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                       Health and Safety Guide No. 77








                                 PROPACHLOR

                             HEALTH AND SAFETY

                                   GUIDE



                       This is a companion volume to
               Environmental Health Criteria 147: Propachlor








         Published by the World Health Organization for the International 
      Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United 
      Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, 
                     and the World Health Organization) 


                       WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1992

     
    This report contains the collective views of an international group of 
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated 
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International 
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization 


    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 

    Propachlor : health and safety guide.

        (Health and safety guide ; no, 77)

        1.Acetanilides - standards  2.Acetanilides - toxicity
        3.Environmental exposure  4.Herbicides - standards 
        5.Herbicides - toxicity  I.Sories 

        ISBN 92 4 151077 3        (NLM Classification: WA 240) 
        ISSN 0259-7268




    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to 
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of 
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which 
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to 
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already 
    available. 

                           World Health Organization 1992

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright 
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the 
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved. 

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this 
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on 
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning 
    the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its 
    authorities, or concerning, the delimitation of its frontiers or 
    boundaries. 

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products 
    does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World 
    Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that 
    are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of 
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. 
                                   



            Computer typesetting by HEADS, Oxford OX8 8NY, England 
    Printed by Wissenchaftlche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH D-7000 Stuttgart 10 


                                      CONTENTS

                                                           
    INTRODUCTION...........................................


    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES...........................

          1.1 Identity.....................................    

          1.2 Physical and chemical properties.............      

          1.3 Analytical methods...........................         

          1.4 Production and uses..........................        


    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION..............................

          2.1 Environmental transport, distribution, and
              transformation...............................

          2.2 Environmental levels and human exposure......  

          2.3 Kinetics and metabolism......................

          2.4 Effects on experimental animals and in vitro
              test systems.................................

          2.5 Effects on human begins...................... 

          2.6 Effects on organisms in the environment......


    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................

          3.1 Conclusions..................................

          3.2 Recommendations..............................        


    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION
       AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION....................

          4.1 Human health hazards, prevention and
              protection, first aid........................
          
              4.1.1 Advice to physicians...................

              4.1.2 Health surveillance advice.............

              4.1.3 Personal hygiene.......................
          
          4.2 Explosion and fire hazards...................
        
          4.3 Storage......................................
        
          4.4 Transport....................................

          4.5 Spillage and disposal........................  

              4.5.1 Spillage...............................

              4.5.2 Disposal...............................  


    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR
       PREVENTION..........................................          


    6. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND
       STANDARDS...........................................

          6.1 Previous evaluations by international bodies.

          6.2 Exposure limit values........................

          6.3 Specific restrictions........................

          6.4 Labelling packaging, and transport........... 
       
          6.5 Waste disposal............................... 


    BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................



                                                           
    
                                    INTRODUCTION
                                    

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the 
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of the 
    effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a 
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological agents.  
    They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits. 

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the 
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety programmes.  
    The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide highlight the 
    relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.  Section 4 
    includes advice on preventive and protective measures and emergency 
    action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with the medical 
    information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an emergency.  
    The section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal 
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals 
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources. 

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in 
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are 
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of 
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on 
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be 
    fimillar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably 
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for 
    readers who require further background information. 

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due 
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be 
    very helpful and should be addressed to: 

                                    The Director
                     International Programme on Chemical Safety
                             World Health Organization
                                   1211 Geneva 27
                                    Switzeriand

                                                    


                           THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE 
                             SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A 
                         STARTING POINT TO A COMPREHENSIVE 
                            HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME 



    
                            1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    
    1.1 Identity

          Common name:          Propachlor

          Chemical structure:

Figure 1;;;grph77_1.bmp
                          
          Molecular formula:    C11H14CINO

          Common trade name:    Ramrod

          Common synonyms:      acylide; bexton

          CAS chemical name     2-chloro- N(1-methylethyl)- N-phenyl
          (Cl):                 acetamide

          IUPAC name:           2,chloro-N-isopropylacetamide (formerly
                                alpha-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide)

          CAS registry          1918-16-7
          number:

          RTECS registry        AE 1575000
          number:

    Technical propachlor contains 93 % active ingredient (a.i.); it is 
    formulated as a wettable powder (650 g a.i./kg), granules (200 g 
    a.i./kg), or a flowable liquid concentrate. 

    
    1.2 Physical and chemical properties

    Propachlor is non-flammable and stable to UV radiation.

    The physical properties of propachlor are given in Table 1.

    Table 1. Physical properties


    Physical state                        solid
    Colour                                tan
    Relative molecular mass               211.7
    Melting point (C)                    67.76
    Decomposes (C)                       170
    Vapour pressure (25 C)               30.6 mPa
    Solubility in water(20 C)            70 mg/litre
    Solubility in organic solvents:       readily soluble in most organic 
                                          solvents, except aliphatic 
                                          hydrocarbons
            in acetone                    30.9%
            in benzene                    50%
            in tetrachloromethane         14.8%
            in chloroform                 37.6%
            in ethanol                    29%
            in heptane                    1.1%
            in toluene                    25.5%
            in xylene                     19.3%
    Log Pow                               1.62-2.30

    
    1.3 Analytical methods

    Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is the method of 
    choice for the determination of propachlor. 

    
    1.4 Production and uses

    Propachlor is a pre-emergence herbicide, effective against annual 
    grasses and certain broad-leaved weeds.  It is used on a variety of 
    food plants, including onions, field corn, hybrid seed, silage corn, 
    sweet corn, grain sorghum, green peas, soybeans, flax, pumpkin, and 
    strawberries. 

    
                             2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    
    2.1 Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation

    Propachlor is not known to be photodegradable on soil surfaces. 
    Volatilization of the compound occurs under windy conditions when the 
    soil surface is still moist. 

    The adsorption of the compound on soil particles and organic matter is 
    only moderate with a potential for the compound to leach through the 
    soil profile and into ground water.  However, all studies have shown 
    that this potential is unlikely to be realised in practice.  Very high 
    rainfall is required to move residues 30 cm down the soil profile.  
    Most authors have reported that most of the residues occur within the 
    upper 4 cm of soil.  The characteristics of the soil greatly influence 
    the movement of the compound; most leaching occurs in sandy soil 
    containing little organic matter. 

    The run-off of propachlor has been studied in both the laboratory and 
    field.  The presence of organic matter in the soil reduced run-off of 
    the applied herbicide from 7 to 1 % in one study.  Incorporation of 
    propachlor into the soil also reduced loss through run-off (from 3 to 
    0. 8 % in one study). 

    By far the most significant factor in reducing propachlor levels in 
    soil and water is its degradation by microorganisms.  Both bacteria and 
    fungi have been shown to be involved in the breakdown of the compound.  
    Few bacteria appear to be able to use propachlor as the sole carbon 
    source.  Bacteria capable of utilising soil metabolites of propachlor 
    have also been isolated. 

    The predominant metabolites formed in soil are water-soluble oxanilic 
    and sulfonic acids.  A large number of other metabolites can be formed, 
    but these represent a small proportion of the total. 

    Propachlor disappears rapidly from the soil with a reported half-life 
    of up to 3 weeks.  Almost complete degradation within less than 6 
    months has been reported in most studies.  Environmental conditions 
    affect the rate of degradation which is favoured by high temperature 
    and soil moisture content.  Studies in which longer persistence of 
    propachlor in the soil was reported were conducted under conditions of 
    low temperature or dry soil.  Adequate nutrient levels in tht soil are 
    also necessary for degradation. 

    The conjugated  N-isopropylaniline metabolite is much more persistent 
    than the parent compound.  Residues of this metabolite have been found 
    up to 2 years after application of propachlor, when applied 
    experimentally at higher rates than would normally be used in 
    agriculture. 

    Under normal conditions of use, propachlor is not expected to leach 
    through the soil to ground water and will not persist in the soil. 
    Exceptional conditions of low temperature or dryness will lead to 
    greater persistence of propachlor and its metabolites. 

    Under normal conditions, propachlor does not photodegrade significantly 
    in water.  However, in the presence of photosensitizers, 
    photodegradation may take place.  Propachlor is hydrologically stable.  
    Volatilization from water is unlikely, because of the high water 
    solubility and low vapour pressure of the compound. 

    As in soil, the major route of loss of propachlor from water is biotic 
    degradation.  The rate of loss of propachlor from water is, therefore, 
    dependent on the microbial population.  A study on water with few 
    bacteria present showed a half-life of about 5 months.  In another 
    study, cleavage of the ring did not occur within 6 weeks.  Laboratory 
    model ecosystem studies showed almost complete de@,radation of 
    propachlor within 33 days. 

    In several studies on different plant species, propachlor was rapidly 
    metabolized in both intact plants and excised plant tissues.  The 
    metabolic pathways were similar in all plants studied, at least for the 
    first 6-24 h, in producing water-soluble metibolites.  No metabolic 
    breakdown of the  N-isopropylaniline moiety was observed.  Very little 
    (< 1 % in one study) of the metabolites was found in the fruit of the 
    plants; most was in the roots and foliage.  The major metabolites 
    produced in plants are identical with those produced in soil.  Uptake 
    of these metabolites from soil is known to take place and, in some 
    studies, it is uncertain whether measured metabolites come from the 
    plant or the soil. 

    Although the octanol/water partition coefficient suggests a moderate 
    potential for bioaccumulation, studies leave shown that propachlor 
    neither bioconcentrates nor biomagnifies in organisms. 
                                                      
    
    2.2 Environmental levels and human exposure

    Measurements of air concentrations of propachlor during application are 
    few and have been inadequately measured and reported. 

    Concentrations in surface and ground water in the USA were consistently 
    low with maxima at 10 g/litre in surface and 0.12 g/litre in ground 
    water.  The highest water concentration recorded in a run-off study was 
    46 g/litre.  

    Propachlor residues in food are usually below the detection limit of 
    the analytical method (0.005 mg/kg).  Experimental studies have 
    identified some residues in tomatoes, peppers, onions, and cabbage at 
    levels of the order of 0.05 mg/kg. 

    Measurements of propachlor levels in the air of the working zone of 
    tractor drivers applying the compound ranged between 0.1 and 3.7 mg/m3. 
     
    
    2.3 Kinetics and metabolism 
     
    Propachlor can be absorbed in mammals through the respiratory and 
    gastrointestinal tracts as well as through the skin.  It does not 
    accumulate in the body.  After 48 h, it is not detectable in the 
    organism. 

    Most animal species (rat, pig, chicken) metabolized propachlor through 
    the mercapturic acid pathway (MAP).  Cysteine conjugates are formed by 
    glutathione conijugation and this conjugate has been proposed as an 
    intermediate in the metabolic formation of mercapturic acid 
    conjugation.  Bacterial C-S lyase participates in the further 
    metabolism of the cysteine conjugate of propachlor and in the formation 
    of the final methylsulfonyl-containing metabolites, which are mainly 
    excreted in the urine (68% of the dose of propachlor), and insoluble 
    residues eliminated in the faeces (19 %).  The propachlor C-S lyase is 
    not active in germ-free rats. 

    Studies have shown some differences in metabolism between the rat and 
    the pig.  The bile is the major route of excretion of MAP metabolites 
    in the rat, but it is has been proved that an extrabiliary route of 
    metabolism exists in the pig. 

    Metabolic studies on calves have shown that they may be unable to form 
    mercapturic acids from glutathione conjugates, which may make them more 
    susceptible to poisoning. 
                             
    
    2.4 Effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems

    The acute oral toxicity of propachlor is only slight (LD50s in the rat 
    range from 950 to 2176 mg/kg body weight).  Signs of acute intoxication 
    are predominantly central nervous system effects (excitement, 
    convulsion followed by depression).  Acute inhalition toxicity in 
    rodents is low (LC50 1.0 mg/litre). However, propachlor causes severe 
    irritation of both eyes and skin. 

    Propachlor has been tested in short- and long-term studies on rats, 
    mice, and dogs.  The liver and kidneys are the target organs.  In a 3-
    month dietary exposure study on dogs, the no-observed-adverse-effect 
    level (NOAEL) was 45 mg/kg body weight.  In a one-year study on dogs, 
    the NOAEL was 250 mg/kg diet (9 mg/kg body weight), while, in a 24-
    month dietary study on rats, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) was 50 
    mg/kg (2.6 mg/kg body weight).  In mice, the NOEL in an 18-nionth 
    dietary study was 10 mg/kg (1.6 mg/kg body weight). 

    Propachlor was found not to be carcinogenic in either mice or rats. 

    A negative mutagenic response was obtained with propachlor in most of 
    the mammalian test systems, with positive results in a few assays. 
    Evidence from available experimental data on its mutagenic potential is 
    inadequate. 

    When administered in a single dose (675 mg/kg) to rats and mice, there 
    was positive evivdence for the embryotoxicity of propachlor.  
    Embryotoxic effects were also observed in repeated dose regimens (35.7-
    270 mg/kg).  However, in another rat study using a dose range of 20-200 
    mg/kg no embryotoxicity was observed. 

    Propachlor WP, in doses of 12 and 60 mg/kg body weight, resulted in a 
    decrease in protein content and an increase in ATP and 5-nucleotidase 
    activity in a homogenate of rat testes, and degenerative changes in the 
    testes.  However, in a two-generation reproduction study, there was no 
    definite evidence of adverse effects. 

    
    2.5 Effects on human beings
                         
    Few cases of contact and allergic dermatitis have been reported in 
    farmers and production workers exposed to propachlor (Ramrod and 
    Satecid).  When  patch tests were carried out, some of them showed a 
    positive patch-test reaction, or an irritation reaction, or mono- or 
    bivalent hypersensitivity. 

    There are no reports of symptoms or diseases among either 
    occupationally exposed workers or the general population, other than a 
    few reports of its effects on the skin of occupationally exposed 
    workers. 

    
    2.6 Effects on organisms in the environment

    Nitrifying bacteria were the group of soil microorganisms most 
    sensitive to inhibitory effects of propachlor.  Their numbers were 
    reduced by a factor of 3-4 after application of propachlor at 8-10 
    kg/ha.  Cellulose-decomposing bacteria were the least sensitive.  High 
    adsorption on clay particles in soil, and high temperature, both 
    reduced the inhibitory effects. 

    A 96-h EC50 for growth of 0.02 mg/litre and a no-observed-effect
    concentration (NOEC) of 0.01 mg/litre have been reported for the alga 
     Selenastrum capricornutum.  A second study using a formulation and 
    conducted over 72 h suggested substantially less hazard for the same 
    organism. 

    LC50s of 7.8 and 6.9 mg/litre have been reported for the water flea
    (Daphnia magna) with an NOEC of < 5.6 mg/litre.  The NOEC for 
    reproduction   was 0.097 mg/litre.  LC50s for two species of midge 
    larvae of 0.79 and 1.8 mg/litre have been reported. 

    The 96-h LC50 reported for the rainbow trout is 0.1 mg/litre, and the 
    NOEC for a 21-day study was 0.019 mg/litre. 

    Propachlor is moderately to highly toxic for aquatic organisms.  It is 
    not toxic for earthworms at exposure concentrations expected in the 
    soil, the NOEC being 100 mg/kg soil.  The contact LD50 for honey bees, 
    at 311 g/bee, shows that propachlor will not pose a hazard for these 
    insects. Some beneficial parasitic insects have been reported to be 
    adversely affected by propachlor in laboratory and field studies. 

    Propachlor is more toxic for birds when administered via the stomach 
    than when fed in the diet.  Acute LD50s ranged between 137 and 
    735 mg/kg body weight for different bird species.  LC50s from dietary 
    exposure in birds exceeded 5620 mg/kg diet. 
                        
    Propachlor will not pose a hazard for birds in the field, even when in 
    granular formulation. 
                   
    
                         3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    
    3.1 Conclusions

      -   Under normal conditions of use, the general population is not 
          likely to be exposed to propachlor. 

      -   Those occupationally exposed to propachlor should take adequate 
          safety and hygienic precautions in order to protect the skin, 
          eyes, and respiratory tract. 

      -   Propachlor is rapidly degraded in the environment under most 
          conditions.  It will persist longer in cold, dry environments.  
          The conjugated  N-isopropylaniline metabolite persists longer than 
          the parent compound.  Propachlor does not bioconcentrate or 
          biomagnify. 

      -   Propachlor is highly toxic for some aquatic organisms.  Exposure 
          of aquatic organisms from normal usage will be low with maximum 
          expected concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than 
          no-observed-effect concentrations.  Direct containination of 
          water courses will kill aquatic organisms and should be avoided.  
          Propachlor poses a low hazard for birds, earthworms, and honey 
          bees. 

    
    3.2 Recommendations

      -   Workers should be educated about the hazards of propachlor and 
          systematically trained in safe practices and personal hygiene and 
          to use protective equipment. 

      -   Results of present animal studies about mutagenicity are 
          inconclusive and more research is needed. 
        
      -   Studies should be performed on laboratory animals to determine 
          the potential neurotoxic effects of propachlor. 

      -   Only validated analytical methods for residues of propachlor 
          should be used. 

      -   Epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers are 
          needed. 

      -   There is a need to develop methods of biological monitoring for 
          evaluating human exposure to propachlor. 

      -   Research is needed to clarify the exposure of workers employed in 
          the production and agricultural use of propachlor.  The study 
          should also include examination of health effects at the measured 
          exposure levels. 


                    
                    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION 
                      AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         
    
    4.1 Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid

    Propachlor is a herbicide that is only slightly hazardous with normal
    handling (oral LD50 for the rat approximately 1500 mg/kg) (WHO, 1990). 
    No cases of poisoning have been reported in the general population or 
    through occupational exposure.  However, propachlor is a skin irritant 
    and may cause allergic skin reactions.  It may cause severe eye 
    irritation and corneal damage. 

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to 
    propachlor, together with preventive and protective measures and first 
    aid recommendations, are listed in Table 2. 


    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    Poisoning by propachlor is unlikely, unless there has been gross 
    (negligent) exposure or deliberate ingestion. 

    No specific antidote is known.  Treat symptomatically.  In case of 
    ingestion, gastric lavage may be indicated, at the discretion of the 
    doctor.  However, the main hazard with liquid formulations is 
    aspiration of the solvent into the lungs, resulting in chemical 
    pneumonitis.  See also Table 2. 


    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    No special methods required.


    4.1.3  Personal hygiene

    Those engaged in the production, formulation, and transportation and 
    propachlor, and users, should be aware of the effects and hazards of 
    the chemical.  They should be systematically educated and trained in 
    the practice of safety rules, good housekeeping, and personal hygiene, 
    i.e., cleanliness, washing, and the use of their personal protection 
    equipment. 

    
    Table 2. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                   PREVENTION AND PROTECTION            FIRST AID
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           
    SKIN: Irritating to the            Use proper application technique,    Remove contaminated clothing; wash skin
    skin; may sensitize                and proper skin protection: clean,   with soap and water; launder contaminated
                                       rubber, PVC, or neoprene gloves      clothing before reuse

    EYES: Irritating to eyes;          Wear face-shield or goggles          Flush immediately with clean water for at
    may cause corneal damage                                                least 15 minutes; refer for medical attention

    INHALATION: dust and mist are      Avoid inhalation of fine dust and    Remove to fresh air
    irritant to respiratory system     mist, use respiratory protection

    INGESTION: Unlikely to be a        Do not eat, drink, or smoke
    significant occupational hazard    during working hours; wash hands
                                       before eating, drinking, or 
                                       smoking
                                       
    Accidental or deliberate                                                Obtain medical attention immediately
    ingestion could lead to                                                 
    poisoning; the main hazard of 
    ingested liquid formulations
    is aspiration into the lungs

         
    
    4.2 Explosion and fire hazards

    Most propachlor formulations do not burn.  However, some solvents in 
    liquid formulations are highly flammable.  Use dry powder, carbon 
    dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth for dealing with fires. 
    DO NOT use water.  Cool nearby drums with water spray.  Decomposition 
    occurs at 170 C giving rise to toxic fumes. 

    If propachlor is involved in a major fire, or in a fire involving other 
    products, advise the fire service that protective clothing and 
    breathing apparatus should be worn.  The use of water should be 
    confined to the cooling of unaffected stock, thus avoiding the 
    accumulation of polluted run-off from the site. 

    
    4.3 Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, under lock 
    and key, and out of reach of children, animals and unathorized 
    personel.  Store in an area designated for herbicide storage, 
    preferably without drains. 

    Store away from food and animal feed.

    
    4.4 Transport

    Before dispatch, ensure that the containers are sound and that labels 
    are securely fixed and undamaged.  Comply with local transport 
    regulations. 

    Do not transport in compartments that contain food or animal feed.

    
    4.5 Spillage and disposal


    4.5.1  Spillage

    Prevent exposure by the use of appropriate protective clothing and 
    masks. Keep spectators away from any spillage. 

    Empty any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a 
    clean empty drum, and label. 

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp sawdust, sand, or earth and dispose of 
    safely (see below).  If spillage is large, contain it by building a 
    barrier of earth or sandbags.  Avoid contamination of drains and 
    waterways. 

    Spills of powders should be cleaned up using a dustless method (e.g., 
    by a vacuum cleaner suitable for use with toxic dusts).  Alternatively, 
    mix with damp sawdust and place in separate container for subsequent 
    disposal.  Dry brushing should not be carried out, as this creates dust 
    clouds. 

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, spilled material, contaminated absorbents, containers, 
    etc., should be burned in a high-temperature incinerator (at least 800 
    C) with effluent gas scrubbing, designed for pesticide disposal.  When 
    no incinerator is available, bury in an approved dump or in an area 
    where there is no risk of contamination of surface water.  Comply with 
    any local legislation applying to waste disposal.  
     
                    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND 
                              THEIR PREVENTION
                

    Propachlor is not hazardous for terrestrial fauna, but is highly toxic 
    for some aquatic organisms. 

    Do not spray propachlor over bodies of water.  Do not contaminate 
    ponds, waterways, or ditches with the product or used containers.  
    Avoid spray drifting beyond areas to be treated. 
     
     
                       6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY
                                INFORMATION

                     
    The information given in this section has been extracted from the 
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal 
    file and other United Nations sources.  A full reference to the 
    original national document from which the information was extracted can 
    be obtained from IRPTC. 

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals 
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the 
    framework of the legislation of that country.  Furthermore, the 
    regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and 
    should always be verified with the appropriate regulatory authorities 
    before application. 

    
    6.1 Previous evaluations by international bodies

    In the WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard (WHO, 
    1992), technical propachlor is classified in Class III, as slightly 
    hazardous in normal use.  WHO has issued a data sheet on propachlor 
    (No. 78). 

    Neither the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) nor the 
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have evaluated 
    propachlor. 

    
    6.2 Exposure limit values

    Exposure limit values in some countries are given on page 23.


    
    6.3 Specific restrictions

    There are some restrictions, limitations, and safety precautions in 
    some of the countries where propachlor has been registered, e.g., 
    Czechoslovakia, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.  Always 
    consult the competent national authorities. 

    
                   CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS


    Exposure limit values

    _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                               Country/                                                                     Effective
    Medium    Specification    organization    Exposure Limit Description               Value               date
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    AIR       Workplace        USSR            Maximum Allowance Concentration (MAC)    0.5 mg/m3         1977
                                               - ceiling values (CLV)

    WATER     Ambient          USSR            Maximum Allowance Concentration (MAC)    
                                               - surface                                0.01 mg/m           1983
                                               - for fishing                            0.00 mg/m           1981

              Drinking-        Germany         Guideline level                          0.011 mg/litre      1988

    FOOD      Residues         Germany         Maximum residue limit (MRL)              0.1-0.2 mg/litre    1984
                                               (Specified products)

                               USA             Acceptable residue limit (ARL)           0.02-3 mg/kg
                                               (Raw agricultural products)

                               USSR            Maximum residue limit (MRL)              0.1-0.3 mg/kg       1983
                                               (Specified products)

    FOOD      Intake           USSR            Acceptable daily intake (ADI)            0.01 mg/kg          1983

         
    
    6.4 Labelling, packaging, and transport

    The legislation of the European Economic Community requires that 
    propachlor be labelled as a dangerous substance, using the symbol: 
                                                          
Figure 2;;;grph77_2.bmp

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin, and if swallowed, 
          irritating to eyes; keep out of reach of children; keep away from 
          food, drink, and animal feed. 

    
    6.5 Waste disposal

    No information available.
    
                             
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Propachlor (EHC 147, 1993)