IPCS INCHEM Home

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

CHLORINATED PARAFFINS
(Group 2B)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

VOL.: 48 (1990) (p. 55)

CAS No.: 63449-39-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: Paraffin waxes and hydrocarbon waxes, chloro

CAS No.: 85422-92-0
Chem. Abstr. Name: Paraffin oils and hydrocarbon oils, chloro

CAS No.: 61788-76-9
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, chloro

CAS No.: 68920-70-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C6-18, chloro

CAS No.: 71011-12-6
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C12-13, chloro

CAS No.: 84082-38-2
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-21, chloro

CAS No.: 84776-06-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-32, chloro

CAS No.: 84776-07-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C16-27, chloro

CAS No.: 85049-26-9
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C16-35, chloro

CAS No.: 85535-84-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-13, chloro

CAS No.: 85535-85-9
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C14-17, chloro

CAS No.: 85535-86-0
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C18-28, chloro

CAS No.: 85536-22-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C12-14, chloro

CAS No.: 85681-73-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-14, chloro

CAS No.: 97659-46-6
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-26, chloro

CAS No.: 97553-43-0
Chem. Abstr. Name: Paraffins (petroleum, normal C > 10, chloro

CAS No.: 106232-85-3
Chem. Abstr. Name: Name: Alkanes, C18-20, chloro

CAS No.: 106232-86-4
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C22-40, chloro

CAS No.: 108171-26-2
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C10-12, chloro

CAS No.: 108171-27-3
Chem. Abstr. Name: Alkanes, C22-26, chloro

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

Chlorinated paraffins are mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes produced by the reaction of chlorine with specific normal paraffin fractions from petroleum distillation. Carbon-chain lengths of commercial products are generally between C10 and C30, and the chlorine content is typically between 40 and 70%. Chlorinated paraffins are used as plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride, as extreme-pressure additives in metal-machining fluids, as additives to paints, coatings and sealants to improve their resistance to chemicals and to water, and as flame retardants for plastics, fabrics, paints and coatings. No data on occupational exposure levels were available. Chlorinated paraffins have been detected in water and sediments, in tissues of marine animals, in human foods and in human tissues post mortem.

5.2 Experimental carcinogenicity data

A commercial chlorinated paraffin product of average carbon-chain length C12 and average degree of chlorination 60% was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in one strain of mice and in one strain of rats. In mice, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular tumours in animals of each sex and of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males and of follicular-cell tumours of the thyroid gland in females. In rats, it increased the incidences of hepatocellular tumours in animals of each sex, of follicular-cell tumours of the thyroid in females and of mononuclear- cell leukaemia in males.

A commercial chlorinated paraffin product of average carbon-chain length C23 and average degree of chlorination 43% was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in one strain of mice and in one strain of rats. It increased the incidence of malignant lymphomas in male mice. In rats, it induced phaeochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla in females.

5.3 Human carcinogenicity data

No data were available to the Working Group.

5.4 Other relevant data

Administration of some chlorinated paraffins to rodents resulted in nephrotoxicity and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in hepatocytes.

None of six chlorinated paraffins tested was mutagenic to bacteria either in the presence or absence of an exogenous metabolic system

5.5 Evaluation

There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of a commercial chlorinated paraffin product of average carbon-chain length C12 and average degree of chlorination 60% in experimental animals.

There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of a commercial chlorinated paraffin product of average carbon-chain length C23 and average degree of chlorination 43% in experimental animals.

No data were available from studies in humans on the carcinogenicity of chlorinated paraffins.

Overall evaluation

Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon-chain length C12 and average degree of chlorination approximately 60% are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Synonyms


Last updated 01/20/1998























    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Chlorinated Paraffins (EHC 181, 1996)