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1,4-DIOXANE
ICSC: 0041
Peer-Review Status: 11.11.2008 Validated
1,4-Diethylene dioxide
Dioxane
para-Dioxane 
CAS #: 123-91-1 RTECS #: JG8225000
UN #: 1165
EC #: 603-024-00-5
EINECS #: 204-661-8
    Formula: C4H8O2
Molecular mass: 88.1

TYPES OF
HAZARD /
EXPOSURE
ACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMS      PREVENTION      FIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRE Highly flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.  NO open flames, NO sparks and NO smoking. NO contact with strong oxidizing agents. NO contact with hot surfaces.  Use powder, alcohol-resistant foam, water spray, carbon dioxide. 
EXPLOSION Vapour/air mixtures are explosive. Risk of fire and explosion on contact with incompatible substances. See Chemical Dangers.  Closed system, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting. Prevent build-up of electrostatic charges (e.g., by grounding). Do NOT use compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling. Use non-sparking handtools.  In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. 
 
EXPOSURE   PREVENT GENERATION OF MISTS!   
Inhalation Cough. Sore throat. Nausea. Dizziness. Headache. Drowsiness. Vomiting. Unconciousness. Abdominal pain.  Use ventilation (not if powder), local exhaust or breathing protection.  Fresh air, rest. Refer immediately for medical attention. 
Skin MAY BE ABSORBED!  Protective gloves. Protective clothing.  Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. 
Eyes Redness. Pain.  Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.  Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). 
Ingestion See Inhalation.  Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.  Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell. 

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL
PACKAGING & LABELLING
Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Collect leaking liquid in sealable air tight containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT wash away into sewer.  Airtight. 
EC Classification
Symbol: F, Xn; R: 11-19-36/37-40-66; S: (2)-9-16-36/37-46; Note: D 
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 3; UN Pack Group: II 
GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
Highly flammable liquid and vapour
Causes eye irritation
May cause respiratory irritation
Suspected of causing cancer
May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways 
flam;flameexcl mark;warncancer;health haz

EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAFE STORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-30S1165 or 30GF1-I+II.
NFPA Code: H2; F3; R1. 
Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants, strong acids and incompatible materials. Cool. Dry. Well closed. Keep in the dark. Store only if stabilized. Store in an area without drain or sewer access. 

IMPORTANT DATA
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS LIQUID WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR. 

Physical dangers
The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. 

Chemical dangers
The substance can form explosive peroxides on exposure to air. Reacts with oxidants and strong acids. Reacts violently with some catalysts. 

Occupational exposure limits
TLV: 20ppm as TWA; (skin); A3 (confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans); (ACGIH 2008).
MAK: 20 ppm, 73 mg/m³; Carcinogen category: 4; Peak limitation category: I(2); Pregnancy risk group: C; Skin absorption (H); (DFG 2008). 

Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapour and through the skin. 

Inhalation risk
A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C , on spraying or dispersing much faster. 

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. If swallowed the substance may cause vomiting and could result in aspiration pneumonitis. Exposure at high levels could cause lowering of consciousness. 

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
The liquid defats the skin. The substance may have effects on the central nervous system, kidneys and liver. This substance is possibly carcinogenic to humans. 


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Boiling point: 101°C
Melting point: 12°C
Relative density (water = 1): 1.03
Solubility in water: miscible
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 3.9
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.0
Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.08
Flash point: 12°C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 180°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 2-22.0
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.27
Viscosity: 1.17 mm²/s at 25°C 
 

NOTES
Refer for medical attention if breathing difficulties and/or fever develop.
Check for peroxides prior to distillation; eliminate if found. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

IPCS
International
Programme on
Chemical Safety
WHO ILO EC Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission
© IPCS 2004-2012
LEGAL NOTICE Neither the EC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the EC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information.


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations