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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 64


    ALDICARB
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991


    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 121:
    Aldicarb

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Aldicarb : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 64)

    1.Aldicarb - adverse effects
    2.Aldicarb - poisoning
    3.Aldicarb - standards
    4.Environmental exposure  I.Series

    ISBN 92 4 151064 1          (NLM Classification: WA 240)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1991

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Exposure
         2.2. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.3. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.4. Effects on animals
         2.5. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                     4.1.1.1  Treatment of acute poisoning
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.2.1. Explosion hazards
              4.2.2. Fire hazards
              4.2.3. Prevention
              4.2.4. Extinguishing agents
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage
         4.6. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.4. Other measures
         7.5. Waste disposal

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  aldicarb

    Molecular formula:            C7H14N2O2S

    Chemical structure:
                                         CH3           O
                                         '             "
                                  CH3S - C - CH = N = OCNHCH3
                                         '
                                         CH3

    Synonyms and common
    trade names:                  Aldicarbe (French); carbamic acid,
                                  methyl- O-((2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-
                                  propylidene)amino) deriv.; Carbanolate; 
                                  ENT 27,093; 2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)-
                                  propanal-O-((methylamino)carbonyl)oxime
                                  (C.A.); 2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)-
                                  propionaldehyde-O-(methylcarbamoyl)-
                                  oxime (IUPAC); NCI-CO8640; OMS-771;
                                  Propanal, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-O-
                                  ((methylamino)carbonyl)oxime; Temic;
                                  Temik; Temik G; Temik M; Temik LD;
                                  Sentry; Temik 5G; Temik 10G; Temik 15G;
                                  Temik 150G;Union Carbide 21149; 
                                  Union Carbide UC-21149

    CAS registry number:          116-06-3

    RTECS no.                     UE2275000

    CAS chemical name:            2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde-
                                   O-(methylcarbomoyl)oxime

    Conversion factors:           1 ppm (v/v) = 7.78 mg/m3
                                  1 mg/m3 = 0.129 ppm (v/v), in air
                                  (1 atm) at 25C

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Aldicarb has a slight sulfur smell. It has a melting point of 100C
    and a specific gravity of 1.195 at 25C.  It is soluble in water,
    sensitive to heat, and relatively unstable.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Analytical methods for aldicarb include thin-layer chromatography, gas
    chromatography (with various detectors, such as electron capture or
    flame ionization), and liquid chromatography. The preferred method for
    the determination of aldicarb and its major decomposition products is
    high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization
    and fluorescence detectors.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    Aldicarb, a systemic oxime carbamate pesticide, is effective against a
    variety of insects, mites, and nematodes.  It is sold commercially
    only in granular form.  The commercial formulation, Temik, is marketed
    as granules containing 5, 10, or 15% active ingredient.  Aldicarb is
    currently registered for use on a variety of crops, including cotton,
    sugar beet, sugarcane, citrus fruits, potatoes, sweet potatoes,
    peanuts, beans (dried beans), soybeans, pecans, and ornamental plants. 
    Home and garden use is not permitted in many countries.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Exposure

    The general population may be exposed to aldicarb primarily through
    the ingestion of contaminated water and foods.  Aldicarb levels
    ranging from 1 to over 50 g have been detected in shallow wells.  The
    compound can persist in ground water for several years. Aldicarb and
    its oxidative metabolites have been found at levels of more than
    1 mg/kg in raw potatoes.  Maximum residue levels in controlled field
    trials and upper 95 percentile levels in a market basket survey
    conducted in the USA were reported to be 0.82 mg/kg and 0.0677 mg/kg,
    respectively.  The illegal use of aldicarb on farm products, such as
    cucumbers and watermelons, has resulted in levels high enough to
    produce toxic symptoms in humans.  Levels ranging from 0.01 to
    6.3 mg/kg were found in contaminated watermelons during an outbreak of
    illness associated with the ingestion of the watermelons.  Two
    separate episodes of poisoning resulting from the consumption of
    aldicarb-contaminated cucumbers (6.6-10.7 mg/kg) have been reported. 
    All cases of occupational exposure to aldicarb have been the result of
    either its improper application or the inadequate use of protective
    equipment.

    2.2  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    Aldicarb is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and,
    to a lesser extent, through the skin.  It could be readily absorbed
    via the respiratory tract, if present in the form of a dust.  It is
    distributed to all tissues, and has been found in those of the
    developing rat fetus.  It is metabolically transformed to the
    sulfoxide and the sulfone (both of which are toxic), and is detoxified
    by hydrolysis to oximes and nitriles.  The excretion of aldicarb and
    its metabolites is rapid, and primarily occurs via the urine.  A small
    amount is excreted with the bile and, consequently, undergoes
    enterohepatic recycling.  Aldicarb does not accumulate in the body as
    a result of long-term exposure.  The inhibition of cholinesterase
    activity  in vitro by aldicarb is spontaneously reversible, with a
    half-life of between 30 and 40 min.

    2.3  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    When aldicarb granules are fully incorporated into the soil to a depth
    of 5 cm, as recommended by the manufacturer, there is a minimal hazard
    for birds and small mammals.  Kills of up to 600 songbirds have been
    reported as a result of the application of the granules on the soil
    surface.  Birds can be killed after ingestion of a single granule. 
    Small mammals would be similarly at risk from surface aldicarb.

    There is no indication that aquatic organisms have been killed through
    aldicarb poisoning, despite its relatively high potential toxicity. 
    Use in areas where periodic torrential rainfall is likely, causing
    substantial runoff of both water and surface soil, could contaminate
    drainage ditches, but this is unlikely to kill fish or water
    invertebrates.

    2.4  Effects on Animals

    Aldicarb is a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases, and has a high
    acute toxicity, with rat oral LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to
    0.9 mg/kg body weight.  Recovery from its cholinergic effects  in
     vitro is spontaneous, with a half-life of between 30 and 40 min.

    Several studies have been conducted to examine the short-term effects
    of aldicarb and its metabolites.  The results indicate that the
    toxicity of aldicarb is not cumulative at dose levels associated with
    significant cholinesterase inhibition.

    The results of long-term studies have shown that aldicarb administered
    in the diet at levels of up to 0.1 mg/kg per day is not toxic for rats
    or dogs.

    Data on the long-term effects of aldicarb on cholinesterase activity
    at dose levels >0.01 mg/kg per day are not available.  However,
    no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) of 0.125 and 0.8 mg/kg per day have
    been established for the sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites of
    aldicarb, respectively.  There is no evidence that aldicarb produces
    delayed paralysis, as reported for some organophosphates.

    The carcinogenicity of aldicarb has been tested in two animal species
    with lifetime exposure.  There is no substantial evidence indicating
    that aldicarb is carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, or
    immmunotoxic.

    2.5  Effects on Human Beings

    Poisoning may affect the respiratory and central nervous systems, and
    may cause death.  Signs and symptoms of aldicarb intoxication include
    dizziness, salivation, excessive sweating, nausea, epigastric cramps,
    vomiting, diarrhoea, bronchial secretion, blurred vision, nonreactive
    contracted pupils, skeletal muscle stiffness, dyspnoea, and muscular
    fasiculations.  Because the carbamylated enzyme is unstable, and its
    reactivation is relatively rapid compared with that of the
    phosphorylated enzyme, these symptoms are generally not severe and
    usually subside spontaneously within 6 h of exposure, unless death
    intervenes.  Nonfatal poisoning in humans is rapidly reversible, and
    recovery is aided by the administration of atropine.

    No conclusive evidence of aldicarb-related health problems is evident
    in the limited epidemiological data available.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Aldicarb exhibits a high acute toxicity.  Absorption through the
    respiratory tract would be rapid, if the compound were present in the
    form of a dust.  Poisoning may affect the respiratory and central
    nervous systems, and may cause death.  Aldicarb induces toxicity via
    cholinesterase inhibition.  It is readily absorbed via ingestion or
    dermal exposure and is distributed throughout all tissues.  It is
    eliminated primarily in the urine within 24 h following exposure.  The
    inhibition of cholinesterase activity by aldicarb is rapidly
    reversible, unless death intervenes.  Accumulation of aldicarb in body
    tissues is unlikely.  There is no substantial evidence that aldicarb
    is carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, or immunotoxic.  

    Handling and application of aldicarb should be undertaken only by
    trained operators, using all safety guidelines and safety devices.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Aldicarb is a carbamate ester.  It induces toxicity via cholinesterase
    inhibition, and has a high acute toxicity.  However, the carbamylated
    enzyme is unstable and  inhibition is reversible.  Recovery occurs
    within 6h, except where death intervenes.  The human health hazards
    associated with certain types of exposure to aldicarb, together with
    preventive and protective measures and first-aid recommendations, are
    listed in the Summary of Chemical Safety Information (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    4.1.1.1  Treatment of acute poisoning

    All cases of poisoning resulting from aldicarb exposure should be
    dealt with as an emergency and the patient should be hospitalized as
    quickly as possible.  The treatment is based on:

    *    minimizing the absorption;

    *    general supportive treatment;

    *    specific pharmacological treatment.

    (i)  Minimizing the absorption

    When dermal exposure has occurred, decontamination procedures should
    include the removal of contaminated clothing, and washing of the skin
    with alkaline soap or with a sodium bicarbonate solution.  Extensive
    eye irrigation with water or saline should also be performed.  In the
    case of ingestion, vomiting can be induced; if the patient is
    conscious, ipecacuanha syrup (10-30 ml) should be administered,
    followed by 200 ml of water.  Gastric lavage (with the addition of
    bicarbonate solution or activated charcoal) can also be performed,
    particularly in unconscious patients, taking care to prevent
    aspiration of fluids into lungs (i.e., only after a tracheal tube has
    been put in place).

    (ii)  General supportive treatment

    Artificial respiration (via a tracheal tube) should be started at the
    first sign of respiratory failure, and should be maintained for as
    long as necessary.  Cautious administration of fluids and general
    supportive and symptomatic pharmacological treatment are advised,
    together with absolute rest.

    (iii)  Specific pharmacological treatment

    Atropine should be given, beginning with 2 mg iv, repeated at
    15-30 min intervals.  The dose and frequency of atropine treatment
    vary from case to case, but should maintain the patient fully
    atropinized (dilated pupils, dry mouth, skin flushing, etc.).  The use
    of oximes is contraindicated.  In general, recovery is complete within
    6 h; if illness continues longer, the possibility of another
    diagnostic evaluation should be considered.  In some cases, diazepam
    therapy, together with atropine, is also recommended.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    There appears to be little need for concern over the cumulative
    effects of aldicarb exposure.  No specific health surveillance
    procedures are recommended.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.2.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard posed by aldicarb is negligible.

    4.2.2  Fire hazards

    Aldicarb is also considered a negligible fire hazard.  It is
    non-flammable and is difficult to ignite, but may burn if exposed to
    flames.

    4.2.3  Prevention

    Aldicarb should be kept away from open flames.

    4.2.4  Extinguishing agents

    Move the container of aldicarb from the fire area, if possible, and
    fight the fire from the maximum distance, using agents suitable for
    the type of surrounding fire.  In case of small fires, use dry
    chemical powder, carbon dioxide, water spray, or standard foam.  For
    larger fires, use water spray, fog, or standard foam.  Thermal
    decomposition products may include toxic oxides of nitrogen, sulfur,
    and carbon.  Avoid breathing toxic dusts and fumes from burning
    material.

    4.3  Storage

    Store aldicarb indoors in an isolated, well-ventilated, clean, dry,
    cool area (not above 46C).  Store away from incompatible substances,
    such as highly alkaline materials.  Aldicarb should be stored in a
    manner that will preclude mixing with water, because the resultant
    solution may be seriously hazardous.  Do not store near food, animal
    feed, or other items intended for human or animal consumption. Make
    certain that the storage area is inaccessible to children.

    4.4  Transport

    The product must always be transported in vehicles marked for this
    purpose, in properly labelled approved containers and packages.  Do
    not transport with food or animal feed or items intended for human or
    animal consumption.  Transport vehicles must be equipped with
    first-aid equipment and items required to handle accidental
    spills/leakages, etc.

    4.5  Spillage

    In case of spillage during storage or transport, isolate the affected
    area, cover the spills with a sweeping compound, and post danger
    signs.  Cover the area with suitable sheets, transfer spoiled material
    in reclaim containers for disposal.  Decontaminate the area with 5%
    sodium hydroxide solution.  Use all personal protective devices for
    handling spills.  All tools and equipment should be decontaminated,
    rinsed, and dried.  All clothing should be laundered.

    4.6  Disposal

    Disposal of aldicarb should be in accordance with the recommended
    procedures for the disposal and storage of pesticides and pesticide
    containers (40 Code of Federal Regulations 165, USA).  Product
    residues and sorbent media can be packaged in 17H epoxy-lined drums
    and disposed of at an approved landfill site.  Alternatively, they can
    be destroyed in a high temperature incineration unit with effluent gas
    scrubbing equipment.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Aldicarb is oxidized fairly rapidly to the sulfoxide.  In some soils,
    48% of the parent compound was converted to the sulfoxide seven days
    after application.  It is oxidized much more slowly to the sulfone. 
    Hydrolysis of the carbamate ester groups, which inactivates the
    pesticide, is pH-dependent, with half-lives in distilled water varying
    from a few minutes, at a pH of 12, to 560 days, at a pH of 6.0.  Half
    lives in surface soils ranged from approximately 0.5 to 3 months and,
    in the saturated zone, from 0.4 to 36 months.  Hydrolysis of aldicarb
    is somewhat slower than that of either the sulfoxide or the sulfone.

    The greatest leaching occurs in sandy soils with a low organic matter
    content, particularly where the water table is high.  Persistence,
    carry-over, and leaching vary with the type of soil and the
    environmental conditions.  Drainage aquifers and local, shallow wells
    have been contaminated with aldicarb sulfoxide and sulfone.  Levels
    have generally ranged between 1 and 50 g/litre, but levels of
    approximately 500 g/litre have been recorded.  Laboratory
    measurements of the biotic and abiotic breakdown of aldicarb have
    varied and have led to extrapolations radically different from field
    observations.  Field data on the breakdown of aldicarb are more
    reliable estimates of its fate.

    As aldicarb is systemic in plants, residues may occur in foods. 
    Residue levels greater than 1 mg/kg have been reported in raw
    potatoes.  In the USA, where the tolerance level for potatoes is
    1 mg/kg, residue levels of up to 0.82 mg/kg have been reported from
    controlled field trials.  An upper 95 percentile level of 0.43 mg/kg
    has been estimated from field trial data, and upper 95 percentile
    levels of up to 0.0677 mg/kg have been determined in raw potatoes from
    a market basket survey.

    None of the available studies have indicated substantial ecological or
    abiotic effects resulting from the proper use of aldicarb and there
    have not been any significant reports of the introduction of aldicarb
    or its metabolites into the food chain.  The toxic effects of aldicarb
    on wildlife and soil microorganisms appear to be minimal.

    Contamination of soil and water should be avoided by using proper
    methods of storage, transport, handling, application, and waste
    disposal.  To avoid ground water contamination, aldicarb should not be
    applied in areas with a well-drained soil and a high water table,
    shallow aquifers, or aquifers unprotected by an overlying impervious
    layer.  To avoid the poisoning of wildlife, granules should be
    completely incorporated into the soil, as recommended by the
    manufacturer.

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

     This summary should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, aldicarb. It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     aldicarb, and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     in the summary clearly explained.

     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
     Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
     Poison Control Centre, and local trade names.


        Aldicarb (C7H14N2O2S)

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                         

    Relative molecular mass            190.3                              stable (except to strong alkali);
    Physical state                     white crystalline solid            noncorrosive to metal and plastics;
                                       with slight sulfur odour           nonflammable; do not mix with water,
                                                                          resultant solution may be seriously
    Melting point (C)                 100                                hazardous
    Boiling point(C)                  not found; decomposes
                                       above 100C
    Specific gravity (20/25C)         1.195
    Vapour pressure (25C)             1x10-4 mmHg
    Solubility (w/w at 20C):
     water                             0.6%
     acetone                           40%
     chloroform                        35%
     toluene                           10%
    Log octanol/water
     partition coefficient             1.359

                                                                                                                                         

    ROUTE         HEALTH HAZARDS                            PREVENTION AND                   FIRST AID
                                                            PROTECTION
                                                                                                                                         

    INHALATION    Cholinesterase inhibition symptoms,       Avoid exposure by                Remove from exposure area to
                  including blurred vision, fatigue,        using ventilation, local         fresh air; if breathing has stopped
                  headache, vertigo, weakness, inability    exhaust, or breathing            give artificial respiration; administer
                  to concentrate, pupillary constriction,   protection                       oxygen; keep affected person warm
                  muscle fasciculations or tremors,                                          and at rest;  treat symptomatically
                  nausea, dyspnoea, vomiting, diarrhoea,                                     and supportively; seek medical
                  excessive sweating, tearing, salivation,                                   attention immediately; if available,
                  bradycardia, pulmonary oedema,                                             administer atropine sulfate
                  convulsions, bronchoconstriction, and                                      (0.4-2.0 mg) as soon as possible
                  coma; death may  occur as a result of
                  respiratory arrest, paralysis of 
                  respiratory muscles, and/or intense 
                  bronchoconstriction

    SKIN          Dermal adsorption may produce             Avoid exposure; wear             Remove contaminated clothing; wash 
                  systemic symptoms of                      protective clothing and          contaminated area with soap  and 
                  cholinesterase inhibition, as             gloves                           water; treat respiratory difficulty
                  described under inhalation                                                 with artificial respiration and oxygen;
                                                                                             observe patient for at least 24 h;
                                                                                             alcohol can be used to remove final
                                                                                             traces of aldicarb from skin; if 
                                                                                             available, administer atropine sulfate
                                                                                             (0.4-2.0 mg) as soon as possible

    EYES          Miosis or mydriasis, blurring or          Wear safety goggles, if          Irrigate eyes with water or saline 
                  dimness of vision, tearing, ciliary       there is a possibility of        solution for at least 10 min; treat
                  muscle spasm, loss of accommodation,      eye contact                      respiratory difficulty with artificial 
                  and ocular pain; systemic                                                  respiration and oxygen; observe 
                  symptoms of cholinesterase                                                 patient for at least 24-36 h; seek
                  inhibition (as described under                                             medical attention immediately
                  inhalation) may occur

                                                                                                                                         

    ROUTE         HEALTH HAZARDS                            PREVENTION AND                   FIRST AID
                                                            PROTECTION
                                                                                                                                         

    INGESTION     Gastrointestinal effects of               Do not eat, drink, or            Induce vomiting in conscious 
                  nausea, abdominal cramps,                 smoke, when handling             patients with syrup of Ipecac, or 
                  vomiting, and diarrhoea, within           the compound                     mechanically; if vomiting has not
                  45 min of ingestion; absorption                                            occurred within 15 min, or if 
                  from gastrointestinal tract may                                            consciousness level declines, empty
                  produce systemic effects of                                                stomach by gastric lavage; follow 
                  cholinesterase inhibition (as                                              emesis or lavage by suspension of
                  described under inhalation)                                                activated charcoal in water; establish
                                                                                             and maintain airway; treat respiratory 
                                                                                             difficulty with artificial respiration and
                                                                                             oxygen; observe patient for at least
                                                                                             24 h; if available, atropine should be
                                                                                             administered at 0.4-2.0 mg, as soon as 
                                                                                             possible; do not give oximes, 
                                                                                             aminophylline, phenothiazines, reserpine,
                                                                                             furosemide, or ethacrynic acid

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Do not get dust or granules on          Store indoors in isolated,                   Negligible fire hazard when 
    skin or in eyes; do not inhale          well-ventilated, clean, dry, cool            exposed to heat or flame;
    dust; sweep or shovel up spilled        area; store away from                        however, the organic formulation
    material and place in clean,            incompatible substances; do not store        will burn, and fire may
    dry container; decontaminate area       near food, animal feed, or other             cause the release of inorganic
    using prescribed decontaminating        items intended for human or                  formulation from a container,
    solution, caustic soda solution,        animal consumption                           in effect, producing a spill
    or lime; decontaminate all tools
    and equipment; remove any 
    contaminated clothing; launder
    all clothing

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Disposal should be in accordance
    with the recommended procedures
    for the disposal and storage of
    pesticides and pesticide containers
    (40 CFR 165); product residues and 
    sorbent media may be packaged
    in 17H epoxy-lined drums and
    disposed of at an approved landfill
    site, or destroyed in a 
    high-temperature incinerator with 
    gas-effluent scrubbing equipment
                                                                                                                                         
        7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  Furthermore, the
    regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and
    should always be verified with appropriate regulatory authorities
    before application.

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pages 26-27.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    Legislation in Belize (1985(r)) and the USSR (1986(r)) prohibits the
    use of aldicarb as a pesticide, owing to its high toxicity and
    potential adverse environmental effects.  The sale and use of aldicarb
    are restricted by legislation in most countries.

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has classified
    aldicarb as a Class 6.1 poison.  Solids containing aldicarb
    concentrations equal to, or greater than, 1% active ingredient should
    carry a "poison" label.  Solids or liquids containing less than 1%
    active ingredient should carry a "harmful" label.  Aldicarb is packed
    according to Packing Group I, II, or III, depending on the
    concentration.  During transport by air (single or combination
    packagings), plastic, metal, earthenware, or glass containers can be
    used as the inner shell; boxes (wooden or fibreboard), drums (plastic,
    steel, aluminium, or plywood), or jerricans (plastic or steel) are
    required as the outer shell.  The maximum package size is 100 kg for
    shipment by cargo aircraft and 25 kg for shipment by passenger
    aircraft and rail.  During shipment by water, aldicarb may be stowed
    on the deck or under the deck, preferably the latter.  The storage
    facility must be bounded by permanent steel decks, bulkheads, or
    vessel shell, and equipped with ventilation.

    The European Economic Community legislation lists aldicarb as a
    "dangerous substance" at quantities greater than 100 kg.  The label
    should be as follows:

    FIGURE 1

    The label must read: 

          Harmful by inhalation or ingestion - avoid contact with skin.

    Quantities less than 100 kg require labelling as a "toxic substance". 

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous
    Goods classifies aldicarb as a poisonous substance (Class 6.1). 
    Aldicarb solids containing concentrations equal to, or greater than,
    15% active ingredient carry a "poison" label and be packaged according
    to the regulations applicable to Packing Group I.  Solids containing
    between 1 and 15% active ingredient should carry a "poison" label and
    be packaged according to Packing Group II regulations.  Solids or
    liquids containing less than 1% active ingredient should carry a
    "harmful" label and be packaged according to Packing Group III
    regulations (1986(r)).  The following labels are recommended by this
    organization:

    FIGURE 2

    FIGURE 3


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    WATER       Drinking-           USA                 Maximum contaminant                          0.009 mg/litre       1985
                                                        level goal (MCLG)                            (proposed)
                                                                                                     for water quality

    FOOD AND                        USA                 Reference dose (formerly ADI)                0.2 g/kg            July 25,
    WATER                                                                                            per day              1990 (r)

    FOOD                            FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake                      0.005 mg/kg          1983 (r)
                                                                                                     (ADI)-

    FOOD/FEED                       FAO/WHO             Maximum residue level (MRL)                                       1983
                                                        - maize                                      0.05 mg/kg
                                                        - maize forage (dry)                         20 mg/kg
                                                        - maize fodder (dry)                         2 mg/kg
                                                        - potatoes                                   1 mg/kg
                                                        - sugar beet leaves                          1 mg/kg
                                                        - bananas                                    0.5 mg/kg
                                                        - pecans                                     0.5 mg/kg
                                                        - sorghum fodder                             0.5 mg/kg
                                                        - citrus fruits                              0.2 mg/kg
                                                        - sorghum                                    0.2 mg/kg
                                                        - dry beans                                  0.1 mg/kg
                                                        - coffee beans                               0.1 mg/kg
                                                        - sweet potatoes                             0.1 mg/kg
                                                        - peanuts                                    0.05 mg/kg
                                                        - sugar beets                                0.05 mg/kg
                                                        - soybeans                                   0.02 mg/kg
                                                        - carcass meat                               0.01 mg/kg
                                                        - milk                                       0.001 mg/kg

    FOOD        Selected plant      Brazil              Allowable level (AL)                         0.02-1 mg/day        1984 (r)
                products

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    FOOD        Selected plant      Canada              Maximum residue level (MRL)                  0.5 ppm              1978
                products

                                    Kenya               Maximum level (MXL)
                                                        - cottonseed                                 0.1 mg/kg            1978

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerated
                                                        concentration (MTC)
                                                        - citrus fruits                              0.2 mg/kg            1985

                Plant/animal        USA                 Allowable residue level (ARL)                0.002-1 mg/kg        1982 (r)
                products

                                                                                                                                         
        7.4  Other Measures

    United States legislation requires that a release of aldicarb equal
    to, or greater than, the portable quantity (1 lb) for this substance,
    be immediately reported to the local emergency planning committee, the
    state emergency response commission, and the National Response Center.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    European Economic Community legislation on waste disposal requires
    that Member States should take the necessary steps to prevent the
    introduction of aldicarb and its metabolites into the environment, and
    to limit the consequences of any accidental introduction into the
    environment.

    Waste disposal methods require that waste containing aldicarb should
    be incinerated in a unit with effluent gas scrubbing (IRPTC, 1990).
    United States legislation requires that the disposal of aldicarb
    should conform with the recommended procedures for the disposal and
    storage of pesticides and pesticide containers, as set forth in
    40 CFR 165.  Product residues and sorbent media should be packaged in
    17H epoxy-lined drums and disposed of at an EPA-approved landfill site
    or destroyed by high-temperature incineration.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS INFORMATION ANNUAL. (1986) Aldicarb.

    HSDB (Hazardous Substances Databank, Online) (1989).

    IATA (1986) IATA dangerous goods regulations. 27th ed. Montreal,
    International Air Transport Association.

    IRPTC (1987)  Treatment and disposal methods for waste chemicals.
    Geneva, Switzerland, International Register of Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals.

    IRPTC (1990)  Data profile: Aldicarb. Geneva, Switzerland,
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals).

    MSDS (1989)  Aldicarb (Material Safety Data Sheet) (CD-ROM).

    US EPA (1989)  IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System, Online).
    United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    WHO (1987)  Environmental Health Criteria 121: Aldicarb. Geneva, World
    Health Organization.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Aldicarb (EHC 121, 1991)
       Aldicarb (ICSC)
       Aldicarb (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Aldicarb (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Aldicarb (Pesticide residues in food: 1992 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Aldicarb (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)