International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations
VOL.: 31 (1983) (p. 231)
CAS No.: 2318-18-5
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4,8-Secosenecionan-8,11,16-trione,12-hydroxy-4-methyl-
5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation
5.1 Experimental data
Senkirkine was tested for carcinogenicity in male rats by
intraperitoneal administration; it significantly increased the
incidence of liver-cell adenomas. In rats fed the herb Tussilago
farfara L., which has been shown to contain senkirkine as the only
pyrrolizidine alkaloid, an increased incidence of liver
haemangioendothelial sarcomas was observed.
Senkirkine is mutagenic in bacteria and in mammalian cells in
vitro. It also induced chromosomal aberrations and unscheduled DNA
synthesis in mammalian cells in vitro. There is sufficient evidence
that senkirkine is active in short-term tests.
No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity of this
compound to experimental animals.
5.2 Human data
Senkirkine is found in a number of plant species which are used
as foods, herbal remedies and toiletries, resulting in limited human
No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity or
chromosomal effects of this compound in humans.
No case report or epidemiological study of the carcinogenicity of
senkirkine was available to the Working Group.
There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of both
senkirkine and Tussilago farfara L. in experimental animals. In the
absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of the carcinogenicity
of senkirkine to humans could be made.
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Previous evaluation: Vol. 10 (1976)
Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 71: Group 3)
- trans-15-Ethylidene-12b-hydroxy-4,12a,13b-trimethyl 8-oxo-4,8 secosenec-1-enine
Last updated: 16 April 1998