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    FAO Nutrition Meetings
    Report Series No. 40A,B,C
    WHO/Food Add./67.29




    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME
    ANTIMICROBIALS, ANTIOXIDANTS, EMULSIFIERS,
    STABILIZERS, FLOUR-TREATMENT AGENTS, ACIDS AND BASES





    The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met at Rome,
    13-20 December, 19651 Geneva, 11-18 October, 19662




                   

    1 Ninth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
    Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1966 No. 40; 
    Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1966, 339

    2 Tenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
    Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1967, in press; 


    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    World Health Organization
    1967


    AMMONIUM CARBONATE

    Definition                    Ammonium carbonate consists of ammonium
                                  hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) and
                                  ammonium carbonate (NH2.COONH4) in
                                  varying proportions. It yields not less
                                  than 30 per cent, and not more than 33
                                  per cent. of NH3.

    Description                   Ammonium carbonate occurs as a white
                                  powder or hard, white or translucent
                                  masses, having a strong odour of
                                  ammonia.

    Uses                          As a buffer and neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    CALCIUM CARBONATE

    Synonym                       Chalk

    Chemical name                 Calcium carbonate

    Empirical formula             CaCO3

    Molecular weight              100.09

    Definition                    Calcium carbonate contains not less than
                                  98.0 per cent. CaCO3, after drying.

    Description                   Calcium carbonate occurs as a white
                                  micro-crystalline powder. It is
                                  odourless and tasteless.

    Uses                          As a neutralizing agent, a nutrient
                                  supplement, and a firming agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    MAGNESIUM CARBONATE

    Definition                    Magnesium carbonate contains the
                                  equivalent of not less than 24 per cent.
                                  and not more than 26.4 per cent. of Mg.

    Description                   Magnesium carbonate is a basic hydrated
                                  magnesium carbonate or a normal hydrated
                                  magnesium carbonate or a mixture of the
                                  two. It occurs as odourless, light,
                                  white, friable masses or as a bulky
                                  white powder.

    Uses                          As a neutralizing or anticaking agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    Chemical name                 Potassium carbonate

    Empirical formula              K2CO3 . 1 1/2 H2O

    Molecular weight              138.21 (anhydrous)

    Definition                    Potassium carbonate contains not less
                                  than 99.0 per cent. K2CO3, after
                                  drying.

    Description                   Potassium carbonate occurs as a white
                                  crystalline or granular powder. It is
                                  odourless, has a strong alkaline taste,
                                  and is very deliquescent, It is
                                  available commercially as the anhydrous
                                  salt and as the crystalline material.

    Use                           As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    SODIUM CARBONATE

    Chemical name                 Sodium carbonate

    Empirical formula             Na2CO3. x H2O

    Molecular weight              105.99 (anhydrous)

    Definition                    Sodium carbonate contains not less than
                                  99.0 per cent. of Na2CO3, after
                                  drying.

    Description                   Sodium carbonate occurs as colourless
                                  crystals or as a white, granular or
                                  crystalline powder.

    Use                           As neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    AMMONIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE

    Chemical name                 Ammonium hydrogen carbonate;  Ammonium
                                  bicarbonate

    Empirical formula             NH4HCO3

    Molecular weight              79.06

    Definition                    Ammonium, hydrogen carbonate contains
                                  not less than 99 per cent. and not more
                                  than the equivalent of 100.5 per cent.
                                  NH4

    Description                   Ammonium hydrogen carbonate occurs as
                                  white crystals or as crystalline powder
                                  having a slight odour of ammonia.

    Uses                          As a buffer and neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    POTASSIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE

    Chemical name                 Potassium hydrogen carbonate; Potassium
                                  bicarbonate

    Empirical formula             KHCO3

    Molecular weight              100.12

    Definition                    Potassium bicarbonate contains not less
                                  than 99 per cent. and not more than the
                                  equivalent of 101 per cent. KHCO3 
                                  after drying.

    Description                   Potassium hydrogen carbonate occurs as
                                  odourless, colourless, crystals or as a
                                  white powder or granules.

    Uses                          As a neutralizing and leavening agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    SODIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE

    Synonym                       Baking soda

    Chemical names                Sodium hydrogen carbonate; Sodium
                                  bicarbonate

    Empirical formula             NaHCO3

    Molecular weight              84.01

    Definition                    Sodium hydrogen carbonate contains not
                                  less than 99.0 per cent. NaHCO3 after
                                  drying.

    Description                   Sodium bicarbonate occurs as an
                                  odourless white crystalline powder.

    Uses                          As neutralizing and leavening agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE

    Synonyms                      Strong ammonia solution

    Chemical name                 Ammonium hydroxide

    Empirical formula             NH4OH

    Molecular weight              35.05

    Definition                    Ammonium hydroxide is an aqueous
                                  solution containing not less than 27 per
                                  cent. and not more than 30 per cent. by
                                  weight of NH3.

    Description                   Ammonium hydroxide occurs as a clear,
                                  colourless solution of NH3 having an
                                  exceedingly pungent characteristic
                                  odour.

    Use                            As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    Chemical name                 Calcium hydroxide.

    Empirical formula             Ca(OH)2

    Molecular weight              74.09

    Definition                    Calcium hydroxide contains not less than
                                  95 per cent. Ca(OH)2.

    Description                   Calcium hydroxide occurs as a white
                                  powder, possessing a slightly bitter
                                  alkaline taste.

    Use                           As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Chemical name                 Magnesium hydroxide

    Empirical formula             Mg(OH)2

    Molecular weight              58.34

    Definition                    Magnesium hydroxide contains not less
                                  than 95 per cent. Mg(OH)2, after
                                  drying.

    Description                   Magnesium hydroxide occurs as an
                                  odourless, white, bulky powder with a
                                  slight alkaline taste.

    Uses                          As a neutralizing, drying and colour
                                  retention agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide.

    POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE

    Chemical name                 Potassium hydroxide

    Empirical formula             KOH

    Molecular weight              56.11

    Definition                    Potassium hydroxide contains not less
                                  than 85 per cent. of total alkali
                                  calculated as KOH.

    Description                   Potassium hydroxide occurs as white or
                                  nearly white pellets, flakes, sticks,
                                  fused masses or other forms.

    Use                           As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    SODIUM HYDROXIDE

    Chemical name                 Sodium hydroxide

    Empirical formula             NaOH

    Molecular weight              40.00

    Definition                    Sodium hydroxide contains not less than
                                  95 per cent. of total alkali calculated
                                  as NaOH.

    Description                   Sodium hydroxide occurs as white, or
                                  nearly white pellets, flakes, sticks,
                                  fused masses or other forms.

    Use                           As neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    CALCIUM OXIDE

    Chemical name                 Calcium oxide

    Empirical formula             CaO

    Molecular weight              56.08

    Definition                    Calcium oxide, after heating at about
                                  800 contains not less than 95 per cent.
                                  CaO.

    Description                   Calcium oxide occurs as an odourless,
                                  hard, white or greyish white mass or
                                  granules or a white to greyish white
                                  powder.

    Caution                       Protect eyes when adding water.

    Use                           As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

    See Magnesium Oxide

    MAGNESIUM OXIDE

    Chemical name                 Magnesium oxide

    Empirical formula             MgO

    Molecular weight              40.31

    Definition                    Magnesium oxide contains not less than
                                  96 per cent. of MgO after heating at
                                  about 800.

    Description                   Magnesium oxide occurs as a very bulky
                                  white powder, known as light magnesium
                                  oxide, or as a relatively dense, white
                                  powder, known as heavy magnesium, oxide.
                                  Five grams of light magnesium oxide
                                  occupy a volume of approximately 40 to
                                  50 ml, while 5 g of heavy magnesium
                                  oxide occupy a volume of approximately
                                  10 to 20 ml.

    Use                           As a neutralizing agent.

    Evaluation

         Provided the nutritional implications or the over-all dietary
    intake of cations derived from these additives are taken into account,
    there appear to be no toxicological grounds to limit their use in
    accordance with good manufacturing practice.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations