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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 41

    CHLORDECONE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1990


    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 43:
    Chlordecone

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the
    United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour
    Organisation, and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Chlordecone : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 41)

    1. Kepone - standards  I. Series

    ISBN 92 4 151041 2          (NLM Classification: WA 240)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1990

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Kinetics and metabolism
         2.3. Effects on animals
         2.4. Effects on human beings
         2.5. Effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                     4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning
                     4.1.1.2  Medical advice
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Safety in use
         4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.3.1. Explosion hazards
              4.3.2. Fire hazards
         4.4. Storage
              4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.5. Transport
         4.6. Spillage and disposal
              4.6.1. Spillage
              4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
         5.1. Hazards
         5.2. Prevention

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Prevous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  chlordecone

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Molecular formula:            C10Cl10O

    Common trade names:           GC 1189, Kepone, Merex

    Common synonyms:    decachloro-pentacyclo[5,2,1,02,6,03,9,05,8]-
                        decan-4-one; decachloro-octahydro-1,3,4-
                        metheno- 2H,5H-cyclobuta [cd]-pentalen-2-one

    CAS chemical name:  1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-
                        metheno- 2H-cyclobuta [cd]pentalen-2-one

    CAS registry number:          143-50-0

    Relative molecular mass:      490.6

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Chlordecone is a tan- to white-coloured solid that sublimes with some
    decomposition at 350C.  Its vapour pressure is less than 3  10-7
    at 25C.

    In the anhydrous form, chlordecone is soluble in organic solvents,
    such as benzene and hexane. Oxygenated solvents, such as alcohols and
    ketones, are recommended for the hydrated form.  Chlordecone is also
    soluble in light petroleum and can be recrystallized from 85-90%
    aqueous ethanol.  It is readily soluble in acetone.

    Chlordecone is an extremely stable compound and is not expected to be
    degraded in the environment to any significant extent.  Microbial 
    action has been shown to transform chlordecone into monohydro- and
    possibly dihydrochlordecone.

    Technical grade chlordecone contains from 88.6% to 99.4% chlordecone,
    3.5-6% water, and 0.1% hexachlorocyclopentadiene.  It has been
    formulated as a wettable powder (50% chlordecone), emulsifiable
    concentrates, granules, and dust.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Gas chromatography with electron capture detection is the method most
    widely used for the determination of chlordecone.

    1.4  Uses

    Chlordecone was used as an insecticide and as a base material in the
    manufacture of the insecticide kelevan.  Recently, the use of
    chlordecone has become increasingly restricted, and it has been banned
    in several countries (section 7.3).

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    Exposure of the general population through the normal use of
    chlordecone can be regarded as minimal and is mainly related to
    residues in food.

    Small children may be exposed when playing with insect traps.

    2.2  Kinetics and Metabolism

    Chlordecone is readily absorbed following ingestion by animals and
    human beings.  It is also absorbed following inhalation and dermal
    exposure.  It is widely distributed in the body; accumulation occurs
    principally in the liver.  The half-life in the body is of the order
    of several months and elimination is slow, mainly via the faeces.

    2.3  Effects on Animals

    Chlordecone was moderately toxic in acute studies on rats, the oral
    LD50 values ranging from 95 to 132 mg/kg body weight.  It
    accumulates in the body.

    Toxic effects following repeated exposure include neurological
    symptoms, especially tremors, liver hypertrophy (at 10 mg/kg body
    weight per day) with enzyme induction (at 1 mg/kg diet in the rat, the
    lowest dose tested), centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, and
    hepatobiliary dysfunction.  It can impair reproduction (mouse,
    10 mg/kg diet or 0.5 mg/kg body weight per day, lowest dose level
    tested) and is fetotoxic (rat, 2 mg/kg body weight per day).  A
    no-adverse-effect level has not been identified.

    Chlordecone was not generally active in short-term tests for genetic
    activity.

    Chlordecone produces hepatocellular carcinomas in both sexes in mice
    and rats.

    2.4  Effects on Human Beings

    A large number of cases of occupational poisoning were reported in a
    manufacturing plant where work hygiene and safety precautions were
    insufficient.  Neurological symptoms, especially nervousness and
    tremors, together with oligospermia and joint pains were reported.

    2.5  Effects on the Environment

    The environmental hazard posed by chlordecone is associated with its 
    stability and persistence in sediments, which provide a long-term
    source of contamination, together with its massive bioaccumulation in
    aquatic food chains.  One of the largest reserves of chlordecone in
    food is found in the edible portion of contaminated fish.  Although
    chlordecone is only slightly soluble in water, levels of between 0.35
    and 1 g/litre are sufficient to reduce algal growth, thereby
    affecting productivity at other trophic levels.  Chlordecone is
    acutely and chronically toxic for aquatic invertebrates and causes
    loss of equilibrium, reduction in reproductive success, and decreased
    shell growth at sublethal concentrations.  Reduction in mysid
    populations due to low-level chlordecone contamination has important
    consequences for fish productivity.  Symptoms of exposure range from
    diminished activity and emaciation to abnormal development and death.

    The few data available indicate that chlordecone is not acutely toxic
    for terrestrial invertebrates.  Subacute doses of chlordecone induce
    significant toxic effects in birds including tremors, liver damage,
    and reproductive failure.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    1.  Serious illness has been suffered by workers occupationally
    overexposed to chlordecone.

    2.  On the basis of the findings in mice and rats, this chemical
    should be considered, for practical purposes, as being potentially
    carcinogenic for human beings.

    3.  For the above reason, reservations must remain about the
    occurrence of residues of chlordecone in food.

    4.  Adverse effects on the organisms studied, as well as persistence,
    suggest that chlordecone presents a long-term hazard for the
    environment.

    5.  Taking into account these considerations, it is felt that the use
    of this chemical should be discouraged, except where there is no
    adequate alternative.

    3.2  Recommendations

    1.  Careful surveillance should be maintained over the future
    production of chlordecone and the nature and extent of its use.

    2.  The levels in the environment should continue to be monitored.

    3.  It is desirable that a long-term follow-up study should be
    conducted on workers whose health has been affected by chlordecone.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        RESPONSE

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Chlordecone is an organochlorine insecticide.  It is toxic and can be
    hazardous for human beings if incorrectly or carelessly handled.  It
    is therefore essential that the correct precautions should be observed
    during handling and use. 

    For details, see the International Chemical Safety Card (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning

    Chlordecone is toxic by mouth, by skin contact (especially liquid
    formulations), and by inhalation of dust from powder concentrates.  It
    acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system.

    Following accidental ingestion or overexposure, symptoms may include
    headache, nervousness, dizziness, nausea, joint pains, weakness in the
    legs, tremors, and convulsions.

    Organochlorine compounds can cause respiratory depression.  They also
    sensitize the heart to endogenous catecholamines leading to
    ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest in severe cases.

    Respiratory depression may lead to metabolic acidosis and, if
    necessary, blood gases should be checked.  The use of an ECG monitor
    is recommended if the symptoms are severe.

    4.1.1.2  Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive and directed
    against convulsions and anoxaemia. Because many liquid formulations
    contain hydrocarbon solvent, vomiting should not be induced and
    emetics are contraindicated.  If swallowed, the stomach should be
    emptied as soon as possible by careful gastric lavage (with a cuffed
    endotracheal tube), avoiding aspiration into the lungs.  This should
    be followed by intragastric administration of 3-4 tablespoons of
    activated charcoal and 30 g magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate in a
    30% aqueous solution.  Oily purgatives are contraindicated.  Fats,
    oils, or milk should not be given.

    If convulsions occur, anti-convulsants should be given, e.g., diazepam
    10 mg, slowly intravenously (children 1-5 mg), repeated as necessary;
    or thiopental sodium, or hexobarbital sodium, slowly intravenously, in
    a dose of 10 mg/kg with a maximum total dose of up to 750 mg for an
    adult.  On account of their short action, these barbiturates should
    always be followed by phenobarbital given orally at 3 mg/kg (up to
    200 mg for an adult), or phenobarbital sodium given intramuscularly at
    3 mg/kg (also up to 200 mg for an adult).

     Morphine and its derivatives, epinephrine and noradrenaline, should
    never  be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained. Oxygen and/or artificial
    respiration may be necessary.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Pre-employment and annual general medical examinations are advised for
    regularly exposed workers.  Special attention should be paid to liver
    and testicular function.

    4.2  Safety in Use

    Handling liquid formulations:      Wear protective neoprene or PVC
                                       gloves, cotton overalls, rubber
                                       boots, and faceshield

    Handling powder formulations:      Avoid raising a dust cloud; wear
                                       protective gloves and dust mask;
                                       follow the advice relating to
                                       personal hygiene

    4.3  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.3.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation, or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid products containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, chlordecone will
    decompose, emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters should wear a
    self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    Confine the use of water spray to the cooling of unaffected stock,
    thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the site.

    4.4  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated to
    insecticides.

    Keep products out of reach of children and unauthorized personnel.  Do
    not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection.  Empty any
    product remaining in damaged/leaking containers into a clean empty
    drum, which should then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for powders),
    and dispose of safely.

    Emptied leaking liquid containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Do not re-use
    containers for any other purpose.  Puncture the container to prevent
    re-use.

    4.5  Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding movements of hazardous
    goods. Do not transport with feed or foodstuffs.  Make sure that
    containers are in good condition and labels undamaged before despatch.

    4.6  Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required and appropriate personal protection should be used.

    Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo and
    vegetation, and avoid pollution of surface waters and ground water by
    using the most suitable available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep up and place
    in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place for
    disposal.

    As soon as possible after the spillage, and before re-use of the area,
    cover all contaminated sites with damp sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep
    up and place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe
    place for disposal.  Care should be taken to avoid run-off into
    surface waters or drains.

    4.6.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, contaminated absorbents and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Chlordecone is not readily
    decomposed chemically or biologically and is relatively persistent. 
    Waste material should be burned only in a proper incinerator designed
    for organochlorine waste disposal (1000C and 30-min residence time,
    with effluent gas scrubbing).  If this is not possible, bury in an
    approved dump or landfill where there is no risk of contamination of
    surface or ground water.  Comply with any local legislation regarding
    disposal of toxic wastes.

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    5.1  Hazards

    Chlordecone is an extremely persistent organochlorine insecticide,
    that bioaccumulates massively in aquatic food-chains.  Adverse effects
    on the organisms studied indicate that it presents a long-term hazard
    for the environment.

    5.2  Prevention

    Industrial discharges from manufacturing, formulation, and technical
    applications should not be allowed to pollute the environment and
    should be treated properly.

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and  users of, chlordecone.  It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas  where there is potential exposure to
     chlordecone, and on processing equipment and containers.  The card
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s). All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for the insertion of the National 
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the
     National Poison Control Centre and for local trade names.


        CHLORDECONE

    CAS chemical name: 1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno- 2H-cyclobuta [cd]pentalen-2-one

    CAS registry number: 143-50-0

    RTECS registry number: PC8575000

    Molecular formula: C10Cl10O

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Melting point, sublimates at (C)             350                     Chlordecone (Kepone) is a tan- to white-coloured
    Vapour pressure (mmHg at 25C)                3  10-7                solid; it is an extremely stable compound that is
    Relative molecular mass                       490.6                   not expected to be degraded in the environment to
    Solubility:                                                           any significant extent; chlordecone has been used
      in water (mg/litre)                         0.35-1 (low)            as an insecticide, but recently its use has become 
      in acetone                                  readily soluble         increasingly restricted
        the anhydrous form is soluble 
          in benzene and hexane
        the hydrated form is soluble 
          in alcohols and ketones

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    GENERAL: Potential human
    carcinogen: on repeated exposure
    chlordecone can accumulate in the
    body

    SKIN: Overexposure may cause            Avoid skin contact; wear                     Remove contaminated clothing 
    poisoning                               protective clothing, PVC or                  immediately; wash skin with water and soap
                                                                                         neoprene gloves, rubber boots

    EYES: Irritation, redness               Wear faceshield or goggles                   Flush with clean water for 15 min; if
                                                                                         irritation persists, seek medical
                                                                                         attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate           Wear dust mask

    INGESTION: Unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink, or smoke
    hazard                                  during work; wash hands before 
                                            eating, drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or intentional ingestion                                                  Obtain medical attention immediately; do not
    may cause poisoning                                                                  induce vomiting; keep patient at rest, lying 
                                                                                         face downward; ensure clear airway; fat,
                                                                                         milk, or oil should not be given

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for aquatic          Do not spill on animal feed or
    and terrestrial life; bioaccumulates    in waterways

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                    STORAGE                              FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal                   Products should be stored in         Liquid products will burn and emulsifiable
    precautions; prevent liquid                 locked buildings, preferably         concentrates are miscible with water;
    from spreading or contaminating             dedicated to insecticides;           extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant
    other cargo, vegetation, or                 keep products out of reach of        foam, carbon dioxide, or powder; with
    waterways, by making a barrier of the       children and unauthorized            sufficient burning or external heat, 
    most suitable available material,           personnel; do not store near         chlordecone will decompose, emitting toxic fumes;
    e.g., earth or sand; absorb spilled         foodstuffs or animal feed            the smoke and fumes could be injurious 
    liquid with sawdust, sand, or                                                    through inhalation or absorption through the 
    earth; sweep up and                                                              skin; therefore, fire-fighters should wear 
    place it in a closeable container                                                protective clothing and self-contained breathing
    for later safe disposal                                                          apparatus; confine the use of water spray
                                                                                     to the cooling of unaffected stock, thus
                                                                                     avoiding polluted run-off from the site

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                                                       NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Chlordecone is not readily decomposed chemically                     National Occupational Exposure Limit: 
    or biologically and is extremely persistent; waste  
    material should be burned in a proper incinerator  
    designed for organochlorine waste disposal; if 
    this is not possible, bury in an approved                            National Poison Control Centre:
    dump or landfill where there is no risk of   
    contamination of surface or ground water; 
    comply with any local legislation regarding
    disposal of toxic wastes                                             Local trade  names:

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  Its intention is to give the reader a
    representative but not exhaustive overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country. Furthermore, the
    regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and
    should always be verified with the appropriate regulatory authorities
    before application.

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    IARC (1979) evaluated the carcinogenic hazard resulting from exposure
    to chlordecone and concluded that "there is sufficient evidence for
    its carcinogenicity in mice and rats.  In the absence of adequate data
    in humans, it is reasonable, for practical purposes, to regard
    chlordecone as if it presented a carcinogenic risk to humans".

    No acceptable daily intake (ADI) for chlordecone has been established
    by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues.

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    The US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    recommended an exposure limit of 1 g/m3 for 15 minutes in 1976, and
    the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established action levels
    for chlordecone for finfish, shellfish, and crabs of 0.3, 0.3, and
    0.4 mg/kg (ppm), respectively.

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    The use of chlordecone has been banned in, among others, Belgium, the
    Federal Republic of Germany, Singapore, Sweden, the United Kingdom,
    and the USA.  Its use has been severely restricted in, among others,
    the German Democratic Republic and Venezuela.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    European Community legislation requires the labelling of chlordecone
    as a dangerous substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 2

    The label must read:

          Toxic in contact with the skin and if swallowed; possible risks
          of irreversible effects; do not breath dust; wear suitable
          protective clothing and gloves.  If you feel unwell, seek
          medical advice (show the label where possible).

    European Community legislation classifies chlordecone in Class 1c for
    the purposes of determining the label for pesticide preparations
    containing chlordecone and other active ingredients. When solid they
    should be labelled "toxic" at concentrations greater than 33% and
    "harmful" at concentrations between 1.7% and 33%; when liquid or
    gaseous, they should be labelled "toxic" at concentrations greater
    than 20% and "harmful" at concentrations between 1% and 20%.  Member
    states should ensure that pesticides cannot be placed on the market
    unless their packaging, fastenings, and labels comply with the
    requirements laid down.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, chlordecone is identified as a "toxic waste", subject to
    handling, transport, treatment, storage, disposal, permit, and
    notification requirements.  An owner or operator of a hazardous waste
    incinerator must achieve 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency for
    this substance.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)   Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)   Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)   Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986)   International code of conduct on the distribution and
     use of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)   Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)   Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)   Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
     pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
    Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)   Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides.
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)   IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)   IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)   IRPTC legal file 1986. Geneva, International Register
    of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)   Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (unpublished document WHO/VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)   Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)   Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)   Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vols. Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
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    WHO  (1984)   EHC 43: Chlordecone, Geneva, World Health Organization.

    WHO  (1988)   The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
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    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)   The pesticide manual. 7th ed.
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Chlordecone (EHC 43, 1984)
       Chlordecone (ICSC)
       Chlordecone (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 20, 1979)