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    ANNEXES

    ANNEX I

    REPORTS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RESULTING FROM MEETINGS OF THE JOINT
    FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES

    1.   General principles governing the use of food additives (First
         report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
         Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 15,
         1958; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 129, 1957 (out of
         print).

    2.   Procedures for the testing of intentional food additive, to
         establish their safety for use (Second report of the Joint
         FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, No. 17, 1958; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 144, 1958 (out of print).

    3.   Specifications for identity and purity of food additives
         (antimicrobial preservatives and antioxidants) (Third report
         of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives).
         These specifications were subsequently revised and published
         as Specifications for identity and purity of food additives,
         Vol. 1. Antimicrobial preservatives and antioxidants, Rome,
         Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1962
         (out of print).

    4.   Specifications for identity and purity of food additives (food
         colours) (Fourth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee
         on Food Additives). These specifications were subsequently
         revised and published as Specifications for identity and
         purity of food additives, Vol. II. Food colours, Rome, Food
         and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1963 (out
         of print).

    5.   Evaluation of the carcinogenic hazards of food additives
         (Fifth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
         Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 29,
         1961; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 220, 1961 (out of
         print).

    6.   Evaluation of the toxicity of a number of antimicrobials and
         antioxidants (Sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
         Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 31, 1962; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 228,
         1962 (out of print).

    7.   Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: emulsifiers, stabilizers,
         bleaching and maturing agents (Seventh report of the Joint
         FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, no. 35, 1964; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 281, 1964 (out of print).

    8.   Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: food colours and some
         antimicrobials and antioxidants (Eighth report of the Joint
         FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, No. 38, 1965; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 309, 1965 (out of print).

    9.   Specifications for identity and purity and toxicological
         evaluation of some antimicrobials and antioxidants. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 38A, 1965;
         WHO/Food/Add/24.65 (out of print).

    10.  Specifications for identity and purity and toxicological
         evaluation of food colours. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 35B, 1966; WHO/Food Add/66.25.

    11.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some antimicrobials, 
         antioxidants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flour-treatment
         agents, acids, and rinses (Ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO
         Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 40, 1966; WHO Technical Report Series, No.
         339, 1966 (out of print).

    12.  Toxicological evaluation of some antimicrobials, antioxidants,
         emulsifiers, stabilizers, flour-treatment agents, acids, and
         bases. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 40A, B, C;
         WHO/Food Add/67.29.

    13.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some emulsifiers and 
         stabilizers and certain other substances (Tenth report of the
         Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 43, 1967; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 373, 1967.

    14.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives 
         and their toxicological evaluation: some flavouring substances
         and non-nutritive sweetening agents (Eleventh report of the
         Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 44, 1968; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 383, 1968.

    15.  Toxicological evaluation of some flavouring substances and
         non-nutritive sweetening agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 44A, 1968; WHO/Food Add/68.33.

    16.  Specifications and criteria for identity and purity of some
         flavouring substances and non-nutritive sweetening agents. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 44B, 1969; WHO/ Food
         Add/69.31.

    17.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some antibiotics (Twelfth
         report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
         Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 45,
         1969; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 430, 1969.

    18.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some
         antibiotics. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 45A,
         1969; WHO/Food Add/69.34.

    19.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some food colours,
         emulsifiers, stabilizers, anticaking agents, and certain other
         substances (Thirteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
         Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 46, 1970; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 445,
         1970.

    20.  Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, emulsifiers,
         stabilizers, anticaking agents, and certain other substances.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46A, 1970; WHO/Food
         Add/70.36.

    21.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some food
         colours, emulsifiers, stabilizers, anticaking agents, and
         certain other food additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 46B, 1970; WHO/Food Add/70.37.

    22.  Evaluation of food additives: specifications for the identity
         and purity of food additives and their toxicological
         evaluation: some extraction solvents and certain other
         substances; and a review of the technological efficacy of some
         antimicrobial agents (Fourteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO
         Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 48, 1971; WHO Technical Report Series,
         No. 462, 1971.

    23.  Toxicological evaluation of some extraction solvents and
         certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 48A, 1971; WHO/Food Add/70.39.

    24.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some extraction
         solvents and certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 48B, 1971; WHO/Food Add/70.40.

    25.  A review of the technological efficacy of some antimicrobial
         agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 48C, 1971;
         WHO/Food Add/70.41.

    26.  Evaluation of food additives: some enzymes, modified starches,
         and certain other substances: toxicological evaluations and
         specifications and a review of the technological efficacy of
         some antioxidants (Fifteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO
         Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 50, 1972; WHO Technical Report Series,
         No. 488, 1972.

    27.  Toxicological evaluation of some enzymes, modified starches,
         and certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 50A, 1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 1, 1972.

    28.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some enzymes and
         certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 50B, 1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 2, 1972.

    29.  A review of the technological efficacy of some antioxidants
         and synergists. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 50C,
         1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 3, 1972.

    30.  Evaluation of certain food additives and the contaminants
         mercury, lead, and cadmium (Sixteenth report of the Joint
         FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, No. 51, 1972; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 505, 1972.

    31.  Evaluation of mercury, lead, cadmium, and the food additives
         amaranth, diethylpyrocarbamate, and octyl gallate. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 51A, 1972; WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 4, 1972.

    32.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives with a
         review of general principles and of specifications
         (Seventeenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         No. 53,1974; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 539, 1974, and
         corrigendum (out of print).

    33.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives including
         anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers,
         and thickening agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         No. 53A, 1974; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 5, 1974.

    34.  Specifications for identity and purity of thickening agents,
         anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants and
         emulsifiers. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 4, 1978.

    35.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Eighteenth report of the
         Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54, 1974; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 557, 1974, and corrigendum.

    36.  Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, enzymes,
         flavour enhancers, thickening agents, and certain other food
         additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54A,
         1975; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 6, 1975.

    37.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some food
         colours, flavour enhancers, thickening agents, and certain
         food additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54B,
         1975; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 7, 1975.

    38.  Evaluation of certain food additives: some food colours,
         thickening agents, smoke codensates, and certain other
         substances (Nineteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
         Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 55, 1975; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 576,
         1975.

    39.  Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, thickening
         agents, and certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 55A, 1975; WHO Food Additives Series,
         No. 8, 1975.

    40.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 55B,
         1976; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 9, 1976.

    41.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Twentieth report of the
         Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Food
         and Nutrition Series, No. 1, 1976; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 599, 1976.

    42.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 10, 1976.

    43.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Series, No. 1B, 1977; WHO
         Food Additives Series, No. 11, 1977.

    44.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Twenty-first report of
         the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO
         Technical Report Series, No. 617, 1978.

    45.  Summary of toxicological data of certain food additives. WHO
         Food Additives Series, No. 12, 1977.

    46.  Specifications for identity and purity of some food additives,
         including antioxidants, food colours, thickeners, and others.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 57, 1977.

    47.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Twenty-second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 631, 1978.

    48.  Summary of toxicological data of certain food additives and
         contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 13, 1978.

    49.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 7, 1978.

    50.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Twenty-third report of
         the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO
         Technical Report Series, No. 648, 1980, and corrigenda.

    51.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 14, 1980.

    52.  Specifications for identity and purity of food colours,
         flavouring agents, and other food additives. FAO Food and
         Nutrition Paper, No. 12, 1979.

    53.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Twenty-fourth report of
         the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO
         Technical Report Series, No. 653, 1980.

    54.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 15, 1980.

    55.  Specifications for identity and purity of food additives
         (sweetening agents, emulsifying agents, and other food
         additives). FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 17, 1980.

    56.  Evaluation of certain food additives (Twenty-fifth report of
         the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO
         Technical Report Series, No. 669, 1981.

    57.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 16, 1981.

    58.  Specifications for identity and purity of food additives
         (carrier solvents, emulsifiers and stabilizers, enzyme
         preparations, flavouring agents, food colours, sweetening
         agents, and other food additives). FAO Food and Nutrition
         Paper, No. 19, 1981.

    59.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 683, 1982.

    60.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 17, 1982.

    61.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 25, 1982.

    62.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Twenty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee
         on Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 696,
         1983, and corrigenda.

    63.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and
         contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 18, 1983.

    64.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 28, 1983.

    65.  Guide to specifications--General notices, general methods,
         identification tests, test solutions, and other reference
         materials. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 5, Rev. 1, 1983.

    66.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Twenty-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 710, 1984.

    67.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and
         contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 19, 1984.

    68.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 31/1, 1984.

    69.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 31/2, 1984.

    70.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Twenty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 733, 1986.

    71.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 34, 1986.

    72.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and
         contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 20. Cambridge
         University Press, 1987.

    73.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Thirtieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 751, 1987.

    74.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and
         contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 21. Cambridge
         University Press, 1987.

    75.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 37, 1987.

    76.  Principles for the safety assessment of food additives and
         contaminants in food. WHO Environmental Health Criteria,
         No. 70. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1987.

    77.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Thirty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 759, 1987.

    78.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. WHO Food
         Additives Series, No. 22. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

    79.  Specifications for the identity and purity of certain food
         additives. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 38, 1988.

    80.  Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food
         (Thirty-second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 763, 1988.

    81.  Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues
         in food. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 23. Cambridge
         University Press, 1988.

    82.  Residues of some veterinary drugs in animals and foods. FAO
         Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 41, 1988.

    83.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
         (Thirty-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
         Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 779, 1989.

    ANNEX 2

    ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE MONOGRAPHS

    ADI        acceptable daily intake
    ATP        adenosine triphosphate
    BBN        N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine
    BHA        butylated hydroxyanisole
    BHT        butylated hydroxytoluene
    BUN        blood urea nitrogen
    b.w.       body weight
    CDC        Centers for Disease Control (U.S.)
    CEC        Commission of the European Communities
    CIIT       Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology
    CHO        Chinese hamster ovary
    CNS        central nervous system
    DMBA       7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene
    DNA        Deoxyribonucleic acid
    EEC        European Economic Community
    EP         erythrocyte protoporphyrin
    FAA        N-2-fluorenylacetamide
    FAO        Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    FDA        Food and Drug Administration
    GABA       gamma-aminobutyric acid
    GDL        glucono delta-lactone
    GGT        gamma-glutamyltransferase
    GOT        see SGOT
    GPT        see SGPT
    Hb         haemoglobin
    HPLC       high pressure liquid chromatography
    IARC       International Agency for Research on Cancer
    i.m.       intramuscular
    i.p.       intraperitoneal
    IPCS       International Programme on Chemical Safety
    i.v.       intravenous
    JECFA      Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
    LD50       lethal dose, median
    LDH        lactate dehydrogenase
    MNU        methylnitrosourea
    NAD        nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    NADPH      nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    NHANES II  Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
               U,S.)
    NOEL       no-observed-effect level
    OCT        ornithine carbamoyltransferase
    PAS        periodic acid Shiffs
    PBI        protein-bound iodine
    PCV        haematocrit
    PTWI       provisional tolerable weekly intake
    RBC        red blood cell (erythrocyte count)

    rT3        reverse triiodothyronine
    SAP        serum alkaline phosphatase
    s.c.       subcutaneous
    SCE        sister chromatid exchange
    SG         specific gravity
    SGOT       serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase
    SGPT       serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase
    T3         triiodothyronine
    T4         thyroxine
    TLC        thin layer chromatography
    TRH        TSH-releasing hormone
    TSH        thyrotropin
    WBC        white blood cell (total leukocyte count)
    WHO        World Health Organization
    w/w        weight/weight

    ANNEX 3

    JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES

    Geneva, 21-30 March 1988

    Members invited by FAO

    Mr J.F. Howlett, Head of Food Additives Branch II, Food Science
         Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food,
         London, England

    Mrs D.C. Kirkpatrick, Director, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health
         Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Canada

    Professor K. Kojima, College of Environmental Health, Azabu
         University, Sagamihara-shi, Japan (Vice-Chairman)

    Mrs I. Meyland, Scientific Officer, Central Laboratory Division A,
         National Food Agency, Ministry of Health, Soborg, Denmark

    Dr J.P. Modderman, Division of Food Chemistry and Technology,
         Center For Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug
         Administration, Washington, DC, USA

    Members invited by WHO

    Dr H. Blumenthal, Two Farm Drive, Silver Spring, MD, USA

    Professor A.H. Ibrahim, Director, National Chemical Laboratories,
         Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan

    Professor M.J. Rand, Professor of Pharmacology, Department of
         Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
         (Chairman)

    Professor F.G. Reyes, Professor of Food Toxicology, School of Food
         Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao
         Paulo, Brazil

    Dr J.H. Steadman, Senior Principal Medical Officer, Division of
         Toxicology and Environmental Protection, Department of Health
         and Social Security, London, England (Rapporteur)

    Professor V. Tutelyan, Deputy Director, Institute of Nutrition,  
         Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    Secretariat

    Dr G. Burin, Toxicologist, Hazard Evaluation Division, Office of
         Pesticide Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency,
         Washington, DC, USA (WHO Consultant)

    Dr J.R.P. Cabral, Scientist, International Agency for Research on
         Cancer, Lyon, France (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Mr A. Feberwee, Chairman, Codex Committee on Food Additives and
         Contaminants; and Deputy Director, Nutrition and Quality
         Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hague, The
         Netherlands (Member of FAO Secretariat)

    Professor C.L. Galli, Professor of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy,
         Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan,
         Milan, Italy (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr G. Gheorghiev, Nutrition Officer (Consumer Protection) Food
         Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy (Joint
         Secretary)

    Dr D.L. Grant, Chief, Toxicological Evaluation Division, Bureau of
         Chemical Safety, Foods Directorate, Health Protection Branch,
         Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Canada (WHO Temporary
         Adviser)

    Mr R. Haigh, Principal Administrator, Commission of the European
         Communities, Brussels, Belgium (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr Y. Hayashi, Chief, Division of Pathology, National Institute of
         Hygienic Sciences, Biological Safety Research Center,
         Setagayaku, Tokyo, Japan (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr J.L. Herrman, Scientist, International Programme on Chemical  
         Safety, Division of Environmental Health, WHO, Geneva,      
         Switzerland (Joint Secretary)

    Dr R.W. Moch, Assistant for Pathology Coordination, Office of
         Toxicological Sciences, Center for Food Safety and Applied
         Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA
         (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr N. Rao Maturu, Food Standards Officer, Joint FAO/WHO Food
         Standards Programme, FAO, Rome, Italy

    Dr A.M. Rulis, Chief, Regulatory Food Chemistry Branch, Center
         for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug
         Administration, Washington, DC, USA (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr R.J. Scheuplein, Deputy Director, Office of Toxicological
         Sciences, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food
         and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA (WHO Temporary
         Adviser)

    Dr P. Shubik, Senior Research Fellow, Green College, Oxford,
         England (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Professor R. Truhaut, Emeritus Professor of Toxicology, Faculty of
         Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, René Descartes,
         University Paris, France (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Professor R. Walker, Professor of Food Science, Department of
         Biochemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, England (WHO
         Temporary Adviser)

    ANNEX 4

    ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKES, OTHER TOXICOLOGICAL RECOMMENDATIONS,
    AND INFORMATION ON SPECIFICATIONS

                                                                          

                                                      ADI for man and
    Substance                       Specifications1   other toxicological
                                                      recommendations
                                                                          

    A. Food additives

       Antioxidant

         Butylated hydroxyanisole   R                 0-0.5 mg/kg b.w.

       Flavouring agents

         trans-Anethole             R                 0-1.2 mg/kg b.w.2
         d- & 1-Carvone             R                 0-1.0 mg/kg b.w.2,3

       Flour-treatment agent

         Potassium bromate          S                 0-60 mg bromate/kg
                                                      of flour4

       Food colour

         Erythrosine                R                 0-0.05 mg/kg b.w.2

       Sweetening agents

         Maltitol                   N5                ADI not specified6
         Maltitol syrup             R7                ADI not specified6,8
         Trichlorogalactosucrose9   N,T               0-3.5 mg/kg b.w.2

       Thickening agent

         Karaya gum                 S                 ADI not specified6
                                                                          

                                                                          

                                                      ADI for man and
    Substance                       Specifications1   other toxicological
                                                      recommendations
                                                                          

       Miscellaneous food additives

         Glycerol ester of wood     R,T               No ADI allocated10
           rosin
         Mineral oil                R                 ADI not specified2,6,11
         Paraffin wax               R,T               No ADI allocated10
         Petroleum jelly            S,T               No ADI allocated10
         Sodium, potassium, and
           calcium salts of oleic
           acid                     R                 ADI not specified6
                                                                          

                                        Provisional tolerable weekly
                                        intake (PTWI) for humans and other
                                        toxicological recommendations
                                                                          

    B. Contaminants

         Aluminium                      7 mg/kg b.w.12
         Arsenic (inorganic)            0.015 mg/kg b.w.
         Cadmium                        0.007 mg/kg b.w.
         Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate    Provisional acceptance13
         Iodine                         [0.017 mg/kg b.w.]14
         Methylmercury                  0.0033 mg/kg b.w.15
         Tin                            14 mg/kg b.w.16
                                                                          

                                                                          

                               Specifications only1
                                                                          

         Bone phosphate                                 R
         Insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone                 R
         Isomalt                                        R
         Lactitol                                       R,T
         Mannitol                                       R
         Modified starches                              R,T17,18
         Potassium iodate                               R
         Saccharin                                      R
         Sorbitan monooleate                            R
         Sorbitol                                       R
         Sorbitol syrup                                 R
         Xanthan gum                                    R,T
         Xylitol                                        R
                                                                          
        Notes to Annex 4

    1.   N, new specifications prepared; R, existing specifications
         revised; S, specifications exist, revision not considered or not
         required; and T, the existing, new, or revised specifications are
         tentative and comments are invited.

    2.   Temporary acceptance.

    3.   ADI applies to the two listed compounds, alone, or in
         combination.

    4.   Acceptable level for treatment of flours for bread-making.

    5.   New specifications were developed for 98% pure maltitol
         separately from maltitol syrup.

    6.   ADI "not specified" means that, on the basis of the available
         data (chemical, biochemical, toxicological, and other), the total
         daily intake of the substance, arising from its use at the levels
         necessary to achieve the desired effect and from its acceptable
         background in food, does not, in the opinion of the Committee,
         represent a hazard to health. For that reason, and for the
         reasons stated in the individual evaluations, the establishment
         of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) expressed in numerical form
         is not deemed necessary.

    7.   Designated as "hydrogenated glucose syrups" at previous meetings.

    8.   The ADI previously allocated to hydrogenated glucose syrups
         applies to maltitol syrup meeting the revised specifications.

    9.   This compound was on the agenda under the name "sucralose".

    10.  Insufficient information available on the toxicology and/or
         chemical composition of the substance(s) to establish and ADI.

    11.  Applies only to those mineral oils currently in use as releasing
         agents and lubricants.

    12.  The PTWI includes food additive uses of aluminium salts.

    13.  The use of food-contact materials from which bis(2-ethylhexyl)
         phthalate may migrate is provisionally acceptable, on condition
         that the quantity of the substance migrating into the food is
         reduced to the lowest level technically attainable.

    14.  Provisional maximum tolerable daily intake. The nutritional
         requirement for iodine is currently considered by WHO to be in
         the range of 0.10 to 0.14 mg per person per day for adults. The
         nutritional requirement for iodine is under review by WHO.

    15.  Applies to methylmercury. New data were not available on
         inorganic mercury.

    16.  Includes tin resulting from food additive uses. Efforts should be
         made to keep tin levels in canned foods as low as practicable,
         because of the possibility of gastric irritation.

    17.  Separate specifications for enzyme-treated starches were
         published in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, No. 4, 1978.

    18.  The "tentative" qualification applies to oxidized starch and
         acetylated distarch adipate.
    





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations