973

                                                                                                                                         
    
    The FAO specifications for plant protection products for camphechlor
    (technical product and formulations) advise on the composition and
    purity of camphechlor and methods for checking.

    The technical product shall be chlorinated camphene containing 67-69%
    chlorine and should be an amber-coloured, opaque wax, free from
    extraneous impurities or added modifying agents, unless otherwise
    stated.

    European Economic Community legislation requires labelling as a
    dangerous substance, using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          irritating to eyes and skin; keep out of reach of children; keep
          away from food, drink, and animal feeding stuffs.  If you feel
          unwell, seek medical advice (show label where possible).

    European Community legislation classifies camphechlor in Class 11b for
    the purposes of determining the label for pesticide preparations
    containing camphechlor and other active ingredients. When solid, they
    should be labelled "toxic" at concentrations greater than 33% and
    "harmful" at concentrations between 1.7% and 33%; when liquid or
    gaseous, they should be labelled "toxic" at concentrations greater
    than 20% and "harmful" at concentrations between 1% and 20%.  Member
    States should ensure that pesticides cannot be placed on the market
    unless their packaging, fastenings, and labels comply with the
    requirements laid down.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, camphechlor (technical mixture and formulations) is
    classified as a toxic pollutant for which the US Environmental
    Protection Agency has set effluent limitations and pretreatment
    standards; permits are required for discharge from any point source
    into national waters.  Hazardous waste incinerators must achieve
    99.99% destruction for this substance.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)   Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)   Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)   Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986a)   International code of conduct on the distribution and
     use of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986b)   Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues.  Part 8.   Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues. 3rd ed. Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)   Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)   Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)   Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)   Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides.
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)   IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)   IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)   IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)   Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (unpublished document WHO/VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)   Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)   Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)   Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols. Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Departmnent of Labor (Publication No. DHSS(NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1984)   Environmental Health Criteria 45: Camphechlor. Geneva,
    World Health Organization.

    WHO  (1986)   The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard and guidelines to classification 1988-89. Geneva, World
    Health Organization (unpublished document WHO/VBC/88.953).

    WHO/FAO  (1975-89)   Data sheets on pesticides. Geneva, World Health
    Organization (unpublished documents).

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)   The pesticide manual. 7th ed.
    Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Camphechlor (EHC 45, 1984)
       Camphechlor (ICSC)