For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.
VOL.: 53 (1991) (p. 423)
Chem. Abstr. Name: (T-4)-Bis(dimethylcarbamodithioato-S,S')-zinc
Ziram is used primarily as a rubber vulcanization accelerator but is also used as a foliar fungicide, mainly on fruit and nuts. It has been in commercial use since the 1930s.
Ziram has been formulated for use as a wettable powder, a paste and water-dispersible granules and also in combination with other pesticides.
Exposure can occur during its production, its use in the rubber industry and its application as a fungicide, and, at much lower levels, from consumption of foods containing residues.
No data were available in the Working Group.
Ziram was tested adequately for carcinogenicity by oral administration in one study in mice and one study in rats. In mice, the incidence of benign lung tumours was increased in females. In rats, a dose-related increase in the incidence of C-cell thyroid carcinomas was observed in males.
In single studies, ziram caused embryotoxicity and minor malformations in rats and embryolethality in chicks hatched from injected ova.
An increased frequency of chromatid and chromosomal aberrations was seen in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers who handled and packaged ziram.
Ziram was clastogenic in mammalian cells in vivo and in vitro and induced mutations in cultured rodent cells and in insects and bacteria.
No data were available from studies in humans.
There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of ziram.
Ziram is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Previous evaluations: Vol. 12 (1976) (p. 259); Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 74)
Last updated: 20 November 1997
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Ziram (ICSC) Ziram (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1) Ziram (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1) Ziram (Pesticide residues in food: 1996 evaluations Part II Toxicological)