IPCS INCHEM Home


    AZINPHOS-METHYL     JMPR 1974

         This monograph addendum has to be read in conjunction with the
    monograph from the 1973 Meeting (FAO/WHO 1974), p. 29-32.

    Explanation

         Arising out of the list of requirements in the report of the 1972
    Joint Meeting, some information on use patterns in several countries
    and residues resulting from supervised trials therein and some data on
    the disappearance of residues during storage and processing was
    referred to the FAO Working Party.

         The Codex Committee on Pesticide residues in its 7th session,
    February 1974, requested the JMPR to recommend specific maximum limits
    rather than general ones for fruit and vegetables. The New Zealand
    delegation to the CXPR brought forward a proposal for a separate
    tolerance for kiwi fruit (Chinese gooseberry; Actinidia chinensis).

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

         Residue data from supervised trials on kiwi fruit were provided.
    Including the data provided to the 1968 Joint Meeting (FAO/WHO 1969),
    and the additional data received since then, extensive data were
    available from supervised trials on a broad range of fruits and
    vegetables such as apricots, apples, pears, peaches, plums,
    blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes, beans,
    peas, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, red cabbage, savoy
    cabbage, onions, peppers and spinach. The new information is
    summarized in Table 1.

    APPRAISAL

         It was considered that a sufficient range of fruits and
    vegetables had been studied to enable recommendations to be made for
    fruits and vegetables, respectively, each as a group except those for
    which specific tolerances could be recommended.

         It was shown that thermal processing of spinach at 110C for 60
    minutes and apricots at 100C for 50 minutes decreased the initial
    residue by 100 and 60% respectively. After one year's storage of
    canned apricots at ambient temperatures the remaining residue had
    disappeared totally (Elkins et al. 1972). Household cooking of deep
    frozen beans with about 1 mg/kg azinphos-methyl for 15 minutes
    decreased the residue by about 85% (Carlin et al. 1966). Washing of
    citrus fruits removed 30-80% of the residue occurring on the peel
    (Anderson et al. 1963, Gunther et al. 1963).


        TABLE 1  Residues of azinphos-methyl and its P=O analogue expressed as azinphos-methyl
                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Fruit crops

    Apple
    USA                 1     (12.5)        Wp 25          1.19                0.66      0.45      n.d.

    Fed. Rep. of
    Germany (1967)      1     (50) low      Wp 25          1.65      1.3       1.0       0.45      0.5
                              volume

    Marks Codlin
    Netherlands
    (1959)              1     1             Wp 25          0.20                0.22      0.19      0.06

    Jonathan
    Netherlands
    (1959)              1     1             Wp 25          0.25      0.29      0.18      0.07      n.d.

    Lombarts Calvill
    Netherlands
    (1967)              1     0.75          Wp 25          0.14-     0.05-     0.04-     0.03-     0.03-
                                                           0.29      0.1       0.07      0.09      0.08

    Jonathan
    Netherlands
    (1967)              1     0.75          Wp 25          0.48-     0.33-     0.07-     0.12-     0.05
                                                           0.74      0.53      0.17      0.20      0.20

    Almonds USA         3     2.24          Wp 25
      nut meats                                                                                                        n.d.
      hulls                                                                                                            6.0
    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Apricots
    USA                 1     (12.5)        Wp 25          16.3                          4.6       3.1

    USA                 1     (15)          Wp 25          16.6                                    1.95

    Blackberries
    USA                 3     0.56          Wp 25                                        0.8

                        3     0.56          Wp 25          4.0       1.8       1.9       1.3       0.3

    Blueberries
    USA                 4     0.56          Wp 25          3.8       4.8       n.d.      n.d.

    Boysenberries
    USA                 1     0.21          EC 22                                                                      n.d.

                              0.42          EC 22                                                                      n.d.

    Chinese Gooseberry
    (kiwi fruit)
    New Zealand
    (1972)              4     2.21          Wp 25          6.4                           2.8                           1.02

                        4     2.21          Wp 25          7.4                           4.1                           2.02

    Cranberry
    USA                 1     0.21          EC 22                                        n.d.

                              0.56          Wp 25                                        n.d.

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Grapes
    USA                 1       1.2         Wp 25          0.2       0.45      0.29      0.22

    Nectarines
    USA                 1     (15)          Wp 25          9.80                                    0.59

    Peaches             1     (15)          Wp 25          53.2                                    4.58
    USA
                        1       2.25        Wp 25          9.25                9.43      5.48      3.80      1.93

                        1     (10)          EC 22                                                  1.06

    Raspberries
    USA                 2       0.42        EC 22          2.9       1.5       1.8

                        1       0.42        EC 22          2.9       0.6       1.0

                        2       1.12        EC 22          0.2       n.d.      n.d.

    Strawberries
    (outdoor) USA       3       0.56        Wp 25                              0.72

    Citrus fruit

    Lemons USA          3       0.42        WP 50
      whole fruit                                          0.50                0.35

      pulp                                                 0.03                0.03

    Lemons              3       0.42        EC 22
      whole fruit                                          0.32                0.03

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

      pulp                                                 0.01                0.02

    Lemons              5     0.42          WP 50

      whole fruit                                          1.51                1.52      1.60

      pulp                                                 0.25                0.51        -

      whole fruit                                          1.10                0.68      1.92      1.12      1.46

    Oranges USA         4     0.42          WP 50

      peel                                                 3.16                3.69

      pulp                                                 0.21                0.19

    Oranges             3     (10)          EC 22

      peel                                                 7.6       7.1                 7.4       6.3       5.6

      pulp                                                 n.d.      n.d.                n.d.      n.d.      n.d.

    Vegetables

    Green beans
    USA                 2     0.56          Wp 25                                        0.11-
                                                                                         0.13

    Snap beans
    USA                 3     1.7           WP 25

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

      beans                                                                    0.34      0.13

      beans (dry)                                                                                                      0.05

      vines                                                                                        0.41

      beans             3     1.7           Wp 25                    0.31      0.11

      beans (dry)                                                                                                      0.16

      vines                                                          6.87      5.10      3.32      0.49

    Broccoli
    USA                 1     0.84          EC 22                    28.0     11.63      0.94      0.11

    Brussels sprouts
    USA                 1     0.84          EC 22                    0.88      0.75                0.43

    Netherlands         1     0.33          Wp 25                              0.04      0.02-     0.02-
                                                                                         0.05      0.04
                        1     0.3           Wp 25                              0.15-     0.13-     0.13-
                                                                               0.20      0.19      0.29

    Cabbage (red)
    Fed. Rep. of
    Germany (1972)      1     0.3           Wp 25          1.50      n.d.      n.d.

            (1972)      1     0.3           Wp 25          0.05      n.d.      n.d.

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Savoy cabbage
    Fed. Rep. of
    Germany             1     0.3           WP 25                                        n.d.      n.d.

    Celery
    USA                 10    0.70          EC 22          2.0       1.4       1.6       0.1

                        10    0.56          EC 22          3.0                           0.9       0.3       0.2

                        11    0.70          EC 22          9.1     11.0        4.6       1.4

    Cucumbers
    USA                 3     1.2           EC 22          0.3       n.d.      n.d.

    Honeydew melon
    USA                 4     0.7           Wp 25          n.d.      n.d.      n.d.

    Muskmelon
    USA                 4     0.7           Wp 25          1.5       1.4       1.4       0.2

                        4     0.7           Wp 25          0.4       0.2       n.d.

                        4     0.7           Wp 25          2.3       1.0       0.3       n.d.

    Watermelon
    USA                 4     0.7           Wp 25          n.d.      n.d.

    Onions
    USA                 3     1.12          EC 22          8.5       2.7       n.d.      n.d.

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Green onions
    USA                 3     1.12          EC 22          6.4       0.5       n.d.

    Potatoes
    Netherlands
    (1971)              1     0.24          Wp 20                                                            n.d.

    USA                 6     1.7           Wp 25          <0.01               <0.01

    USA                 6     1.7           Wp 25          <0.01               <0.01

                        6     1.7           EC 22          <0.01               <0.01

                        6     0.85          EC 22                              n.d.      0.18      n.d.

                        6     0.85          EC 22                              n.d.      n.d.      n.d.

    Soybean (dry)
    USA                 3     1.2           WP 50                                                                      0.01

                        3     1.95          EC 22                                                  <0.01

    Spinach
    USA                 1     0.56          Wp 25           11.47    0.37      n.d.

                        1     0.56          Wp 25                                                  n.d.

                        2     0.56          Wp 25                              n.d.

                        4     0.56          Wp 25                  24

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

    Tomatoes
    USA                 1     0.84          EC 22          0.43                          0.23      0.13

                        1     1.7           EC 22          0.55                          0.42      0.20

    Barley-grain
    USA                 1     0.56          EC 22                                                  n.d.

                        1     0.56          EC 22                                                                      n.d.

    Oats-grain
    USA                 1     0.85          Wp 25                                                            0.03
        -straw                                                                                               0.81

        -grain          1     0.85          EC 22                                                                     <0.01

        -straw                                                                                                          1.67

    Wheat-grain
    USA                                                                                                               <0.015

        -straw                                                                                                          0.68

    Cottonseed
    USA                 7     0.56          ULV                      n.d.      n.d.

                        13    0.56          ULV            0.2       0.1

                        6     0.56          ULV                                0.2       0.2

    TABLE 1  (Cont'd.)

                                                                                                                               

                              Application
                        No.   rate          formulation    Residues in mg/kg at interval (days) after application
    Crop and                  kg a.i./ha       %
    Country                   or (g/100l)                  0/1       3/5       7/10      14/16     21/23     28/30     31/35+
                                                                                                                               

                        6     0.56          ULV                                0.2       0.2

    Sunflower seed      2     0.35          EC 22                                                                       0.016
                                                                                                                               

    1 Overdosage, normal rate 1-1.5 kg/ha, pre-harvest interval 28 days.
    2 After 45 days.
    3 Together with 150 g dimethoate/ha.
    4 Plus 0.1 kg dimethoate.
    5 After 41 days.
    6 After 62 days.
    
    RECOMMENDATIONS

         The tolerances recommended at the 1968 Joint Meeting (FAO/WHO
    1969) have been confirmed as no longer temporary.

         In the case of broccoli, Brussels sprouts, melons and peaches
    some of the new data together with the data available at the 1968
    Joint Meeting justified changes in the earlier established limits.
    Additional tolerances are recommended. These are based on residues
    likely to be found at harvest following currently recommended use
    patterns.

         The earlier established tolerances are underlined. Residues are
    to be determined as azinphos-methyl and its P=0 analogue and expressed
    as azinphos-methyl.

                                                                        
                                               Pre-harvest intervals on
                                               which recommendations
    TOLERANCES                     mg/kg       are based (days)
                                                                        

    Apricots, grapes, peaches      4           21 (grapes 5-10)

    Citrus fruit                   2           7

    Other fruit                    1           7-14

    Vegetables (except
    broccoli, Brussels sprouts,
    celery, melons)                0.5

    Broccoli, Brussels sprouts     1           7-14

    Celery, melons                 2           14 and 3 respectively

    Raw cereals, dry soybeans,
    sunflower seed, cottonseed     0.2         30-45

    Almonds (shelled nuts)         0.2

    Alfalfa (green), pea vines,
    soybean vines                  2           14-21

    Almond hulls                   10
                                                                        

         In those commodities where a mixture of residues of
    azinphos-methyl and azinphos-ethyl occur together, except tomatoes,
    the total residue of both compounds including their P=0 analogues may
    not exceed the levels recommended above for azinphos-methyl; in case
    of tomatoes the total should not exceed 1 mg/kg.

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    DESIRABLE

         Residue data for other crops, including grapes, for which
    insufficient data were available to establish or amend tolerances at
    the 1973 and 1974 Joint Meetings.

    REFERENCES

    Anderson, C.A., MacDougall, D., Kesterson, J.W., Hendrickson,         
    R. and Brooks, R.F. (1963). The effect of processing on Guthion
    residues in oranges and orange products. J. agr. Food Chem.,
    11:422-424.

    Carlin, A.F., Hibbs, E.T. and Dahm, P.A. (1966). Insecticide residues
    and sensory evaluation of canned and frozen snap beans field-sprayed
    with Guthion and DDT. Fd. Technol., Champaign, 20:80-84.

    Elkins, E.R., Farrow, R.P. and Kim, E.S. (1972). The effect of heat
    processing and storage on pesticide residues in spinach and apricots.
    J. agr. Food Chem., 20:286-291.

    FAO/WHO (1969). 1968 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food,
    FAO/PL/1968/M/9/1; WHO/Food Add./70.38.

    FAO/WHO (1973). Pesticide residues in food. Report of 1972 Joint
    Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and
    of the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues. FAO Agricultural
    Studies, No. 90; Wld. Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., No. 525.

    FAO/WHO (1974). 1973 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food.
    FAO/AGP/1973/M/9/1; WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 3.

    Gunther, F.A., Carman, G.E., Blinn, R.C. and Barkley, J.H. (1963).
    Persistence of residues of Guthion on and in mature lemons and oranges
    and in laboratory processed citrus "pulp" cattle feed. J. Agr. Food
    Chem., 11:424-427.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Azinphos-methyl (ICSC)
       Azinphos-Methyl (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Azinphos-methyl (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Azinphos-methyl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2)
       Azinphos-methyl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Azinphos-methyl (Pesticide residues in food: 1991 evaluations Part II Toxicology)