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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

ZEOLITES OTHER THAN ERIONITE
(Group 3)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

VOL.: 68 (1997) (p. 307)

CAS No.: 1318-02-1
Chem. Abstr. Name: Zeolites

CAS No.: 12173-10-3
Chem. Abstr. Name: Clinoptilolite

CAS No.: 12271-42-0
Chem. Abstr. Name: Clinoptilolite (Na(AlSi5O12 . xH2O)

CAS No.: 67240-23-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Clinoptilolite (AlNaH16(SiO4) . 4H2O)

CAS No.: 12173-98-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Mordenite

CAS No.: 12445-20-4
Chem. Abstr. Name: Mordenite (AlNaH6(SiO3)5)

CAS No.: 66732-10-3
Chem. Abstr. Name: Mordenite (Al2CaH12(SiO3)10 . H2O)

CAS No.: 68652-75-5
Chem. Abstr. Name: Mordenite (Na(AlSi5O12))

CAS No.: 12174-18-4
Chem. Abstr. Name: Phillipsite

CAS No.: 61027-84-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: Phillipsite (CaK[Al3O(SiO3)5] . 6H2O)

CAS No.: 66733-09-3
Chem. Abstr. Name: Phillipsite (AlNa(SiO4) . 6H2O)

CAS No.: 68989-22-0
Chem. Absr. Name: Zeolite A

CAS No.: 68989-23-1
Chem. Abstr. Name: Zeolite X

CAS No.: 79982-98-2
Chem. Abstr. Name: ZSM-5

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

Zeolites are crystalline alumino-silicate minerals with cage-like crystal structures. Zeolites have been used extensively since the late 1940s in a variety of applications. Naturally occurring zeolites, some of which are fibrous, occur worldwide and many are used in materials for the construction industry, in paper, in agriculture and in other applications. A large number of zeolites have been synthesized for use in detergents, as catalysts and as adsorbents and desiccants. Exposures may occur during the mining, production and use of zeolites.

5.2 Human carcinogenicity data

No data were available to the Working Group.

5.3 Animal carcinogenicity data

Clinoptilolite with a particle size in the respirable range was tested for carcinogenicity in rats by intratracheal instillation. No significant increase in the incidence of tumours was found.

No adequate study was available to the Working Group on phillipsite.

Mordenite was studied for carcinogenicity in one experiment in mice by intraperitoneal injection. No peritoneal tumours were found.

Non-fibrous Japanese zeolite was tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment in rats by single intrapleural injection. No increase in pulmonary tumours was found.

Synthetic zeolite A was tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment in rats by oral administration in the diet. No increase in tumour incidence was found.

Synthetic non-fibrous zeolite was tested for carcinogenicity in rats by inhalation exposure. No increase in pulmonary tumours was found.

Synthetic zeolite 4A was tested for carcinogenicity in mice by single intraperitoneal injection. No abdominal tumour was observed.

Synthetic zeolites MS4A and MS5A were tested for carcinogenicity in rats by intraperitoneal, intrapleural and subcutaneous injection. No increase in the incidence of tumours was found.

5.4 Other relevant data

Oral administration of natural and synthetic zeolite particles produced little toxicity in a variety of species. Intratracheal instillation of mordenite in rats produced mild fibrosis and hyperplasia.

Inhalation studies in rats and hamsters of synthetic zeolite A produced no significant pulmonary inflammation or interstitial fibrosis

Mordenite exhibited low cytotoxicity in vitro. A sample of natural zeolite particles from Chonguruu, Russia, induced aberrant metaphases in human whole blood cultures in vitro. This zeolite sample also induced aberrant metaphases in cells collected by peritoneal lavage of mice after intraperitoneal injection.

No data were available to the Working Group on the genetic and related effects of synthetic zeolite.

5.5 Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of zeolites other than erionite.

There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of clinoptilolite, phillipsite, mordenite, non-fibrous Japanese zeolite and synthetic zeolites.

Overall evaluation

Clinoptilolite, phillipsite, mordenite, non-fibrous Japanese zeolite and synthetic zeolites cannot be evaluated as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Synonyms for Clinoptilolite

Synonyms for Mordenite

Synonyms for zeolites


Last updated 05/27/1997























    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations