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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 54

    LINDANE
    (Gamma-HCH)
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE





    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 124:
    Lindane

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Lindane (gamma-HCH) : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 54)

    1. Benzene hexachloride - standards  I. Series

    ISBN 92 4 151054 4          (NLM Classification: WA 240)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1991

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation
         2.2. Environmental levels and human exposure
         2.3. Kinetics and metabolism
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
              3.1.1. General population exposure
              3.1.2. Subpopulations at special risk
              3.1.3. Occupational exposure
              3.1.4. Environmental effects
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                     4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning
                     4.1.1.2  Medical advice
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Safety in use
         4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.3.1. Explosion hazards
              4.3.2. Fire hazards
         4.4. Storage
              4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.5. Transport
         4.6. Spillage and disposal
              4.6.1. Spillage
              4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  lindane

    Chemical structure:
                                                         gamma-
                                                         isomer
    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Chemical formula:             C6H6Cl6

    Relative molecular mass:      290.85

    CAS chemical name:            1 alpha, 2 alpha, 3, 4 alpha, 5 alpha,
                                  6-hexachlorocyclohexane

    CAS registry number:          58-89-9

    RTECS registry number:        GV4900000

    Definitions:

      Name        Definition             Remarks

      Lindane     Product containing     ISO-AFNOR (name for a product
                  not less than 99%      not yet recognized by BSI)
                  gamma-HCH

      Lindane     = gamma-HCH            Common name used for gamma-HCH
                                         in the USSR only

      gamma-HCH   gamma isomer of        ISO-AFNOR common name
                  1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-
                  chlorocyclohexane

      gamma-BHC   gamma isomer of        ISO BSI common name in English-
                  1,2,3,4,5,6-benzene    speaking countries (recognized by
                  hexachloride           ISO as synonym of gamma-HCH)

    According to IUPAC rules the designation "benzene hexachloride" is
    incorrect.  Nevertheless, it is still widely used, especially in the
    form of its abbreviation BHC.  Therefore, gamma-BHC is another common
    name that is approved by the ISO.  The compound is called gamma-HCH by
    the World Health Organization (WHO), but gamma-BHC by the Food and
    Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).  The synonym
    hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-isomer) is used by the Environmental
    Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Conference of Governmental
    Hygienists (ACGIH) in the USA.

     Technical product

    Common trade name:       Large numbers of products containing lindane
                             are on the market throughout the world, under
                             hundreds of trade names; no attempt has been
                             made to list them.

    Purity:                  In the past, the percentage of impurities in
                             technical lindane varied according to the
                             source.  The isomers, alpha- and -HCH, were
                             the major impurities that occurred (see
                             Health and Safety Guide No. 53).

                             Nowadays, many countries, international
                             organizations, and manufacturers have set
                             strict purity requirements.  The FAO
                             specification requires that technical lindane
                             should contain not less than 99.0% gamma-HCH. 
                             For more details, see section 7.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Lindane is a white, crystalline solid, with a weak, or no, odour (the
    characteristic smell of technical HCH is attributed to the impurities,
    particularly heptachlorocyclohexane).

    Some physical and chemical properties are given in the Summary of
    Chemical Safety Information (section 6).

    Lindane is stable to light, air, heat, carbon dioxide, and strong
    acids. Dehydrochlorination of the compound may occur in the presence
    of alkali, or on prolonged exposure to heat, forming trichlorobenzenes
    and hydrochloric acid.  Lindane is incompatible with strong bases and
    powdered metals, such as iron, zinc, and aluminium.  It is also
    incompatible with oxidizing agents and can undergo oxidation, when in
    contact with ozone.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Lindane can be determined separately from the other isomers after
    extraction by liquid/liquid partition, column chromatography, and
    detection by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.  The
    high sensitivity of the analytical methods leads to the identification
    of residue levels in the nanogram/kg or litre range.

    1.4  Uses

    Lindane has been used, since the early 1950s, as a broad-spectrum
    insecticide for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. It
    has been used in seed treatment, soil treatment, foliar applications,
    the treatment of forests, timber, stored materials or products, and
    against ectoparasites on animals and in public health.

    In 1984, the global production amounted to 5000 metric tonnes.

    In Japan, all use of HCH was prohibited in 1971.  Several other
    countries, e.g., the USA, have more or less severely restricted the
    use of lindane, and specified the purity of the material to be used
    (see section 7).

    Lindane is offered to end-users in numerous formulations.  The most
    important of these are: wettable powders (up to 90% a.i.),
    emulsifiable concentrates (not more than 20% a.i.), flowable
    suspensions (in water), solutions in organic solvents (up to 50%
    a.i.), dusts and powders (0.5-2% a.i.), granules and coarse dusts
    (3-4% a.i.), ready-for-use baits, aerosols, and special formulations
    for use in human and veterinary medicine.

    Various lindane fumigation preparations for indoor use have been sold,
    including fumigation strips, tablets, and smoke generators.  They
    contained practically pure lindane to which a small quantity of
    binding material was added.

    Lindane is often used in mixed formulations with other insecticides or
    fungicides.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Environmental Transport, Distribution, and Transformation

    Lindane is strongly adsorbed on soils with a high organic matter
    content.  However, it can move downwards through the soil profile as a
    result of rainfall or artificial irrigation, and there are strong
    indications that volatilization is an important route of dissipation
    under tropical, high-temperature conditions.

    Rapid degradation (dechlorination) of lindane occurs on exposure to
    ultraviolet radiation (UVR), forming pentachlorocyclohexenes
    (gamma-PCCH) and tetrachlorocyclohexenes.

    The half-life for the environmental degradation of lindane, under
    humid or submerged conditions, and field conditions varied from a few
    days up to 3 years, depending on various factors, such as soil type,
    climate, and depth of application, among others.  In European
    agricultural soils, the half-life ranged between 40 and 70 days.

    Biodegradation is much faster in non-sterilized soil than in
    sterilized soil.  Anaerobic conditions are most favourable for the
    microbial metabolization of lindane.  In water, degradation is mostly
    by microorganisms in the sediments.  The same degradation products are
    formed.

    The uptake and translocation of lindane and gamma-PCCH in plants is
    limited, especially in soils with a high content of organic matter. 
    Residues are mainly found in the roots, only a small portion, if any,
    being translocated into the stems, leaves, or fruits.

    Rapid bioconcentration takes place in microorganisms, invertebrates,
    fish, birds, and man, but biotransformation and elimination also occur
    quite rapidly, when exposure is discontinued.  In aquatic organisms,
    uptake from water is more important than uptake from food.  The
    bioconcentration factors in aquatic organisms under laboratory
    conditions ranged from approximately 10 up to 6000.  Under field
    conditions, the bioconcentration factors ranged from 10 up to 2600.

    2.2  Environmental Levels and Human Exposure

    Lindane is found in the air above the oceans, in concentrations of
    0.039-0.68 ng/m3.  In some countries, lindane was present in air in
    concentrations of up to 11 ng/m3.

    Lindane concentrations in surface water, estimated in a number of
    countries in Europe, were mainly below 0.1 g/litre.  The
    concentration of lindane in the Rhine and its tributaries in the
    period 1969-74 varied between 0.01 and 0.4 g/litre.  Since 1974,
    levels have been below 0.1g/litre.  In seawater, levels of between
    0.001 and 0.02 g/litre have been found.

    Various studies have shown that concentrations of lindane in soil are
    generally low (in the range of 0.001-0.01 mg/kg), except in waste
    disposal areas.

    Fish and shellfish contain gamma-HCH at concentrations ranging from
    undetectable up to 2.5 mg/kg (on a fat basis), depending on such
    factors as whether the organisms are living in fresh- or seawater and
    whether they have a low or high fat content.

    Total HCH concentrations were determined in ringed seals in the
    Canadian Arctic over the period 1972-84.  The mean concentrations in
    the seals, which were initially approximately 130 g/kg, increased,
    during the period, to over 300 g/kg blubber (wet weight).  Levels of
    about 330 and 440 g/kg (wet weight) were found in the adipose tissue
    of polar bears, in 1982 and 1984, respectively.

    The levels of lindane in the livers of predator birds varied between
    0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg.  Eggs of sparrowhawks, collected in 1972-73 in the
    Federal Republic of Germany, showed levels ranging from 0.6 up to
    11.1 mg/kg (on a fat basis).

    In drinking-water, lindane concentrations are generally below
    0.001 g/litre.  Higher levels have been detected in only in a few
    cases.

    In industrialized countries, more than 90% of the human intake of
    lindane originates from food.  During the past 25 years, the lindane
    concentrations have been determined in several food items, in a great
    number of countries. Concentrations in cereals, fruits, vegetables,
    pulses, and vegetable oils, were mainly in the range of undetectable
    up to 0.5 mg/kg product.  In milk, fat, meat, and eggs, the
    concentrations ranged from undetectable up to 1.0 mg/kg product (on a
    fat basis).  In a few instances, higher concentrations were found.  In
    fish, the concentrations were generally far below 0.05 mg/kg product
    (on a fat basis).

    Total diet and/or market basket studies were carried out in a number
    of countries to estimate the daily human intake of lindane.  Intake
    around 1970 was up to 0.05 g/kg body weight per day; since then a
    gradual decrease has taken place, with an intake of 0.003 g/kg body
    weight per day or less in 1980.  In the mid-seventies, in the USA, the
    daily intake of gamma-HCH by infants and toddlers decreased from 0.005
    to 0.001 g/kg body weight per day and from 0.01 to 0.005 g/kg body
    weight per day, respectively.

    Determination of blood levels of lindane in the general population
    have been carried out in different countries.  In the Netherlands,
    they were of the order of <0.1-0.2 g/litre. However, much higher
    levels were found in a number of other countries using technical HCH.

    The mean concentrations in human adipose tissue, in various countries,
    ranged from <0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg (on a fat basis).

    The average concentrations of lindane found in human milk have
    generally been rather low, ranging from <0.001 up to 0.1 mg/kg (on a
    fat basis).  A clear decrease has been seen over the years.

    Lindane is distributed all over the world and can be detected in the
    air, water, soil/sediment, aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and in
    food.  The concentrations in these different compartments are usually
    low and are gradually decreasing. Thus, though human exposure occurs
    via the daily food intake and lindane has been found in human blood,
    adipose tissue, and breast milk, the figures are gradually decreasing.

    2.3  Kinetics and Metabolism

    In rats, lindane was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
    and distributed to all organs and tissues within a few hours.  The
    highest concentrations were found in the adipose tissue and skin.  The
    fat/blood ratio was of the order of 150-200, the liver/blood ratio,
    5.3-9.6, and the brain/blood ratio, 4-6.5.  The same fat/blood ratio
    was found in inhalation studies on rats. These ratios show a sex
    difference, the ratios being higher in females.

    The uptake of lindane through the skin after dermal application was
    slow and very low, which may explain the low toxicity of lindane
    following dermal exposure.

    Lindane is metabolized by four enzymatic reactions, mainly in the
    liver, i.e., dehydrogenation to gamma-hexachlorocyclohexene,
    dehydrochlorination to gamma-pentachlorocyclohexene, dechlorination to
    gamma-tetrachlorohexene, and hydroxylation to hexachlorocyclohexanol. 
    The end-products of the biotransformation are di-, tri-, tetra-,
    penta-, and hexachloro- compounds.  These metabolites are mainly
    excreted via the urine in the free form or conjugated with glucuronic
    acid, sulfuric acid, or N-acetylcystein.  Elimination is rather rapid,
    with half-life times in the rat of approximately 3-4 days.

    Bacteria and fungi metabolize lindane into tetra- and
    pentachlorocyclohexene.

    The rate of metabolic transformation in plants is low and the main
    degradation pathway proceeds via pentachlorocyclohexene to tri- and
    tetrachlorophenol, and conjugates with -glucose or other unknown
    compounds.

    There is no evidence that isomerization of lindane to alpha-HCH takes
    place.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    The toxicity of lindane for bacteria, algae, and protozoa is low: the
    no-observed-effect level was generally 1 mg/litre.  Effects on fungi
    are variable, with no-observed-effect levels varying among species
    from 1 to 30 mg/litre.  Lindane is moderately toxic for invertebrates
    and fish.  The LC50 and EC50 values for these organisms were of
    the order of 20-90 g/litre.  In short-term and long-term studies on
    3 species of fish, the no-observed-effect level was 9 g/litre. 
    Reproduction studies on 3 species of fish showed no-observed-effect
    levels ranging from 2.1 to 23.4 g/litre.

    The LC50 values for both freshwater and marine crustacea varied
    between 1 and 1100 g/litre.  A reproduction study on  Daphnia magna
    showed a dose-dependent depression of reproduction.  The
    no-observed-effect level was in the range of 11-19 g/litre. 
    Reproduction of molluscs was not adversely affected at 1 mg/litre.

    The LD50 for the honey bee was 0.56 g/bee.

    Acute oral LD50 values for a number of bird species were between 100
    and 1000 mg/kg body weight.  In short-term studies on birds, dose
    levels of between 4 and 10 mg/kg diet did not produce any effects,
    even on egg-shell quality.  Egg production was decreased in laying
    ducks treated with dose levels of up to 20 mg lindane/kg body weight.

    All bats exposed to surface wood scrapings containing initial lindane
    levels of 10-866 mg/m2, resulting from application at the recommended
    rate, died within 17 days.  Lindane at 20 mg/kg diet (the highest dose
    tested) was a no-observed-effect level for mortality and reproductive
    success in small field mammals.

    No data were available on effects on populations and ecosystems.

    2.5  Effects on Experimental Animals and In Vitro Test Systems

    The acute oral toxicity of lindane is moderate, the LD50s for mice
    and rats ranging from 60 to 250 mg/kg body weight, depending on the
    vehicle used.  The dermal LD50 for the rat is approximately
    900 mg/kg body weight.  Signs of poisoning are those of central
    nervous system stimulation.

    Lindane does not irritate or sensitize the skin, however, it is a
    slight eye irritant.

    In a 90-day study on the rat, a no-observed-effect level of 10 mg/kg
    diet (equivalent to 0.5 mg/kg body weight) was established.  At 50 and
    250 mg/kg diet, an increase was seen in the weight of the liver,
    kidneys, and thyroid.  At 250 mg/kg diet, an increase in liver enzyme
    activity also occurred.  In another 90-day study on the rat, 4 mg
    lindane/kg diet (equivalent to 0.2 mg/kg body weight) was a
    no-observed-effect level, renal and hepatic toxicity being observed at
    dose levels of 20 mg/kg diet, or more.  Lindane increases the enzyme
    activity in the liver, accelerating not only its own breakdown, but
    also that of other compounds.  In a 30-day feeding study on the rat,
    no neurological effects were observed with 240 mg lindane/kg diet,
    (equivalent to 12 mg/kg body weight).  However, neurological effects
    were seen when the same dose was administered by gavage.

    A short-term toxicity study on mice was inadequate, and a
    no-observed-effect level could not be established.

    In a study on dogs, a dose-level of 15 mg lindane/kg diet (equivalent
    to 0.6 mg/kg body weight), for 63 weeks, did not induce any effects.

    A large number of parameters were examined in a 2-year study on dogs. 
    However, no substance-related abnormalities were apparent with dietary
    levels of 50 mg/kg (equivalent to 2 mg/kg body weight), or less.  In
    the group administered 100 mg/kg diet, an increase in alkaline
    phosphatase activity was observed, and, at 200 mg/kg diet,
    abnormalities in the EEG tracings, indicative of non-specific neuronal
    irritation, were seen.

    Two old, long-term rat studies have been reported in which levels of
    10-1600 mg/kg diet were tested.  In one study, the no-observed-effect
    level was 50 mg/kg diet (equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg body weight).  At
    100 mg/kg diet, an increase in liver weight, hepatocellular
    hypertrophy, fatty degeneration, and necrosis were seen.  In the
    second study, a lindane concentration of 25 mg/kg diet (equivalent to
    1.25 mg/kg body weight) did not induce any effects.  With 50 mg/kg
    diet, hepatocellular hypertrophy and fatty degeneration were seen.

    Rats were exposed through inhalation to lindane at 0.02-4.54 mg/m3,
    for 6 h/day, over 3 months.  At the highest dose level, increases in
    hepatic cytochrome P-450 values were observed.  The no-observed-effect
    level in this 3-month study was 4.54 mg/m3.

    Lindane was investigated in tests covering all aspects of reproduction
    (3-generation rat study) as well as embryotoxicity and teratogenicity,
    using oral and/or parenteral applications (oral., sc, ip; mouse, rat,
    dog, pig).  It was found that lindane did not exhibit teratogenic
    properties, after oral and parenteral application (extra ribs were
    regarded as variations).  Fetotoxic and/or maternal toxic effects were
    observed after administration (by gavage) of lindane at 10 mg/kg body
    weight; therefore, 5 mg/kg body weight was the no-observed-effect
    level.

    No effects on reproduction and maturation were seen in the
    3-generation rat study with lindane levels of up to 100 mg/kg diet. 
    However, morphological changes in the liver, indicating enzyme
    induction, occurred in the offspring of the third generation, with
    50 mg/kg diet.  The no-observed-effect level in this test was 25 mg/kg
    diet (equivalent to 1.25 mg/kg body weight).

    The mutagenicity of lindane has been adequately studied.  It has been
    extensively investigated for its ability to produce gene mutations in
    bacteria and mammalian cells, and also in the sex-linked recessive
    lethal assay in  Drosophila melanogaster. Negative results were
    obtained consistently.  The ability of lindane to produce chromosome
    damage and SCEs has also been investigated in mammalian cells, both
     in vitro and  in vivo. Again, negative results were obtained.  The
    results of assays for DNA damage in bacteria were negative.  The
    results of in vivo studies on rats and mice, to investigate covalent
    binding of orally administered lindane to DNA in the liver, were also
    negative.  The very few positive results obtained were due to invalid
    study design and/or unknown lindane qualities.  Overall, lindane
    appears not to have mutagenic potential.

    Studies to define the carcinogenic potential of lindane have been
    carried out on the mouse and rat at dose levels of up to 600 mg/kg
    diet, and up to 1600 mg/kg diet, respectively.  Hyperplastic nodules
    and/or hepatocellular adenomas were found in studies on mice at levels
    of 160 mg/kg diet, or more. In some studies, the dose levels exceeded
    the maximum tolerated dose.  Two studies on mice and one on rats, with
    dose levels of up to 160 mg/kg diet, and 640 mg/kg diet, respectively,
    did not show any increase in the incidence of tumours.

    The results of studies on initiation-promotion, mode of action, and 
    mutagenicity indicate that the tumorigenic response observed with
    gamma-HCH in mice results from a non-genetic mechanism.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    Several cases of fatal poisoning and of non-fatal illness, caused by
    lindane, have been reported.  These were either accidental,
    intentional (suicide), or occurred through gross neglect of safety
    precautions or improper use of medical products containing lindane. 
    Symptomatology included: nausea, restlessness, headache, vomiting,
    tremor, ataxia, tonic-clonic convulsions, and/or changes in the EEG
    pattern.  

    These effects were reversible following cessation of exposure and/or
    symptomatic treatment.

    In spite of the extensive use of lindane over 40 years, only very few
    cases of occupational poisoning have been reported.  Even in workers
    exposed for long periods in both the manufacture and application of
    lindane, only an increase in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes
    of the liver has been occasionally found.

    There is no evidence for a relationship between lindane exposure and
    the occurrence of blood dyscrasias, as has been suggested in some
    publications.

    It can be concluded from a few acute and short-term studies on human
    beings, that a dose level of approximately 1.0 mg/kg body weight does
    not induce poisoning, but that a dose level of 15-17 mg/kg body weight
    will result in severe toxic symptoms.

    Approximately 10% of a dermally applied dose is absorbed through the
    human skin, but more is absorbed when the skin is damaged.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions (lindane >99% gamma-HCH)

    3.1.1  General population exposure

    Lindane is circulating in the environment and is present in
    food-chains, and there is continual human exposure.  However, the
    daily intake and total exposure of the general population is gradually
    decreasing and is clearly below the advised acceptable daily intake
    (ADI), and, thus, of no health concern.

    3.1.2  Subpopulations at special risk

    The exposure of breast-fed babies to lindane in breast milk is
    generally below the ADI and, thus, not a health concern.  Though lower
    levels of exposure would be preferred, this is not a limiting factor
    for the use of natural breast feeding.

    Prescriptions should be strictly followed in the therapeutic use of
    lindane against scabies and for the control of body lice.

    3.1.3  Occupational exposure

    As long as the recommended precautions to minimize worker exposure are
    observed, lindane can be handled safely.

    3.1.4  Environmental effects

    Under recommended conditions of application as wood treatment, lindane
    is toxic to bats roosting in close contact with treated wood.

    Apart from spills in the aquatic environment, there is no evidence to
    suggest that the presence of lindane poses a significant hazard for
    organisms in the environment.

    3.2  Recommendations (lindane >99% gamma-HCH)

    (a)  In order to minimize environmental pollution by other
    HCH-isomers, lindane (>99% gamma-HCH) must be used instead of
    technical HCH.

    (b)  In order to avoid environmental pollution, by-products and
    effluents from the manufacturing of lindane should be disposed of in
    an appropriate way.

    (c)  In disposing of lindane, care should be taken to avoid
    contamination of natural waters and soil.

    (d)  As with other pesticides, proper instructions on application
    procedures and safety precautions should be given to those handling
    lindane.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Lindane is an organochlorine insecticide.  It is moderately toxic and
    can be moderately hazardous for human beings, if incorrectly or
    carelessly handled.  It is rather persistent in the environment.  It
    is therefore essential that the correct precautions should be observed
    in the handling and use of the compound.

    For details see the Summary of Chemical Safety Information (section
    6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning

    Lindane is readily absorbed and toxic after ingestion, by skin contact
    (especially liquid formulations), and by inhalation of dust from
    powder concentrates.  It acts as a stimulant of the central nervous
    system.

    Following accidental ingestion or over-exposure, symptoms may include
    headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness in the legs,
    stimulation of the central nervous system with clonic jerks and
    convulsions, sometimes leading to death.

    Respiratory depression may lead to respiratory acidosis, and, if
    necessary, blood gases should be checked.  The use of an ECG monitor
    is recommended, if the symptoms are severe.

    4.1.1.2  Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive, and directed
    against convulsions and hypoxia.  If swallowed, the stomach should be
    emptied, as soon as possible, by inducing vomiting and/or, when
    possible, by careful gastric lavage.  When the product is mixed with
    an oil or solvent, special care must be taken to avoid aspiration into
    the lungs, and subsequent aspiration pneumonitis.  The best solution
    is careful gastric lavage, using a cuffed endotracheal tube.  Other
    means of gastric decontamination, such as induced vomiting, should
    only be used when a serious life-threatening intoxication is suspected
    and no specialized medical care is available.  This should be followed
    by intragastric administration of up to 50 g (3-4 tablespoons) of
    activated charcoal and 30 g of magnesium or sodium sulfate in a 30%
    aqueous solution.  Oily purgatives are contraindicated.  No fats,
    oils, or milk should be given.

    If convulsions occur, anticonvulsants should be given, e.g., diazepam,
    10 mg slowly, intravenously (children 1-5 mg), repeated as necessary;
    or thiopental sodium, or hexobarbital sodium, slowly, intravenously in
    a dose of 10 mg/kg, with a maximum total dose of up to 750 mg for an
    adult, or paraldehyde (5 ml) by intramuscular injection.  The
    short-acting anti-convulsants should always be followed by
    phenobarbital, given orally at 3 mg/kg (up to 200 mg for an adult), or
    phenobarbital sodium, given intramuscularly at 3 mg/kg (also up to
    200 mg for an adult).  When close monitoring of the respiratory status
    is possible, the dose may be increased, if needed, to suppress
    convulsions.

    Morphine and its derivatives, atropine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline
    should never be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained.  Respiratory inadequacy,
    which may be accentuated by barbiturate anticonvulsants, should be
    corrected, and oxygen and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Pre-employment, and annual general medical examinations are advised
    for regularly exposed workers.

    4.2  Safety in Use

     Manufacture and formulation

    All efforts should be made to control exposure by the enclosure of
    dusty operations, the use of exhaust ventilation, and good
    housekeeping.  Use full protective clothing.

     Handling liquid formulations:

    Wear protective neoprene or PVC gloves, cotton overalls, a rubber
    apron, rubber boots, and a face-shield.

     Handling powder formulations:

    Avoid raising a dust cloud.  Wear protective gloves and an appropriate
    dust mask or respirator.  Follow the advice relating to personal
    hygiene.

     Ground spray application:

    Wear hat or cap, cotton overalls or a long-sleeved cotton shirt, long
    trousers, and boots or shoes. When there is a risk of accidental
    contamination by the spray, an impermeable hood and jacket should also
    be worn.  At all times, avoid exposure to, and inhalation of, the
    spray mist.  Do not spray into the wind.

    Read and observe the instructions applying to the equipment being
    used.  Pay proper regard to wind speed and direction.  Always spray
    downwind.  Do not spray when there are other people immediately
    downwind.

     Applications for termite control in buildings:

    Reduce exposure of the applicator by keeping windows open and by the
    use of portable exhausts in basements.  Wear full protective
    equipment.  Never handle concentrate material in any part of a house
    or building.  Store away from clothing, bedding, dishes, food, and
    animal feed, before application.  Observe re-entry period, where
    applicable.

     After application:

    Ensure that equipment is thoroughly cleaned and stored away ready for
    use the next time.  Carry out any essential maintenance.

    Partly-used containers must be reclosed and returned to storage. 
    Empty containers should be disposed of as advised in section 4.6.2. 
    Change out of working clothes and take a bath or shower.  Launder
    clothing before re-use, keeping separate from household laundry.

    4.3  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.3.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid products containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, lindane will
    decompose, emitting toxic fumes, e.g., phosgene, hydrogen chloride,
    and carbon monoxide.  Fire-fighters should be equipped with
    self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of unaffected
    stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the
    site.

    4.4  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated to
    insecticides.  Keep products out of reach of children and unauthorized
    personnel.  Do not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection.  Empty any
    product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a clean empty
    drum, which should then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.

    Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for powders),
    and dispose of safely.

    When empty, leaky drums should be rinsed three times with at least
    1 litre of water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Puncture or
    crush the container to prevent re-use.

    4.5  Transport

    Comply with any local requirements regarding movement of hazardous
    goods or wastes.  Do not transport in the same compartment as
    foodstuffs or animal feed.  Make sure that containers are in good
    condition and labels undamaged, before despatch.

    4.6  Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken, as
    required, and appropriate personal protection should be used.  Sweep
    up solid products and absorb remaining spilled product with moist
    sawdust, sand, or earth; transfer in suitable container to safe place
    for disposal.  Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other
    cargo and vegetation, and avoid pollution of surface waters and ground
    water by using the most suitable available material, e.g., earth or
    sand.  Since lindane is toxic for fish, care should be taken to avoid
    run-off into surface waters and drains.

    4.6.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, contaminated absorbents, and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Lindane is not readily decomposed
    chemically or biologically and is relatively persistent.  Waste
    material should be burned only in a proper incinerator designed for
    organochlorine waste disposal, with effluent gas scrubbing.  If this
    is not possible, bury in an approved dump or landfill, where there is
    no risk of contamination of surface or ground water, as long as local
    legislation is not contravened.  Puncture and/or crush containers to
    prevent re-use.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Lindane may pose a toxic hazard for aquatic and terrestrial species. 
    It may enter the food chain and give rise to bioaccumulation and
    biomagnification; it is also rather persistent in the environment.  In
    the event of a major environmental contamination incident, appropriate
    monitoring should be carried out.

    Industrial discharges from manufacturing, formulation, and technical
    applications should not be allowed to pollute the environment and
    should be treated properly.

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly.

    6.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

     This summary should be easily available to all health workers 
     concerned with, and users of, lindane. It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     lindane, and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     in the summary clearly explained.

     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
     Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
     Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        LINDANE

    Chemical formula: C6H6Cl6                                                                 CAS registry number: 58-89-9

    CAS chemical name: 1 alpha, 2 alpha, 3, 4 alpha, 5 alpha, 6-hexachlorocyclohexane       RTECS registry number: GV4900000

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Melting point (C)                 112.8                              White crystalline solid; weak chemical odour;  
    Density (20C) (g/ml)              1.85                               stable to light, air, heat, carbon dioxide, 
    Vapour pressure (mmHg) (20C)      3.26 x 10-5                        and strong acids; dechlorination may occur in
    Relative molecular mass            290.85                             the presence of alkali, or on prolonged exposure to
     n-Octanol/water partition                                             heat; corrosive to aluminium; used as a
    coefficient (log Pow)              3.2-3.7                            broad-spectrum insecticide for agricultural and
    Solubility in water                                                   non-agricultural applications
      (mg/litre) (20C)                10 (slightly soluble)
    Solubility in:
      - ethanol                        6.7%
      - mineral oils                   slightly
      - acetone, aromatic, and
        chlorinated solvents           soluble

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: Overexposure may cause             Avoid skin contact, wear                Remove contaminated clothing immediately
    poisoning                                protective clothing, PVC or             and launder before re-use; wash skin with
                                             neoprene gloves, rubber boots           water and soap

    EYES: Irritation, redness                Wear face-shield or goggles             Flush with clean water for 15 minutes; if
                                                                                     irritation persists, seek medical attention

    INHALATION: Dust may                     Wear appropriate dust mask or 
    irritate                                 respirator; use appropriate
                                             ventilation in buildings

    INGESTION: Unlikely                      Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    occupational hazard                      work

    Accidental or intentional                                                        Obtain medical attention immediately; if
    ingestion may cause lethal                                                       gastric lavage is not possible, in a rural
    poisoning                                                                        situation, induce vomiting; keep at rest,
                                                                                     lying face downwards

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for                   Do not spill on animal feed or in
    aquatic and terrestrial life;            water ways
    bioaccumulates

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                 STORAGE                                 FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal                Products should be stored in            Technical material is not flammable;
    precautions; prevent liquid              locked buildings, preferably            liquid formulations may burn; emulsifiable 
    from spreading or contaminating          dedicated to insecticides               concentrates are miscible with water; 
    other cargo, vegetation, or                                                      extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant 
    waterways, with a barrier of the                                                 foam, carbon dioxide, or powder; with 
    most suitable available material,        Keep products out of reach of           sufficient burning or external heat, the 
    e.g., earth or sand; absorb spilled      children and unauthorized               product will decompose, emitting toxic
    liquid with sawdust, sand, or            personnel; do not store near            fumes; the smoke and fumes could be 
    earth; sweep up and place it in a        foodstuffs or animal feed               injurious through inhalation, or absorption
    closeable container for later safe                                               through the skin; therefore, protective 
    disposal                                                                         clothing and self-contained breathing
                                                                                     apparatus will be required; confine the use
                                                                                     of water spray to the cooling of unaffected stock;
                                                                                     polluted water should not be allowed to
                                                                                     pollute the environment, but should be
                                                                                     disposed of properly

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                           NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Lindane is not readily decomposed        National Occupational Exposure          UN No. 2761, 2762, 2995, 2996
    chemically or biologically and is        Limit:
    rather persistent; waste material
    should be burned in a proper  
    incinerator designed for 
    organochlorine waste disposal; 
    if this is not possible, bury in an      National Poison Control Centre:
    approved dump or landfill where there
    is no risk of contamination of surface
    or ground water; comply with any
    local legislation regarding disposal 
    of toxic wastes                          Local Trade Names:

                                                                                                                                         
        7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals,
    taken in a certain country, can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  The regulations and
    guidelines of all countries are subject to change and should always be
    verified with appropriate regulatory authorities before application

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated the
    hexachlorocyclohexanes in 1987 and concluded that, for the technical
    grade and the alpha-isomer, there is sufficient evidence for
    carcinogenicity for animals; evidence is limited for the - and
    gamma-isomers.  There is inadequate evidence for their carcinogenicity
    for human beings.  Hexachlorocyclohexanes were classified in Group 2B.

    WHO (1990) classified technical lindane as "moderately hazardous" in
    normal use (on the basis of an LD50 of 88 mg/kg).

    WHO/FAO (1975) issued a data sheet on lindane (No. 12), dealing with
    labelling, safe handling, transport, storage, disposal,
    decontamination, training, and medical supervision of workers,
    first-aid, and medical treatment.

    Lindane was evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide
    Residues in 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1979, and
    1989.  A maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of lindane in human
    beings was established at 0-0.008 mg/kg body weight by the 1989 Joint
    Meeting.  This value was was based on a no-observed-effect level of:

         -   10 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 0.75 mg/kg body weight per day in
             the rat,

    and

         -   1.6 mg/kg body weight per day in the dog.

    Maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been recommended by the FAO/ WHO
    Codex Committee for more than 35 commodities, ranging from 0.05 mg/kg
    on potatoes to 3 mg/kg on strawberries.  A level of 0.5 mg/kg was
    recommended for most fruit and vegetables.

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values for lindane are given in the Table on pp.
    34-35.

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    In Japan, all uses of HCH and lindane were prohibited in 1971.  The
    main reason was the environmental pollution with alpha-HCH and -HCH
    that resulted from the previous extensive use of technical HCH. 
    Agricultural uses of technical HCH have been prohibited in most
    countries, because of environmental pollution with alpha-HCH and
    -HCH.

    The European Community legislation prohibits the placing on the
    market, and the use, of HCH containing less than 99% of the
    gamma-isomer.  The European Community legislation also prohibits the
    placing on the market of cosmetics containing HCH.

    In several other countries, the use of lindane has been more or less
    severely restricted, e.g., Argentina, Brazil, Czechoslovakia, and the
    USA.

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, lindane may not be handled by
    adolescents or by pregnant or nursing women.


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                   Value               Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Workplace           Argentina           Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1979
                                                        - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           1.5 mg/m3

                                    Germany,            Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)
                                    Federal             - 8-h Time-weighted average (TWA)            0.5 mg/m3            1985
                                    Republic of         - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           5.0 mg/m3
                                                        (30-min) (1 x per shift)

                                    United Kingdom      Maximum exposure limit
                                                        - 8-h Time-weighted average (TWA)            0.5 mg/m3            1985
                                                        - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           1.5 mg/m3
    <>                                                  (10-min Time-weighted average)

                                    USA                 Permissible exposure limit (PEL)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.5 mg/m3            1986

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.05 mg/m3           1983

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0-0.008 mg/kg        1989
                                                        per kg of body weight

    FOOD        Plant               FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        35 food commodities, ranging from....        0.05 to 3 mg/kg      1979


                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FEED                            European            Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                    Community           All feed,                                    0.2 mg/kg            1989
                                                        except fats                                  2 mg/kg

    WATER       Drinking-           WHO                 Guideline level                              0.3 g/litre         1983

    WATER       Drinking-           European            Surface water for the preparation of
                                    Community           drinking-water - total pesticides:
                                                        -Quality A1                                  0.001 mg/litre       1980
                                                        -Quality A2                                  0.0025 mg/litre
                                                        -Quality A3                                  0.005 mg/litre

                                    Mexico              Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1973
                                                        - Receiving water treated for drinking       0.056 mg/litre

                                    USA                 Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)      0.004 mg/litre       1975

    WATER       Ambient             Mexico              Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1973
                                                        - Coastal                                    0.2 g/litre
                                                        - Estuaries                                  0.002 mg/litre

    SOIL                            USSR                Maximum acceptable level                     0.1 mg/kg            1973

                                                                                                                                         

    a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
        7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies lindane in:

    -    Hazard Class 6.1: poisonous substance;

    -    Packing Group III:  substance presenting a relatively low risk of
         poisoning in transport, when the active ingredient ranges from 44
         to 100% (solid) or 15 to 100% (liquid).

    The label should be as follows:

    Class III:

    FIGURE 1

    The FAO specifications for plant protection products for lindane are:
    "... shall consist, essentially, of gamma-BHC as white or nearly white
    granules, flakes, or powder, free from extraneous impurities or added
    modifying agents, and with not more that a faint odour".  FAO further
    requires that it should contain not less than 99.0% gamma-HCH, and
    that the melting point should be at least 112C, not being depressed
    when mixed with an equal amount of pure gamma-HCH.  The acidity
    maximum is 0.15% (calculated as sulfuric acid) and the loss on vacuum
    drying maximum, 0.1%.

    FAO also gives specifications for lindane dusts, dispersible powders,
    solutions, and emulsifiable concentrates.

    According to the WHO publication "Specifications for pesticides used
    in public health", lindane should consist of at least 995 g
    gamma-HCH/kg  and should be in the form of white or near-white
    granules, flakes, or powder, free from extraneous impurities or added
    modifying agents.  Analytical specifications are given, as well as
    analytical methods.

    Lindane should be packed in suitable, clean containers of specified
    quality.  All packages should bear, durably and legibly marked on the
    container, the following:

    -    Manufacturer's name;
    -    Lindane specification;
    -    Batch number and date of test;
    -    Net weight of contents;
    -    Date of manufacture.

    and the following minimum cautionary notice: 

          Keep well away from foodstuffs and animal feed and their
          containers.

    Similar requirements are given for water dispersible powders,
    emulsifiable concentrates, and dustable powders containing gamma-HCH.

    The European Economic Community (EEC) legislation requires the
    labelling of lindane as a dangerous substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 2

    The label must read:

          Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          irritating to eyes and skin; keep out of reach of children; keep
          away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs; if you feel
          unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible).

    The EEC legislation on the labelling of pesticide preparations
    classifies lindane in Class 1c, for the purpose of determining the
    label for preparations containing lindane.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, lindane is classified as a toxic pollutant and acute
    hazardous waste, subject to handling, transport, treatment, storage,
    and disposal regulations and permit and notification requirements.  An
    owner or operator of a hazardous waste incinerator must achieve 99.99%
    destruction and removal efficiency for this substance.  A ground-water
    monitoring system must be installed and levels must be periodically
    reported.

     Aquatic environment

    The EEC legislation has established limit values for the discharge of
    HCH, during normal production, into the aquatic environment.  The
    limit values for emission standards (as of 1 October 1988) are:

                                  g/1000 kg of product   mg/litre water

    HCH production plant                    2                   2
    Lindane extraction plant                4                   2
    Production + extraction plant           5                   2

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986)  International code of conduct on the distribution and use
     of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986)  Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues. Part 8.  Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues, 3rd ed. Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage, and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)  Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides.
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyon, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IPCS/CEC  (1990)  International Chemical Safety Card No. 53: Lindane.
    Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)  IRPTC legal file 1986. Geneva, International Register
    for Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (unpublished document No. VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1989)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 6th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vol., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH) 01-123).

    WHO  (in preparation)  EHC No. 124: Lindane. Geneva, World Health
    Organization.

    WHO  (1990)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard and guidelines to classification 1990-91. Geneva, World
    Health Organization (unpublished document WHO/PCS/90.1).

    WHO  (1990)  Alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexanes (Alpha- and
     beta-HCHs) health and safety guide. Geneva, World Health
    Organization. (Health and safety guide, No. 53)

    WHO/FAO  (1975)  Data sheets on pesticides: No. 12: Lindane. Geneva,
    World Health Organization (unpublished document).

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1987)  The pesticide manual. 8th ed.
    Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Lindane (EHC 124, 1991)
       Lindane (ICSC)
       Lindane (PIM 859)
       Lindane (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Lindane (JMPR Evaluations 2002 Part II Toxicological)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1997 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)