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    FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1
    WHO/Food Add./68.30

    1967 EVALUATIONS OF SOME PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD

    THE MONOGRAPHS

    The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
    Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts and the WHO Expert
    Committee on Pesticide Residues, which met in Rome, 4 - 11 December,
    1967. (FAO/WHO, 1968)

    FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
    Rome, 1968

    LINDANE

    This pesticide was evaluated under the title of "gamma - BHC" by the
    1966 Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party and the WHO Expert
    Committee on Pesticide Residues (FAO/WHO, 1967). Since the previous
    publication the results of additional experimental work have been
    reported. This new work is summarized and discussed in the following
    monograph addendum.

    IDENTITY

    Other relevant chemical properties

    Lindane is 99% pure gamma - BHC. Technical BHC contains usually 12
    - 13% of the gamma-isomer and is not officially recommended for use on
    any crops or food.

    In 1963 the USA production of BHC was 3060 tons (including 720 tons of
    lindane). World wide use of BHC is estimated by industry (Cela,
    private communication) to amount to 60,000-70,000 tons yearly
    including 5,000-6,000 tons of lindane.

    The 1967 Joint Meeting took note of the statement made by the Codex
    Committee on Pesticide Residues regarding the occurence of different
    isomers of BHC, particularly the -isomer, in human fat and mothers
    milk. This matter was discussed and from available evidence it was
    clear that the presence of relatively high amounts of -isomer can be
    explained by the wide use of technical BHC. It was noted that of the
    world-wide production only about 10 per cent consists of lindane, the
    remaining being technical BHC in which the -isomer occurs in
    appreciable amounts.

    The following discussions are applicable only to the use of lindane.

    EVALUATION FOR TOLERANCES

    USE PATTERN

    Pre-harvest treatments

    In Denmark application rates for lindane are established for field
    crops at 240 - 400 g/ha, for fruit at 24 - 40 g/ha and for seed
    treatment at 0.4 - 0.8 g/kg seed. The minimum interval between use and
    harvest is one week (Denmark, 1967).

    Generally the application rate is 0.1 - 0.3 kg/ha for foliage
    application and 0.75 - 1.5 kg/ha for soil treatment.

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

    On apple trees, the biological half-life time of lindane was
    determined by Harrison et al., 1967, to be about three days after

    initial deposit of 46 ppm. The following table shows residue data,
    found by Majumber, 1967:

    Initial application    Period after      Residues
        rate - ppm          application         ppm      Product
                                                                    

           12.0              15 months          7.4      stored wheat

            8.0              15 months          4.0      stored wheat

            4.0              15 months          2.3      stored wheat

           0.35              3 days             0.12     snap beans

           0.35              4 days             n.d.     snap beans

           0.28              1 day              0.25     tomatoes

           0.28              2 days             n.d.     tomatoes
                                                                    


    Sensitivity of analytical method is not known.

    Since the application rate on seed (grain, sugar beets) amounts to
    only about 75g/ha no residues seem to result.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD MOVING IN COMMERCE

    In 1966, the following residues of BHC isomers were found in animal
    products (Egan, 1967) in the United Kingdom:

    Product              Source            ppm
                                                

    Milk                 U.K.              0.0055

    Butter               Australia         0.05
                         Denmark           0.05
                         Irish Republic    0.07
                         New Zealand       0.01
                         U.K.              0.07

    Beef kidney fat      Argentina         0.50
                         U.K.              0.06

    Mutton kidney fat    Argentina         0.39
                         Australia         0.01
                         New Zealand       0.01
                         U.K.              0.16
                                                

    In Great Britain in 1966 fruit and vegetables in commerce were sampled
    and lindane residues were generally found in the range from 0. to 0.40
    ppm (Dickes, 1967).

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AT TIME OF CONSUMPTION

    For the period from June to October 1966, lindane residues were found
    in 21 of 160 total diet samples in the USA, ranging from traces to
    0.09 ppm. The highest residues were found in meat, fish and poultry
    (Johnson, 1966).

    The daily dietary intake of lindane in 1966 in the USA was 0.00006
    mg/kg body-weight and about the same amount of BHC-isomers. The
    lindane intake is well below the acceptable daily intake of 0.0125
    mg/kg bodyweight (Duggan, 1967). The actual intake of BHC - isomers
    shows that these must still be included in considerations. The total
    dietary intake of lindane and BHC-isomers was about 8 g/person/day.
    Intake by air was measured in London to be about 0.1 g/person/day and
    by drinking water maximally 0.3 g/person/day.

    FATE OF RESIDUES

    General considerations

    The solubility of lindane is 10 mg/liter at 20C = 10 ppm (Maier-Bode,
    1965). Wash-off is therefore probably an important factor in
    disappearance of residues from leaves as well as in leaching from
    soil.

    The vapour pressure or lindane is 9.4  10-6 mm Hg at 20C
    (Maier-Bode, 1965). Bradbury and Whitaker (1956) found a rapid loss of
    lindane from wheat seedlings using 14C labelled insecticide, probably
    due to volatilization. Lindane applied to glass plates at 300 - 900
    mg/ft sq disappears within 50 - 60 days (Tsao, 1953).

    According to Maier-Bode (1965) lindane is stable under the influence
    of light and heat as well am in air and water. In sea water the
    stability was proved over a period of 12 months (Werner, 1961).

    In soils

    In India three years after application of 100 lb. and 10 lb. of
    lindane/acre 35.9 ppm and 4.45 ppm was found in carrots. In tomatoes
    8.00 ppm were found 3 years after soil treatment with 100 lb of
    lindane per acre (Majumber, 1967).

    In dry soil break-down of lindane to gamma-pentachlorocyclohexene was
    2.6 per cent within 64 days, in moist soil 7.1 per cent within 64 days
    (Yule, 1967).

    In plants

    After application of lindane to apple trees, no metabolites could be
    detected (Harrison, et al., 1967).

    In animals

    In the United Kingdom an average value of 0.19 ppm lindane and 0.42
    ppm BHC-isomers was found in human fat (Cassidy, 1967). Egan, et al.,
    (1965) found 0-1.0 ppm BHC-isomers in human kidney fat and 0.013 ppm
    in human milk. In France the average value for BHC residues was 1.19
    ppm (Hayes, 1963). In U.S.A. mainly beta BHC and no gamma BHC, was
    detected in human fat (Hayes, et al, 1965).

    Lindane is quantitatively eliminated by bluegills and goldfish within
    two days (Gakstatter, 1967).

    NATIONAL TOLERANCES

                                                  
    Country              Tolerance          Crop
                             ppm
                                                  

    Benelux                  2 (proposed)   General

    E.E.C.                   2              General

    Switzerland              1              Fruits,
                                            vegetables
                                                  

    Spain: not allowed on stored products.

    RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOLERANCES AND PRACTICAL RESIDUES LIMITS

    Temporary tolerances until 31 December 1970

         vegetables and small fruits             3.0 ppm

         cereals                                 0.5 ppm

    Practical residue limits

         whole milk                              0.004 ppm

         milk products                           0.1 ppm
         (on fat basis)

         meat                                    0.7 ppm
         (on fat basis)

    FURTHER WORK

    Further work required before 30 June 1970

    Data are needed on the disappearance of residues during storage and
    processing of food, and information on the chemical nature of terminal
    residues in food as consumed.

    Data based on specific methods of analysis identifying residues of
    lindane and its metabolites in food moving in commerce.

    Further total diet studies concerning the presence of lindane relative
    to the other isomers of BHC in food as consumed.

    REFERENCES PERTINENT TO EVALUATION FOR TOLERANCES

    ASCS (1966) The Pesticide Review.

    Bradbury, F.R. and Whitaker, W.O. (1956) The systemic action of
    benzene hexachloride in plants: quantitative measurements. J.Sci.Food
    Agr., 7:248

    Cassidy, W., Fisher A.J., Peden A.J. and Parry-Jones A. (1967) 
    Organo-chlorine pesticide residues in human fats from Somerset. RAE,
    55:546; Mon.Bull.Minist. Hlth., 26;2-6

    Denmark, (1967) Statens forsogsvirsomhed i plantekultur.
    Specialpraeparater anerkendt af Statens Forsogsvirksomhed i
    Plantekultur til bekaempelse af plantesygdomme og skadedyr, p.7, 23,
    24.

    Dickes, G.J. and Nicholas, P.V. (1967) A survey of fruits and
    vegetables for organochlorine insecticides. Ass. of Public Analysts
    Journ., June 1967, 52-57.

    Duggan, R.E. and Weatherwax, J.R. (1967) Dietary intake of pesticide
    chemicals. Science, 157:1006-1010.

    Egan, H. (1967) Pesticide quest: Residue surveys and tolerances. Chem.
    and Ind., 1721-1730

    Egan, H., Goulding, R., Roburn J., Tatton J. O'G. (1965)
    Organo-chlorine pesticide residues in human fat and human milk,
    Br.Med.J., 2:66-69.

    Gakstatter, J.H. and Weiss, C.M. (1967) The elimination of DDT-14C,
    Dieldrin-14C, and Lindane-14C from fish following a single sublethal
    exposure in aquaria. Trans.Amer.Fish.Soc., 96:301-307.

    Hayes, W.J., Dale, W.E. and Burse, V.W. (1965) Chlorinated hydrocarbon
    pesticide in the fat of people in New Orleans. Life Sci., 4;
    1611 - 1615.

    Hayes, W.J., Dale, W.E. and Le Breton, R. (1963) Storage of
    insecticides in French people, Nature, 199:1189-1191.

    Harrison, R.B., Holmes, D.C., Roburn, J. and Tatton J. O'G. (1967) The
    fate of some organo chlorine pesticides on leaves. J.Sci.Food Agr.,
    18:10-15.

    Johnson, L.Y. (1966) Pesticide residues in total diet samples, Bureau
    of Science, Office of Field Scientific Coordination.

    Maier-Bode, H. (1965) Pflanzenschutzmittel-Rckstnde. Stuttgart,
    Ulmer. 455 p. 

    Majumber, S.K. (1967) A review of the problem of the toxicity of the
    pesticidal chemicals in food in India. Ind.Food Packer, 21, (2).

    Tsao, C. -H, Sullivan, W.N. and Hornstein, J. (1953) Comparison of
    evaporation rates and toxicity to houseflies of lindane and
    lindane-chlorinated polyphenyl deposits. J.Econ.Ent., 46;882-884

    Werner, A.E. and Waldichuk, M. (1961) Decay of hexachlorocyclohexane
    in sea water. J.Fish.Res.Board Canada, 18;287-289; J.Sci.Food Agr.
    12:1128 b.

    Yule, W.N., Chiba, M. and Morley, H.V. (1967) Fate of insecticide
    residues. Decomposition of lindane in soil. J.Agr.Food. Chem.,
    15:1000-1004.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Lindane (EHC 124, 1991)
       Lindane (HSG 54, 1991)
       Lindane (ICSC)
       Lindane (PIM 859)
       Lindane (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Lindane (JMPR Evaluations 2002 Part II Toxicological)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1997 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)