VOL.: 26 (1981) (p. 165)
The teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide are well established in many animal species. The drug can also be embryolethal at doses nontoxic to the mother.
Cyclophosphamide demonstrated mutagenic activity in several different assays (bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells in vitro, and Drosophila and mice in vivo). The agent also induced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells of several species in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it induced morphological transformation of mammalian cells in vitro.
Although two cases of limb reduction defects have been reported among the offspring of women treated with cyclophosphamide during pregnancy, no epidemiological data were available to the Working Group for assessing the embryotoxic risk to man. Increases in chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges were seen in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients treated with cyclophosphamide.
There is epidemiological evidence that cyclophosphamide increases the incidence of bladder cancer, and there is a suggestion that the incidence of other cancers may also be increased. There are also many case reports of cancer, particularly bladder cancer and acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia, following cyclophosphamide therapy.
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Previous evaluation: Vol. 9 (1987)
Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987)
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Cyclophosphamide (ICSC)