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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 55

    1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 62:
    1,2-Dichloroethane

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    1,2-Dichloroethane : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 55)

    1. Ethylene dichlorides - standards  I. Series

    ISBN 92 4 151055 2          (NLM Classification: QV 633)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1991

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Composition
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Fate of 1,2-dichloroethane
         2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on animals and cell systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.4.1. Explosion hazards
              4.4.2. Fire hazards
              4.4.3. Prevention
              4.4.4. Fire-extinguishing agents
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
              4.7.1. Spillage
              4.7.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.4. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  1,2-dichloroethane

    Molecular formula:            C2H4Cl2

    Chemical structure:
                                       H   H
                                       '   '
                                  Cl - C - C - Cl
                                       '   '
                                       H   H

    Common trade names:           Borer-Sol; Brocide; Destruxol;
                                  Dichlor-emulsion; Dichlor-mulsion; Dutch
                                  Liquid; Dutch Oil; ENT 1656; Gaze
                                  Olefiant

    Common synonyms:              alpha, beta-dichloroethane;
                                  1,2-bichloroethane; ethane dichloride;
                                  ethylene chloride; ethylene dichloride;
                                  1,2-ethylene dichloride;
                                  sym(metric)-dichloroethane

    Abbreviation:                 EDC

    CAS registry number:          107-06-2

    RTECS registry number:        KI0525000

    Conversion factor             1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m3 air, and 
                                  1 mg/m3 = 0.25 ppm 
                                  at 25C and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg)

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    1,2-Dichloroethane is a colourless liquid, with a sweet taste and a
    chloroform-like odour.  Reported odour thresholds are 25-450 mg/m3
    for perception and 162-750 mg/m3 for recognition.  1,2-Dichlorethane
    is a volatile and flammable compound.  When dry, it is stable at
    ordinary temperatures.  In the presence of air, moisture, and light,
    the liquid decomposes slowly.  Some physical and chemical properties
    of 1,2-dichloroethane are given in the Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information (section 6).

    1.3  Composition

    Most commercial 1,2-dichloroethane is 97-99% pure and contains
    approximately 0.1%, by weight, of alkylamines, to inhibit
    decomposition.  Impure 1,2-dichloroethane may contain polychlorinated
    ethanes, and the uninhibited product may also contain chorine and/or
    hydrogen chlorine.

    1.4  Uses

    1,2-Dichloroethane has not been reported to occur naturally.  It is
    used mainly for the synthesis of vinyl chloride.  Other chemicals
    produced from 1,2-dichloroethane are 1,1,1-trichloroethane,
    ethyleneamines, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, and
    tetrachloroethylene.  Small quantities are used as a lead scavenger in
    gasoline, and for solvent and seed fumigant applications.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure

    Human exposure mainly occurs at, and in the vicinity of, production
    facilities, through inhalation and skin contact.  Further human
    exposure to the vapour of this compound can occur, when it is used in
    gasoline, as a solvent, or as a seed fumigant.  Accidental, oral
    intoxication has frequently been reported.  Average concentrations
    near production facilities have been below 40g/m3.  In the air of
    cities, average concentrations of between 0.3 and 6.5 g/m3, with a
    reported maximum of 30 g/m3, have been measured.  Average levels in
    drinking-water are generally below 1 g/litre.  There are no recent
    data on occupational exposure levels.

    2.2  Fate of 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Approximately 0.2% of the total volume of 1,2-dichloroethane produced
    is estimated to be lost to the air, water, and soil (two-thirds from
    production facilities and one-third following dispersive use). 
    Approximately 35% of the emissions of 1,2-dichloroethane, associated
    with the production of the compound itself and end-products, were
    estimated to occur via disposal of heavy ends, the so-called EDC-tars,
    a mixture of low- and high-boiling chlorinated hydrocarbons.  In the
    atmosphere, 1,2-dichloroethane is degraded by sunlight, fairly
    rapidly.  The products of this degradation are oxides of carbon and
    hydrogen chloride.  The process is rapid enough to prevent
    accumulation of the compound in the atmosphere.  Evaporation is the
    major pathway by which 1,2-dichloroethane is lost from water. 
    Chemical degradation and biodegradation are relatively insignificant
    processes.  Bioconcentration is unlikely.

    2.3  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    1,2-Dichloroethane is readily absorbed via the dermal, oral, and
    inhalation routes.  In rodents, it is distributed widely over the
    body, with a preference for adipose tissue and liver, directly after
    oral exposure, and for adipose tissue alone, directly after
    inhalation.  Most of the absorbed chemical is excreted rapidly via the
    urine, mainly as glutathione conjugates, and via the lungs, as carbon
    dioxide or the unchanged compound.

     In vivo, the metabolism of 1,2-dichloroethane appears to be a
    saturable process in rodents.  At low exposure levels, most of the
    body burden is recovered in the form of urinary metabolites.  As
    exposure levels increase, a greater fraction of the compound is
    excreted unchanged via the lungs.

    Metabolism takes place through two known pathways: one via P-450-
    mediated microsomal oxidation and the other via glutathione
    conjugation.  The former pathway involves the formation of
    2-chloroacetaldehyde and 2-chloroethanol.  This pathway does not
    appear to be important in producing DNA damage  in vivo. Reactive
    intermediates, capable of interacting with DNA, are formed when
    1,2-dichloroethane is metabolized via glutathione conjugation.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    Concentrations of between 85 and 550 mg/litre water are lethal for
    half the number of fish exposed for 1-4 days (LC50).  The LC50
    value (1 or 2 days) for  Daphnia magna varies between 250 and
    320 mg/litre.  In a 28-day test with  Daphnia magna, the
    no-observed-effect levels were 11 mg/litre, on the basis of
    reproduction, and 42 mg/litre on the basis of length.  Bioaccumulation
    in fish is unlikely.  Although 1,2-dichloroethane was slightly toxic
    for the aquatic species tested, it does not pose a significant hazard
    for the aquatic environment, except in the case of accident or
    inappropriate disposal.

    1,2-Dichloroethane, at an influent concentration of 258 mg/litre, did
    not affect the treatment efficiency of a bench-scale activated sludge
    system.  In a batch anaerobic assay, 1,2-dichloroethane, at a
    concentration of 2.5 mg/litre, was slightly toxic for the digestive
    process.

    2.5  Effects on Animals and Cell Systems

    Single oral doses of 680 and 850 mg/kg body weight and exposure to
    vapour concentrations of 5100-6666 mg/m3, for 6h, have been shown to
    be lethal for half the number of exposed rats in a population (LD50
    and LC50, respectively). Thus, the compound is slightly toxic,
    according to the scale of Hodge & Sterner.  The LD50 and 6-h LC50
    for mice were 413-489 mg/kg body weight and 1060 mg/m3,
    respectively.

    In an exposure-related inhalation study on rats, no adverse effects
    were observed with a 7-h exposure to 1200 mg/m3.  At higher levels,
    central nervous system depression and an increased mortality rate were
    noted.  Liver and kidney damage was found in most animals that died. 
    After a single oral dose of 615-770 mg/kg body weight, liver damage,
    myocardial oedema, and damage to coronary vessels were observed.

    In 3 short-term inhalation studies, various species were exposed to
    concentrations of between 405 and 3900 mg 1,2-dichloroethane/m3 air,
    for 6 or 7 h per day, and 5 days per week.  Mice and rats appeared to
    be more sensitive than guinea-pigs, rabbits, monkeys, dogs, or cats. 
    The overall no-observed-effect level in the rat, for exposure periods
    ranging from 4 to 9 months, was about 400 mg/m3.  Signs of toxicity,
    including central nervous system depression and death, were observed
    in all species exposed to concentrations of between 1620 and

    3900 mg/m3.  In rats, fatty changes in the liver were observed at
    concentrations from 1540 mg/m3 upwards.  Repeated oral
    administration of 1,2-dichloroethane, at a dose of 300 mg/kg body
    weight, was lethal for rats, and produced necrosis and fatty changes
    in the liver.  No effects were observed in rats when the chemical was
    given orally at 10 mg/kg body weight per day, for 90 days, or at
    150 mg/kg body weight, 5 times per week, for 2 weeks.

    1,2-Dichloroethane causes corneal damage in animals, but no gross skin
    reactions occurred with a patch test on guinea-pigs.  Corneal opacity
    was observed in dogs, following subcutaneous injection.

    1,2-Dichloroethane is weakly mutagenic in  Salmonella typhimurium
    T1535.  A stronger response was obtained after metabolic activation by
    cytosolic glutathione S-transferase.  Mutagenicity also occurs in
    fungi,  Drosophila, and mammalian cells  in vitro. In two human cell
    lines, the incidence of gene mutations was found to increase with
    increasing levels of glutathione S-transferase.  A weak mutagenic
    effect was reported in a spot test on mice.  DNA damage has been
    observed in bacteria, mammalian cells in vitro, and in mammals  in
     vivo. 1,2-Dichloroethane did not induce cell transformation in one
    of two assays, and enhanced virus-induced cell transformation in the
    other.  Negative results were obtained in one dominant-lethal assay
    and in 2 micronucleus assays on mice.

    1,2-Dichloroethane was carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice and Osborne-Mendel
    rats, following oral administration of doses of 50-300 mg/kg body
    weight, given, in oil, by gavage.  The compound produced a
    statistically-significant increase in squamous cell carcinoma of the
    forestomach, haemangiosarcoma, and mammary adenocarcinoma in rats, and
    mammary adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.  In
    inhalation studies on Swiss mice and Sprague Dawley rats, using
    concentrations of up to 607 mg/m3, no increase in tumour incidence
    was reported.  Taking into consideration that cancer has been produced
    in two species of experimental animals and in several target organs,
    it can be concluded that 1,2-dichloroethane is carcinogenic for rats
    and mice, when administered by gavage.

    1,2-Dichloroethane has been found in the fetuses of rats following
    inhalation by the dams. Fetal toxicity was observed in two studies on
    rats at low exposure levels.  However, fetal toxicity could not be
    observed in two other studies on rats and one on rabbits at higher
    exposure levels.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    The first symptoms of acute intoxication in human beings include
    depression of the central nervous system, gastroenteritis, and
    irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract. 
    An interval relatively free of symptoms can be experienced.  The
    intoxication can also lead to cardiovascular insufficiency (often the
    cause of death), blood coagulation disorders, lung oedema, and
    functional abnormalities of the liver and kidneys.

    Quantitative exposure-effect data on human beings are limited to two
    early reports on small groups of occupationally-exposed men.

    Evaluation of these data indicate that repeated inhalation exposure in
    the range of approximately 40-800 mg/m3 may lead to depression of
    the central nervous system and gastrointestinal and liver
    abnormalities.  Because of the limitations of the human data base, it
    is necessary to rely on the data available from animal studies, to
    derive a no-observed-effect level for human beings.  This is possible
    because of the similarity in the spectrum of adverse effects in man
    and laboratory animals.  These effects include central nervous system
    depression, liver, and possibly kidney, abnormalities, lung oedema,
    and cardiovascular disorders.  The dose-response data from animal
    studies include a no-observed-effect level of 400 mg 1,2-
    dichloroethane/m3 air. After considering current human exposure
    levels in air and drinking-water, it can be concluded that, even in
    the context of a worst-case scenario, 1,2-dichloroethane is unlikely
    to present a toxic hazard for the general population, under prevailing
    exposure conditions.

    In the absence of human data, and taking into account that
    1,2-dichloroethane produces a reactive intermediate that alkylates the
    DNA, is weakly positive in a number of in vitro mutagenicity tests,
    and results in the production of both rare and common tumours in rats
    and mice, it would be prudent to consider it as a possible human
    carcinogen.  Therefore, 1,2-dichloroethane should be regarded, for
    practical purposes, as if it presented a carcinogenic risk for man,
    and levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.

    Since there are no human data, it is necessary to rely on the limited
    data available from laboratory animal investigations in evaluating
    human reproduction hazards and teratogenicity.  The weight of evidence
    suggests that exposure to prevailing environmental levels does not
    pose a reproductive or teratogenic hazard.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Taking into account the body of available data, it would be prudent to
    consider 1,2-dichloroethane as a possible human carcinogen and, for
    practical purposes, to regard it as a carcinogenic risk for human
    beings.  Thus, levels in the environment should be kept as low as
    feasible.

    After a single oral or inhalation exposure, 1,2-dichloroethane may
    irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and gastrointestinal and
    respiratory tracts, and may cause systemic changes in the central
    nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and liver in human beings. 
    Liquid 1,2-dichloroethane is severely irritating to the skin.

    It is not possible to derive a no-observed-effect level for
    non-carcinogenic effects on the basis of available human data. 
    However, a no-observed-effect level of 400 mg/m3 can be established
    on the basis of animal toxicity data.  After considering current human
    exposure levels in air and in drinking-water, it can be concluded
    that, under prevailing exposure conditions, 1,2-dichloroethane is
    unlikely to present a toxic hazard for the general population.

    There are no human data for the evaluation of the reproductive hazards
    and teratogenicity.  The weight of evidence from experimental animal
    studies does not suggest that exposure of human beings to prevailing
    environmental levels would pose a reproductive or teratogenic hazard.

    1,2-Dichloroethane will not accumulate in the atmosphere. 
    Bioconcentration is unlikely.  Although it was slightly toxic for the
    aquatic species tested, 1,2-dichloroethane does not pose a significant
    hazard for the aquatic environment, except in the case of accident or
    inappropriate disposal.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    1,2-dichloroethane, together with preventive and protective measures
    and first aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of Chemical
    Safety Information (section 6).

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    No specific antidote to 1,2-dichloroethane poisoning is known.  Treat
    symptomatically.  Be aware that, following the initial symptoms of
    oral poisoning, central nervous system depression and respiratory and
    circulatory failure may occur after an interval relatively free of
    symptoms.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    Human beings potentially exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane should undergo
    periodic medical examination, with emphasis on effects on the eyes,
    skin, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys,
    and cardiovascular system, and on the functioning of the central
    nervous system.

    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.4.1  Explosion hazards

    Above 13C, explosive vapour-air mixtures may be formed that can be
    ignited by open fires, sparks, or glowing surfaces.  Because of its
    low electroconductivity, the compound can generate electrostatic
    charges as a result of flow or agitation.  The vapours are heavier
    than air, may travel along the ground, and be ignited from a distance. 
    1,2-Dichloroethane will react violently with oxidants (e.g., nitric
    acid).  Mixtures with dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), sodium,
    potassium, aluminium, magnesium, liquid ammonia, or
    dimethylaminopropylamine may be explosive.

    4.4.2  Fire hazards

    1,2-Dichloroethane is a flammable liquid.  It decomposes in a flame or
    on a hot surface, to form phosgene and hydrochloric acid.

    4.4.3  Prevention

    Use closed systems, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical
    equipment.  Make connections to earth.  Do not use the compound near
    sources of ignition.  Do not use compressed air for filling,
    discharging, or handling.  In case of fire, keep drums cool by
    spraying with water.  Fire-fighters should use self-contained
    breathing apparatus.

    4.4.4  Fire-extinguishing agents

    Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol foam, halons, water sprays.

    4.5  Storage

    1,2-Dichloroethane should be stored in a dark, dry, fire-proof, and
    properly labelled room, with ventilation across the floor.  It should
    be kept away from food, oxidants, and other incompatible substances
    (section 4.4.1).

    4.6  Transport

    In case of accident, stop the engine.  Remove all sources of ignition. 
    Keep bystanders at a distance and mark the roads.  Keep upwind.  In
    case of spillage or fire, use the methods advised in sections 4.7 and
    4.4, respectively.  Notify the police and the fire brigade
    immediately.  In case of poisoning, follow the advice in section 4.1.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1  Spillage

    Remove all ignition sources and evacuate the danger area.  Collect
    leaking liquid in a sealable container.  Absorb spilled liquid in
    sand, earth, or other inert absorbent.  Do not allow run-off into a
    sewer.  Remove the inert absorbent to a safe place, then flush the
    area with water.  Ensure personal protection by using a self-contained
    breathing apparatus.

    4.7.2  Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste disposal file)

    Solvent wastes may be regenerated commercially using fractional
    distillation.  Concentrated wastes, such as distillation residues,
    spent catalysts, and complex sludges (tars), are disposed of in
    special waste incinerators, since phosgene is liberated during
    burning.  Dilute with kerosene or fuel oil, because of high chlorine
    content.  Aqueous wastes that contain 1,2-dichloroethane (process
    effluents) are aerated, until the volatile chlorohydrocarbon has
    evaporated.  Special attention should be paid to emission limits.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    1,2-Dichloroethane will not accumulate in the atmosphere. 
    Bioconcentration is unlikely.  Although it was slightly toxic for the
    aquatic species tested, 1,2-dichloroethane does not pose a signficant
    hazard for the aquatic environment, except in case of accident or
    inappropriate disposal.

    Contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere can be avoided by
    proper methods of storage, transport, handling, and waste disposal. 
    In cases of spillage, apply methods recommended in section 4.7.1.

    6.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

     This summary should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, 1,2-dichloroethane It should be
     displayed at, or near, entrances to areas where there is potential
     exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane, and on processing equipment and
     containers.  The summary should be translated into the appropriate
     language(s).  All persons potentially exposed to the chemical should
     also have the instructions in the summary clearly explained.

     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
     Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the  National
     Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        1,2-DICHLOROETHANE

    (EDC, ethane dichloride, ethylene dichloride, glycol dichloride) (ClCH2-CH2Cl)

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Relative molecular mass                           98.96               Colourless liquid with a sweet taste and a chloroform-like
    Melting point (C)                                -35                 odour; can have adverse effects well below the odour
    Boiling point (C)                                83                  threshold; the compound can generate electrostatic charges 
    Water solubility (20C) (g/litre)                 8.69                through flow or agitation; it will react violently with
    oxidizing 
    Specific density (20C)                           1.23                agents, which are mixed with dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4),
    Relative vapour density                           3.42                sodium, potassium, aluminium, magnesium, liquid ammonia, 
    Vapour pressure (20C) (kPa)                      8.53                or dimethylaminopropylamine; may be explosive; vapours are
    Flash point (C) (closed cup)                     13                  heavier than air, travel along the ground, and can be ignited 
    Flammability (explosive) limits (Vol. %)          6-16                from a distance; the compound decomposes in contact with a 
    Log  n-octanol/water partition coefficient         1.48                flame or on a hot surface forming phosgene and hydrochloric
    acid

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: irritation and degreasing;        Wear clean protective gloves and             Remove contaminated clothing; wash with
    redness; may enter body through         protective clothing                          water and soap
    skin

    EYES: irritation and inflammation;      Wear face-shield                             Rinse with plenty of water for at least
    redness; blurred vision                                                              15 min; send to a doctor

    INHALATION: irritation and              Explosion-proof exhaust ventilation          Remove victims to fresh air and keep
    inflammation of respiratory and         or, for non-routine activities,              quiet; if breathing has stopped, apply
    gastrointestinal tracts; central        air-supplied or self-contained               artificial respiration
    nervous system depression; effects      breathing apparatus
    on liver and kidneys; cyanosis, 
    vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, 
    dizziness, dullness

    GENERAL: should be regarded as
    posing a carcinogenic risk for man

    INGESTION: irritation and               Do not eat, drink, or smoke during           Rinse mouth; give plenty of water to
    inflammation of gastrointestinal        work                                         drink; induce vomiting in conscious
    tract; central nervous system                                                        patients
    depression; effects on liver and
    kidneys; effects may be delayed;
    cyanosis, vomiting, diarrhoea,
    headache, dizziness, dullness

    ENVIRONMENT: the compound               Apply proper methods of storage,
    can be slightly toxic for aquatic       transport, waste disposal, and
    life                                    and handling of spills

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Remove ignition sources; evacuate       Store in dark, dry, fire-proof,              Flammable; vapour-air mixtures may be
    area; collect leaking liquid in a       and properly labelled room, with             explosive; no sources of ignition; make
    sealable container; do not allow        ventilation across the floor; store          connections to earth; do not use 
    run-off into a sewer; absorb spills     away from foodstuffs, oxidants,              compressed air for handling; use closed
    in sand or other inert absorbent,       and other incompatible substances;           systems, ventilation, and explosion-
    and remove to a safe place; ensure      containers should be tightly                 proof electrical equipment; in case of
    personal protection by using a          closed and labelled                          fire, keep drums cool by spraying with
    self-contained breathing apparatus                                                   water; extinguish fire with dry 
                                                                                         chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol foam,
                                                                                         halons, or water sprays

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Disposal in special waste               National Occupational Exposure Limits:       UN: 1184
    incinerators with dilution by
    kerosene or fuel oil; aqueous
    wastes should be aerated; solvent
    wastes may be regenerated               National Poison Control Centre:

                                                                                                                                         
    

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals,
    taken in a certain country, can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  The regulations and
    guidelines of all countries are subject to change and should always be
    verified with appropriate regulatory authorities before application.

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pp. 26-28.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    The European Economic Community prohibits the use and marketing of
    1,2-dichloroethane as part of the composition of cosmetic products
    (effective date: 1986).  Member states should ensure that dangerous
    preparations (solvents) are not placed on the market, unless their
    packages and fastenings and labels comply with the requirements laid
    down (effective date: 1984).

    In the German Democratic Republic, the use of 1,2-dichloroethane is
    not permitted in the manufacture of consumer goods (effective date:
    1977).

    In the USSR, the compound is approved as an insecticide for
    agricultural use with specifications for application, dose, mode, and
    treatment frequency (effective date: 1982).

    In the USA, the compound is exempted from tolerance requirements in
    plant products and animal products, when used according to good
    agricultural practice as an inert (or occasionally active) ingredient
    of pesticides, applied for some specified purposes (effective date:
    1983 (r)).  It is exempted from residue tolerance requirements, when
    used as a fumigant, after harvest, on certain specified grains
    (effective date: 1983 (r)).  It is permitted as a food additive in
    feed and drinking-water for animals, with restriction on the use as a
    solvent in the extraction processing of animal by-products for use in
    animal feed (effective date: 1983 (r)).


                                                                                                                                             

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Occupational        Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                200 mg/m3

                                    Brazil              Acceptable limit                                                  1982 (r)
                                                        - 48 h/week                                  156 mg/m3

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration                                   1985
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                50 mg/m3
                                                        Ceiling value                                100 mg/m3            1985

                                    Germany, Federal    Maximum work-site concentration                                   1986 (r)
                                    Republic of         - Time-weighted average (TWA)                80 mg/m3b
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                                  1986 (r)
                                                        - 30 min                                     160 mg/m3

                                    Japan               Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1984
                                                                                                     40 mg/m3

                                    Netherlands         Maximum limit                                                     1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                200 mg/m3

                                    Poland              Ceiling value                                10 mg/m3c            1985 (r)

                                    Sweden              Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                4 mg/m3d
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                                  1985
                                                        - 15-min time-weighted average               20 mg/m3

                                    United Kingdom      Recommended threshold limit value                                 1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                40 mg/m3
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (STEL)                                  1985 (r)
                                                        - 10-min time-weighted average               60 mg/m3

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Occupational        USA (ACGIH)         Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                40 mg/m3
                                    USA (ACGIH)         Short-term exposure limit (STEL)             60 mg/m3             1985 (r)

                                    USA (OSHA)          Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1974
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                202 mg/m3
                                                        Ceiling value                                                     1974
                                                        - Acceptable                                 405 mg/m3
                                                        Ceiling value                                                     1974
                                                        - 5 min/3 h                                  810 mg/m3

                                    USA (NIOSH)         Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                40 mg/m3
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (STEL)
                                                        - 15 min                                     80 mg/m3

    AIR         Ambient             Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1982 (r)
                                                        - Average per day                            1 mg/m3
                                                        Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1982 (r)
                                                        - Average per 0.5 h                          3 mg/m3

    WATER       Surface             USSR                Preliminary safety level                     0.21 mg/litre        1983

                Drinking-           WHO                 Guideline                                    0.01 mg/litre        1983 (r)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD                            FAO/WHO             Allowable daily intake                       nonee                1983 (r)

                Bread, cereal                           Guideline                                    0.1 mg/kg            1982 (r)
                products

                Cereal grains                           Guideline                                    50 mg/kg             1982 (r)

                                                                                                                                         

    a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b Suspected potential carcinogen; the exposure limits are therefore tentatively retained.
    c Skin absorption.
    d Skin absorption; carcinogenic.
    e The substance should be used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
    

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The European Economic Community regulations state that the label
    should read as follows (effective date: 1976 (r)):

          Highly flammable; harmful by inhalation; keep container tightly
          closed; keep away from sources of ignition - no smoking; do not
          empty into drains; take precautionary measures against static
          discharges. 

    The recommended labels are:

    FIGURE 1

    FIGURE 2

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies 1,2-dichloroethane as a flammable liquid
    (Class 3) and a poisonous substance (Subsidiary Risk Class 6.1)
    presenting medium danger for packing purposes (Packing Group II). 
    Packing methods and labels are recommended (effective date: 1982 (r)). 
    The recommended labels are:

    FIGURE 3

    FIGURE 4

    The International Maritime Organization classifies 1,2-dichloroethane
    as a flammable liquid (Class 3.1) with medium danger for packing
    purposes (Packing Group II) (effective date: 1982 (r)).

    7.4  Waste Disposal

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the air emissions of organic
    compounds in Class I, which include 1,2-dichloroethane, must not
    exceed (as the sum of all compounds in this class) a mass
    concentration of 20mg/m3 at a mass flow of 0.1 kg/h.  If compounds
    of different classes are present, the mass concentration must not
    exceed 30 mg/m3 (effective date: 1982 (r)).

    In the USA, any solid waste (except domestic) that contains
    chlorinated ethanes must be listed as hazardous waste (subject to
    handling, transport, treatment, storage, and disposal regulations, and
    permit and notification requirements), unless it is found that the
    waste cannot pose a threat to human health or the environment when
    improperly managed.  Certain specified industrial solid wastes
    containing 1,2-dichloroethane are identified as hazardous wastes.  If
    1,2-dichloroethane is a commercial chemical product, it is identified
    as a "toxic waste", subject to handling, transport, treatment,
    storage, and disposal regulations, and permit notification
    requirements (effective date: 1983 (r)).  An owner or operator of a
    hazardous waste incinerator must achieve 99.99% destruction and
    removal efficiency for the substance, if it is designated as a
    principal organic hazardous constituent in its EPA permit (effective
    date: 1981).  Permits are required for the discharge of
    1,2-dichloroethane from any point source into USA waters (effective
    date: 1980).  EPA is required to set, or has set, effluent limitations
    and pretreatment standards for 21 major industries, regarding
    chlorinated ethanes (effective date: 1983 (r)).

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    ACGIH (1986)  Documentation of the threshold limit values and
     biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

    ACGIH (1989)  Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices
     for 1989-1990. Cincinnati, American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists.

    CLAYTON, G.D. & CLAYTON, F.E. (1981)  Patty's industrial hygiene and
     toxicology. Vol. 2 C.  New York, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley &
    Sons.

    GOSSELIN, R.E., HODGE, H.C., SMITH R.P., & GLEASON, M.N. (1976)
     Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 4th ed. Baltimore,
    Maryland, The Williams and Wilkins Company.

    HANDLING CHEMICALS SAFELY (1989)  Handling chemicals safely. 2nd ed.
    Dutch Association of Safety Experts, Dutch Chemical Industry
    Association, Dutch Safety Institute.

    IRPTC (1988)  Data profile (legal file).  Geneva, International
    Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals.

    SAX, N.I. (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

    US NIOSH (1976)  A guide to industrial respiratory protection. 3 Vol.
    Cincinnati, Ohio, US National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health. Occupational Safety and Heath Administration, 

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vol. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH) 01-123).

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1985)  Pocket guide to chemical hazards.  Washington
    DC, US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
    Occupational Safety and Heath Administration (Publication No. 85.114).

    WHO (1987)  Environmental Health Criteria 62: 1,2-Dichloroethane.
    Geneva, World Health Organization.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations