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    INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION



    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME
    FOOD COLOURS, ENZYMES, FLAVOUR
    ENHANCERS, THICKENING AGENTS, AND
    CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES



    WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES 6







    The evaluations contained in this publication were prepared by the
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met in Rome,
    4-13 June 19741


    World Health Organization     Geneva     1975






              

    1  Eighteenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on
    Food Additives, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1974, No. 557.
    FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 54.

    ANNEX 1

    REPORTS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RESULTING FROM PREVIOUS MEETINGS OF THE
    JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES

    1.   General Principles Governing the Use of Food Additives. First
         Report, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1957, No. 15;
         Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1957, No. 129.

    2.   Procedures for the Testing of Intentional Food Additives to
         Establish their Safety for Use. Second Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1958, No. 17; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1958, No. 144.

    3.   Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives
         (Antimicrobial Preservatives and Antioxidants). Third Report.
         These specifications were subsequently revised and published as
         Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives,
         vol. I. Antimicrobial Preservatives and Antioxidants, Rome,
         Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1962.

    4.   Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives (Food
         Colours). Fourth Report. These specifications were subsequently
         revised and published as Specifications for Identity and Purity
         of Food Additives, vol. II. Food Colours, Rome, Food and
         Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1963.

    5.   Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Hazards of Food Additives. Fifth
         Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1961, No. 29;
         Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1961, No. 220.

    6.   Evaluation of the Toxicity of a Number of Antimicrobials and
         Antioxidants. Sixth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1962, No. 31; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1962,
         No. 228.

    7.   Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Emulsifiers, Stabilizers,
         Bleaching and Maturing Agents. Seventh Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1964, No. 35; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1964, No. 281.

    8.   Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives
         and their Toxicological Evaluation: Food Colours and some
         Antimicrobials and Antioxidants. Eighth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1965, No. 38; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1965, No. 309.

    *9.  Specifications for Identity and Purity and Toxicological
         Evaluation of Some Antimicrobials and Antioxidants.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1965, No. 38A; WHO/Food
         Add/24.65.

    *10. Specifications for Identity and Purity and Toxicological
         Evaluation of Food Colours. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1966, No. 38B; WHO/Food Add/66.25.

    11.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives
         and their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Antimicrobials,
         Antioxidants, Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Flour-Treatment Agents,
         Acids and Bases. Ninth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1966, No. 40; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1966,
         No. 339.

    12.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Emulsifiers and Stabilizers
         and Certain other Substances. Tenth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1967, No. 43; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1967, No. 373.

    *13. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Antimicrobials, Antioxidants,
         Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Flour-treatment Agents, Acids and
         Bases. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 40A, B, C;
         WHO/Food Add/67.29

    14.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Flavouring Substances and
         Non-Nutritive Sweetening Agents. Eleventh Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1968, No. 44; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1968, No. 383.

    *15. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Flavouring Substances and Non-
         Nutritive Sweetening Agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1968, No. 44A; WHO/Food Add/68.33.

    *16. Specifications and Criteria for Identity and Purity of Some
         Flavouring Substances and Non-Nutritive Sweetening Agents. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 44B; WHO/Food
         Add/69.31.

    17.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Antibiotics. Twelfth Report.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 45; Wld Hlth
         Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1969, No. 430.

    *18. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Antibiotics.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 45A; WHO/Food
         Add/69.34.

    19.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Food Colours, Emulsifiers,
         Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents, and Certain Other Substances.
         Thirteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1970,
         No. 46; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1970, No. 445.

    *20. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Food Colours, Emulsifiers,
         Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents and Certain Other Substances.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46A; WHO/Food
         Add/70.36.

    *21. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Food Colours,
         Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents and Certain Other
         Food Additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46B;
         WHO/Food Add/70.37

    22.  Evaluation of Food Additives. Specifications for the Identity and
         Purity of Food Additives and their Toxicological Evaluation: Some
         Extraction Solvents and Certain Other Substances; and a Review of
         the Technological Efficacy of Some Antimicrobial Agents.
         Fourteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971,
         No. 48; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1971, No. 462.

    *23. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Extraction Solvents and Certain
         Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971,
         No. 48A; WHO/Food Add/70.39.

    *24. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Extraction
         Solvents and Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, 1971, No. 48B; WHO/Food Add/70.40.

    *25. A Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some Antimicrobial
         Agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971, No. 48C;
         WHO/Food Add/70.41

    26.  Evaluation of Food Additives. Some Enzymes, Modified Starches,
         and Certain Other Substances: Toxicological Evaluations and
         Specifications and a Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some
         Antioxidants. Fifteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1972, No. 50; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1972,
         No. 488.

    27.  Toxicological Evaluation of Some Enzymes, Modified Starches and
         Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         1972, No. 50A; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 1.

    28.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Enzymes and
         Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         1972, No. 50B; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 2.

    29.  A Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some Antioxidants and
         Synergists. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1972, No.
         50C; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 3.

    30.  Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and the Contaminants
         Mercury, Lead and Cadmium. Sixteenth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1972, No. 51; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1972, No. 505.

    31.  Evaluation of Mercury, Lead, Cadmium and the Food Additives
         Amaranth, Diethylpyrocarbonate and Octyl Gallate. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1972, No. 51A; WHO Food Additives
         Series, 1972, No. 4.

              

    *    These documents can be obtained on request from: Food Additives,
    World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, or Food Policy
    and Food Science Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations, 00100 Rome, Italy.

    ANNEX 2

    MEMBERSHIP OF THE EIGHTEENTH JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD
    ADDITIVES

    Rome, 4-13 June 1974

    Members invited by FAO

    Mr D. F. Dodgen, Director, Food Chemicals Codex, National Academy of
         Sciences, Washington, United States of America

    Dr H. Eich, BRD, DFG Food Colour Commission, Besigheim, Rossertweg 8,
         Federal Republic of Germany

    Dr S. W. Gunner, Head, Food Additive Unit, Division of Additives and
         Pesticides, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Protection Branch,
         Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada

    Mr A. W. Hubbard, Head, Food Science Division, Ministry of
         Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, England (Vice-Chairman)

    Dr K. Kojima, Director, Laboratory for Medicinal Plants, National
         Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

    Dr P. L. Schuller, Head of the Laboratory for Chemical Analysis of
         Foodstuffs, National Institute of Public Health, Bilthoven,
         Netherlands

    Members invited by WHO

    Dr F. Berglund, Head, Food Research Department, National Food
         Administration, Stockholm, Sweden

    Dr J. C. Dacre, Associate Professor of Medicine, Laboratory of
         Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University
         Medical School, New Orleans, United States of America

    Dr W. A. Mannell, Chief, Toxicological Evaluation Division, Foods
         Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Department of National
         Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada (Rapporteur)

    Professor P. Marquardt, Chief, Institute for Experimental
         Therapeutics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg i. Brisgau,
         Federal Republic of Germany

    Dr P. Shubik, Director, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer,
         University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United
         States of America

    Professor R. Truhaut, Director, Toxicological Research Centre,
         Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, René
         Descartes University, Paris, France

    Observers (invited by FAO)

    Dr G. F. Wilmink, Chairman Codex Committee on Food Additives; Ministry
         of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hague, Netherlands

    Dr R. Marcuse, Chairman, IUPAC, Food Section; Swedish Institute of
         Food Preservation Research, SIK, Göteborg, Sweden

    Secretariat

    Dr H. Blumenthal, Deputy Director, Division of Toxicology, Bureau of
         Foods, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, United States of
         America (WHO Consultant)

    Mrs B. M. Dix, Nutrition Officer, Food Standards and Food Science
         Service, FAO, Rome

    Dr P.S. Elias, Principal Medical Officer, Department of Health and
         Social Security, London, England (WHO Consultant)

    Dr K. O. Herz, Nutrition Officer, Food Standards and Food Science
         Service, FAO, Rome

    Dr L. G. Ladomery, Liaison Officer, Food Standards and Food Science
         Service, FAO, Rome

    Dr F. C. Lu, Chief, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (Joint
         Secretary)

    Dr R. K. Malik, Senior Officer, Food Standards and Food Science
         Service, FAO, Rome (Joint Secretary)

    Dr F. Tarding, Head, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of
         Toxicology, National Food Institute, SŘborg, Denmark (WHO
         Consultant)

    Dr G. Vettorazzi, Scientist, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations