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    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES



    WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES 10





    The evaluations contained in this document were prepared by the
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives*
    Rome, 21-29 April 1976



    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    World Health Organization




    *Twentieth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
    Additives, Geneva, 1976, WHO Technical Report Series No. 599, FAO Food
    and Nutrition Series No. 1.

    Annex 1

    REPORTS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RESULTING FROM PREVIOUS MEETINGS OF 
    THE JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES

         Documents marked with an asterisk may be obtained on request
    from: Food Additives, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27,
    Switzerland, or Food Standards and Food Science Service, Food and
    Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 00100 Rome, Italy.

    1.   General principles governing the use of food additives. (First
         report of the Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 15, 1957; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 129, 1957
         (out of print).

    2.   Procedures for the testing of intentional food additives to
         establish their safety for use. (Second report of the Expert
         Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 17, 1958;
         WHO Technical Report Series, No. 144, 1958 (out of print).

    3.   Specifications for identity and purity of food additives
         (anti-microbial preservatives and antioxidants). (Third report of
         the Expert Committee). These specifications were subsequently 
         revised and published as Specifications for identity and purity 
         of food additives, vol. I. Antimicrobial preservatives and 
         antioxidants, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
         United Nations, 1962 (out of print).

    4.   Specifications for identity and purity of food additives (food 
         colours). (Fourth report of the Expert Committee). These 
         specifications were subsequently revised and published as 
         Specifications for identity and purity of food additives, vol. 
         II. Food colours, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of
         the United Nations, 1963 (out:of print).

    5.   Evaluation of the carcinogenic hazards of food additives.
         (Fifth report of the Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 29, 1961; WHO Technical Report Series, No.
         220, 1961 (out of print).

    6.   Evaluation of the toxicity of a number of antimicrobials and 
         antioxidants. (Sixth report of the Expert Committee). FAO 
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 31, 1962; WHO Technical 
         Report Series, No. 228, 1962. 

    7.   Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: emulsifiers, stabilizers,
         bleaching and maturing agents. (Seventh report of the Expert
         Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 35, 1964;
         WHO Technical Report Series, No. 281, 1964 (out of print).

    8.   Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives and
         their toxicological evaluation: food colours and some
         antimicrobials and antioxidants. (Eighth report of the Expert
         Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 38, 1965,
         WHO Technical Report Series, No. 309, 1965 (out of print).

    *9.  Specifications for identity and purity and toxicological
         evaluation of some antimicrobials and antioxidants. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 38A, 1965; WHO/Food
         Add/24.65.

    *10. Specifications for identity and purity and toxicological
         evaluation of food colours. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 38B, 1966; WHO/Food Add/66.25.

    11.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some antimicrobials,
         antioxidants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flour-treatment agents,
         acids and bases. (Ninth report of the Expert Committee). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 40, 1966; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 339, 1966.

    12.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some emulsifiers and
         stabilizers and certain other substances. (Tenth report of the
         Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 43,
         1967; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 373, 1967.

    *13. Toxicological evaluation of some antimicrobials, antioxidants,
         emulsifiers, stabilizers, flour-treatment agents, acids and
         bases. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 40 A, B, C;
         WHO/Food Add/67.29.

    14.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some flavouring substances
         and non-nutritive sweetening agents. (Eleventh report of the
         Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 44,
         1968; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 383, 1968.

    *15. Toxicological evaluation of some flavouring substances and
         non-nutritive sweetening agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, No. 44A, 1968; WHO/Food Add/68.33.

    *16. Specifications and criteria for identity and purity of some 
         flavouring substances and non-nutritive sweetening agents. FAO 
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 44B, 1969; WHO/Food Add/ 
         69.31.

    17.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some antibiotics. (Twelfth 
         report of the Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report 
         Series, No. 45, 1969; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 430, 
         1969.

    *18. Specifications for the identity and purity of some antibiotics.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 43A, 1969; WHO/Food
         Add/69.34.

    19.  Specifications for the identity and purity of food additives
         and their toxicological evaluation: some food colours;
         emulsifiers, stabilizers; anticaking agents, and certain other
         substances. (Thirteenth report of the Expert Committee). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46, 1970; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 445, 1970.

    *20. Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, emulsifiers, 
         stabilizers, anticaking agents and certain other substances.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46A; WHO/Food
         Add/70.36.

    *21. Specifications for the identity and purity of some food colours, 
         emulsifiers, stabilizers, anticaking agents and certain other 
         food additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46B, 
         WHO/Food Add/70.37.

    22.  Evaluation of food additives: specifications for the identity
         and purity of food additives and their toxicological evaluation:
         some extraction solvents and certain other substances; and a
         review of the technological efficacy of some antimicrobial
         agents. (Fourteenth report of the Expert Committee). FAO 
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 48, 1971; WHO Technical 
         Report Series, No. 462, 1971.

    *23. Toxicological evaluation of some extraction solvents and certain
         other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No.
         48A, 1971; WHO/Food Add/70.39.

    *24. Specifications for the identity and purity of some extraction
         solvents and certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, No. 48B, 1971;: WHO/Food Add/70.40.

    *25. A review of the technological efficacy of some antimicrobial
         agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 48C, 1971;
         WHO/Food Add/70.41

    26.  Evaluation of food additives: some enzymes, modified starches,
         and certain other substances: toxicological evaluations and
         specifications and a review of the technological efficacy of
         some antioxidants. (Fifteenth report of the Expert Committee).
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 50, 1972; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 488, 1972.

    27.  Toxicological evaluation of some enzymes, modified starches and
          certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series,  No. 50A, 1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 1, 1972.

    28.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some enzymes and
          certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series,  No. 50B, 1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 2, 1972.

    29.  A review of the technological efficacy of some antioxidants and
          synergists. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 50C,
         1972; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 3, 1972.

    30.  Evaluation of certain food additives and the contaminants
         mercury, lead and cadmium. (Sixteenth report of the Expert 
         Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 51,  1972;
         WHO Technical Report Series, No. 505, 1972, and corrigendum.

    31.  Evaluation of mercury, lead, cadmium and the food additives
         amaranth, diethyl-pyrocarbonate and octyl gallate. FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 51A, 1972; WHO Food 
         Additives Series, No. 4, 1972.

    32.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives with a
         review of general principles and of specifications.
         (Seventeenth report of the Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, No. 53, 1974; WHO Technical Report
         Series, No. 539, 1974, and corrigendum.

    33.  Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives including
         anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers
         and thickening agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         No. 53A; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 5, 1974.

    34.  Evaluation of certain food additives. (Eighteenth report of the
         Expert Committee). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,  No. 54,
         1974; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 557, 1974, and 
         corrigendum.

    35.  Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, enzymes, flavour
         enhancers, thickening agents, and certain other food additives.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54A, 1975; WHO Food 
         Additives Series, No. 6, 1975.

    36.  Specifications for the identity and purity of some food colours,
         flavour enhancers, thickening agents and certain food
         additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54B, 1975;
         WHO Food Additives Series, No. 7, 1975.

    37.  Evaluation of certain food additives: some food colours,
         thickening agents, smoke condensates, and certain other
         substances. (Nineteenth report of the Expert Committee). FAO
         Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 55, 1975; WHO Technical
         Report Series, No. 576, 1975.

    38.  Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, thickening
         agents, and certain other substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report  Series, No. 55A; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 8, 1975.

    Annex 2

    MEMBERSHIP OF THE TWENTIETH JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE
    ON FOOD ADDITIVES

    Rome; 21-29 April 1976

    Members invited by FAO*

    Mr D. F. Dodgen, Director, Food Chemicals Codex, National Academy of
         Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

    Dr H. van den Dool, International Flavours and Fragrances (Nederland),
         B.V., Hilversum, Netherlands

    Dr S. W. Gunner, Head, Additives Unit, Bureau of Chemical Safety,
         Ottawa, Canada

    Mr A. W. Hubbard, Head, Food Science Division, Ministry of
         Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, England (Vice-
         Chairman)

    Dr K. Kojima, Director, Laboratory for Medicinal Plants, National
         Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

    Members invited by WHO

    Dr H. C. Grice, Director, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Ottawa, Canada
         (Rapporteur)

    Professor M. Ingram, Meat Research Institute, Langford, England

    Dr M. Nesterin, Assistant Director, Institute of Nutrition of the
         Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    Professor K. J. Netter, Department of Pharmacology, University of
         Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany

    Dr E. Poulsen, Director, National Food Institute, Institute of
         Toxicology, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Dr P. Shubik, Director, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer,
         University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE, USA (Chairman)

              

    *    Unable to attend: Dr G. W. Irving, jr, Research Associate,
         Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology,
         Bethesda, MD, USA.

    Observers invited by FAO

    Dr R. L. Hall, International Union of Food Science and Technology,
         c/o McCormick & Co., Hunt Valley, MD, USA

    Dr G. F. Wilmink, Chairman, Codex Committee on Food Additives, c/o
         Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hague, Netherlands

    Secretariat

    Dr H. Blumenthal, Acting Director, Division of Toxicology, Bureau of
         Foods, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA
         (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr A. P. de Groot, Head, Department of Biology and Toxicology, Central
         Institute for Nutrition and Food Research, TNO, Zeist,
         Netherlands (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr K. O. Herz, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy
         (Joint Secretary)

    Dr L. G. Ladomery, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome,
         Italy

    Dr F. C. Lu, Chief, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
         (Joint Secretary)

    Dr R. K. Malik, Senior Officer, Food Control and Consumer Protection
         Group, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy

    Dr N. Sharratt, Senior Medical Officer, Division of Environmental
         Health and Chemical Hazards, Department of Health and Social
         Security, London, England (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Professor R. Truhaut, Director, Toxicological Research Centre, René
         Descartes University, Paris, France (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr G. Vettorazzi, Scientist, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations