DODINE JMPR 1974
Dodine acetate, doguadine, laurylguanidine acetate, citrex,
(Empirical formula C15H33N3O2)
Other information on identity and properties
Molecular weight: 287
Physical state: white crystals
Melting point: 136°C
Solubility: In alcohols of low molecular weight ranges
from 7% to 23% at room temperature; in water
0.063% by weight at 25°C; soluble in acids;
insoluble in most other solvents.
Stability: At ordinary temperatures the compound is
stable as a solid or in solution and under
moderately acidic or alkaline conditions.
The free base will be released under extreme
Formulations: Wettable powder 65%, water-miscible liquid
Information on the composition of the technical material was not
available. There is a number of manufacturers.
EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE
No data are available on the metabolic degradation of dodine.
Administration of dodine to the branches of apple trees resulted in no
translocation of dodine from the foliage into the fruit of the tree.
Preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of dodine suggested that
natural products were the only materials observed (Curry, 1962). Owens
(1969) suggested that the metabolism of dodine resulting in the
formation of creatine was the result of beta-oxidation of the dodecyl
group and subsequent methylation (from methionine or betaine).
NHCNH2NHC12H25*CH3COOH -> NHCNH2NHCH2COOH ->NHCNH2N(CH3)CH2COOH
dodine (acetate) (CH3) creatine
The biotransformation of dodine in plants and soil is discussed
further in the section "Fate of residues".
Special studies on carcinogenicity
Groups of mice (18 males and 18 females of each of two hybrid
strains) were administered dodine from day 7 after birth, at 21
mg/kg/day orally, for 21 days. Thereafter, for 18 months, the mice
were fed 82 ppm in the diet, sacrificed and examined for tumors.
Dodine did not cause a significant increase in tumors and this
carcinogenic screening test was reported to be negative (Innes et al.,
Special studies on reproduction
Groups of mice (CF1 strain, 8 males and 16 females per group)
were fed dietary levels of 0, 400 and 800 mg/kg dodine for at least
five weeks prior to mating in a standard three generation, two litter
per generation, reproduction study. There were no effects on
reproduction as evidenced by the fertility, gestation, and viability
indices. The lactation index was significantly reduced at 800 ppm. No
consistent abnormalities following gross and microscopic examination
were observed. A no-effect level for this three generation
reproduction study is 400 ppm (McNerney et al., 1967).
Two groups of rats removed from the two year feeding study were
used in a two generation reproduction study. Groups of 9 males and 18
females per group fed 0 and 800 ppm dodine for 105 days were mated.
The F1 progeny when weaned were maintained on the same dietary level
for 90-110 days and mated while the parents were removed to the
original feeding study. The F1 parents were allowed to raise three
litters (F2a, b, and c) which were examined and sacrificed after
weaning. There were no effects on reproduction noted in either the
control or 800 ppm group. There was a slight, nonsignificant,
reduction in litter size in the F2a, b, and c litters.
Some of the F1 generation animals were observed as long as one
year, during which time they continued to receive 800 ppm dodine in
the diet. Gross pathology and relative organ weights of these animals
did not indicate adverse effects of the dodine feeding. A haematology
and microscopic examination of some animals from all groups did not
reveal differences when compared to controls. Parental growth was
retarded at 800 ppm (Levinskas et al., 1961; O'Grady et al., 1958b).
TABLE 1 Acute toxicity of dodine to mammals
Species Sex Route (mg/kg) References
Rat M oral 750-1540 (Levinskas et al., 1961)
F oral 660 (Levinskas et al., 1961)
Guinea Pig oral 176 (Tovstenko, 1973)
Mouse M oral 266-1720 (Tovstenko, 1970)
Rabbit M dermal 2100-10 000 (Tovstenko, 1973)
oral 535 (Tovstenko, 1973)
Dog oral * (West et al., 1958)
* Dose of 2000 mg/kg induced emesis.
Signs of poisoning include depression, diarrhoea and death, but
such signs may be delayed. Gross pathology revealed minor G.I. tract
A 0.12% aqueous dispersion administered to the skin of rabbits
resulted in no deaths or appreciable skin irritation at a dose of
10 ml/kg. An aqueous paste contacting the skin for 24 hours produced
severe erythema and edoema. After seven days, there was evidence of
subcutaneous haemorrhage, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, hyperaemia
and thickening of the pyloric area of the stomach.
A 10 mg dose in the conjunctival sac of rabbits resulted in
severe conjunctivitis. The onset of secondary infection complicated
recovery and recovery was not complete after seven days. A volume of
0.1 mg of the 0.12% dispersion caused transient reddening and swelling
of the conjunctivae.
Repeated administration to mice altered ADP and glycogen levels
(Tovstenko, 1970). Acute administration to rats resulted in
hypoglycaemia, increased ATP-ase activity in blood and decreased ATP
in liver and myocardium, indicative of acute stress (Belonozhko et
Dodine has been reported to be moderately accumulative in both
guinea pigs and mice. Following daily administration of 1/20 LD50,
the accumulation factor is 4.0 in Guinea pigs and 5.4 in mice. A
threshold dose of 1.33 mg/kg and a no-effect dose of 0.67 mg/kg were
reported in chronic tests. Doses of 1.33 mg/kg caused functional
changes in the cerebral cortex and haemodynamic changes in the heart
liver, kidney, brain, and lung in guinea pigs (Tovstenko, 1973).
Short term studies
Groups of rats (19 males and 19 females = 0 ppm; 20 males and 18
females = 3200 ppm) were fed dodine in the diet for 14 weeks. Growth
was markedly reduced in all animals fed 3200 ppm. This was reflected
in a significant reduction in food consumption. Behaviour was altered
as noted by an increased irritability and increased spontaneous
activity. A reduction of weight of several tissues and organs was not
accompanied by pathological abnormalities as observed by microscopic
examination (Levinskas et al., 1961).
Groups of dogs (2 males and 2 females per group) were fed dodine
in a dry diet at levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 ppm for one year. There
was no effect on growth, behaviour, mortality, haematology, or on
tissues and organs examined grossly at the conclusion of the study.
Microscopic examination revealed changes in the thyroid glands of all
animals at 800 ppm and in one female at 200 ppm. Thyroid changes
consisted of an increase in vascularity, hyperaemia, and general
evidence of thyroid gland stimulation. A shift was observed of the
follicular epithelium from a squamous to a predominantly cuboidal
variety. These signs were most evident in the animals receiving high
doses and less evident in the single dog at 200 ppm. There was no
evidence of hyperplasia although the thyroid gland, as noted by
histological changes was definitely stimulated (O'Grady, 1958a;
Levinskas et al., 1961).
Long term studies
Groups of rats (40 males and 40 females per group) were fed
dodine in the diet for two years at levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 ppm.
Food intake and growth were significantly depressed at 800 ppm. There
was no apparent effect on survival, behaviour, haematological
parameters, or gross pathology of any animals. Microscopic examination
of tissues and organs of some animals from the control and 800 ppm
groups at the conclusion of the study showed no differences between
the two groups. An examination of the tumors produced in this study
indicated no effect related to the incorporation of dodine in the
diet. A. no-effect level in this study is 200 ppm (O'Grady, et al.,
1959; Levinskas et al., 1961).
OBSERVATIONS IN MAN
Workers involved in the production of dodine in the United States
from 1958-1964, during which time substantial quantities of this
material were manufactured, have been monitored. It has been shown
that the occupational exposure to dodine produces minor superficial
effects. Acute dermatitis and acute eye irritation accompanied by
conjunctival and corneal burn were readily reversible and are of no
long lasting significance (Hartmann, 1964).
Dodine acts as a cationic surfactant. Few data are available on
the metabolic fate of dodine in animals or plants although suggestions
have been made that the molecule degrades to natural products. The
active ingredient has a moderate acute toxicity although irritation of
the eye and skin was observed. No biochemical lesions have been
identified in mammals and the signs of poisoning are typical of
general debilitation of basic metabolism and nutrition. Results of
reproduction studies in rats and mice were negative at a 400 ppm
dietary level. In short and long term studies with rats and dogs, high
dietary levels produced effects on growth in the rat and histological
changes were noted in the thyroid of the dog. Dodine did not appear to
have a carcinogenic effect in long term studies reported using rats
Based on feeding studies, no-effect levels were observed with the
rat, mouse, and dog. Although no specific reproduction problems were
noted, the lack of teratogenesis and mutagenesis data was noted.
Concern was expressed over the lack of metabolic data. A temporary ADI
in man was allocated based on the no-effect level in the dog.
Level causing no toxicological effect
Rat: 200 ppm in the diet equivalent to 10 mg/kg bw.
Dog: 50 ppm in the diet equivalent to 1.25 mg/kg bw.
ESTIMATE OF TEMPORARY ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE FOR MAN
0 - 0.01 mg/kg bw.
RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION
Dodine is a fungicide recommended for the control of a number of
major fungal diseases of crops. It is used against apple and pear
scab; cherry leaf spot; peach bacterial spot and leaf curl; pecan
scab, liver spot, brown and downy leaf spot, leaf blotch and downy
mildew; strawberry leaf scorch, spot and blight.
The recommended dosage is 0.016-0.033% a.i. as wettable powder or
0.03% a.i. as the liquid concentrate formulation at 5-10 day intervals
or as needed to maintain efficient control. The coverage is 1.1-2.2
kg/ha. The number of treatments varies from 3-10. Powell et al. (1958)
showed that almost perfect control of scab infection on apples could
be assured by the first three sprayings. The national use patterns and
tolerances known to the Meeting are listed in Table 2.
RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS
Residue data on apples, pears, sweet cherries, peaches,
strawberries and grapes are summarised in Tables 3-9.
Data provided by the American Cyanamid Co. (Petition 211) show
that residues in apples were generally low at harvest (Table 3): 46 of
59 samples analysed contained less than 0.5 mg/kg. The residue was
above 1.5 mg/kg (between 1.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) in only one case; this was
after the late application of high doses during a dry period. The
disappearance of dodine is rapid initially, but slow below 0.5 mg/kg
(Table 4). Residues decreased from 5-8 mg/kg to 0.6 mg/kg or less in
about 30 days.
The results in Table 4 show that residue levels and rates of
disappearance are only slightly affected by apple variety and by
differences in spraying programmes. Residue data obtained in 1957 and
1958 were similar.
TABLE 2 National use patterns, tolerances and preharvest intervals for dodine
Country Crop Pest Rates a.i. Treatment interval (days) mg/kg
Canada Apple, pear Scab 0.02-0.04% Regular protective treatments
(including first cover) and
cover sprays as needed
Peach Leaf 0.01-0.02% 2 treatments before bud
Brown rot, 0.02% 3 treatments
Cherry Brown rot, 0.02% 3 treatments
(sour and blossom blight, "
sweet) leaf spot " Repeated treatments at intervals
of 7-10 days.
Strawberry Leaf blight 0.03- Repeated treatments at weekly
scorch and spot 0.035% intervals
Netherlands Apple Scab 0.06% 1-2 before blossoming (in 28 1 *
1.2 kg/ha emergency cases also later)
Cherry Blumeriella 0.04% 3 treatments until one
jaapi/Rehm 0.8 kg/ha month after blossoming 28
Pear Scab 0.06% See apple 28
New Zealand Pip fruit Black spot 0.03-0.04% No data 14 0
Roses Black spot 0.04% No data - -
TABLE 2 (Cont'd.)
Country Crop Pest Rates a.i. Treatment interval (days) mg/kg
USA Apple No data 4.5 kg/ha No data 7 5
1.8 kg/ha No data 5 5
Black walnut No data 7.3 kg/ha No data - 0.3
Cherry (sour No data 3.7 kg/ha Post-harvest or up to 0 5
and sweet) petal fall
Peach No data 1.8 kg No data 15 5
7.3 kg/ha Dormant and/or delayed
Peers No data 4.5 kg/ha No data 7 5
1.8 kg/ha No data 5
Pecans No data 5.2 kg/ha Do not apply after shucks 0.3
have started to open
Strawberries No data 1.5 kg/ha No data 14 5
* Fruit and vegetables.
TABLE 3 Residues of dodine in apples (various varieties) - supervised trials*
Application Interval Number of samples in range (mg/kg)
Rate % Number (days) n.d.+ <0.1 0.1-0.5 0.5-1 1-1.5 1.5-5
0.025 10 33 1
0.05 9 77 1
0.05 10 32-33 2
0.05 11 56-69 1 2
0.05 13 32 2 2
0.05 15 ? 1
0.05-0.10 7-9 50-74 2 3
0.05-0.10 10 66-86 1 1
0.05-0.10 10-11 32-33 1 1#
0.075 7 20 1
0.075 7-9 71-111 2 2
0.075 9 42 1
0.075 10-12 33-66 2 2 3 1
0.075-0.10 10 ? 3
0.1 6-7 66-104 1 1
0.1 9-12 55-72 1 3 1
0.1 9.12 32-43 1 1 1
0.2 3 117 1
0.2 5 61 1
0.2 6 108 1
0.2 6-7 27-36 1 1
0.2 7-8 84-98 2 1 1
0.2 8-10 54-59 1 1
Totals 6 17 23 10 2 1#
* American Cyanamide Co., Petition 211. Samples from 11 States in USA, 1957-1958. Surface or macerate extraction.
+ n.d. = not detectable.
# This residue following late application of high doses during a dry period in California. No dodine residues above
5 mg/kg reported.
TABLE 4 Dodine residues on McIntosh and Golden Delicious Apples in USA
Application Dodine residue, mg/kg, after interval (days)
Variety rate a.i.% Number 0 4 6-7 10-11 13-17 21-27 31-35 45-60 61-80 >80
McIntosh 0.063 1 2.62
(American 3 6.7 1.8 0.81 0.42 0.27 0.15
Cyanamid Co. 3 11.5
Petition 211) 4 17.1 2.6
5 10.8 3.5 1.22 0.95 0.42 0.40 0.21
5 10.5 1.77 1.01 0.30
8 16.05 2.38
9 10.21 3.6
10 7.2 1.96
11 10.1 2.12
12 6.05 2.07 1.04 0.66
Golden delicious 0.06 1 7.5 2.3 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.6
(Frear et al., 0.04 1 4.2 2.0 1.5 0.9 0.6 0.4
1960) 0.02 1 3.6 1.2 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.2
Golden delicious 0.02 10 3.6 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.2 0.2
(American 0.04 10 1.5 0.8 0.65 0.5 0.3 0.2
Cyanamid Co. 0.06 10 7.9 2.1 1.9 1.2 0.8 0.6
Golden delicious 0.04 10 4.2 1.6 1.7 0.9 0.7 0.4
(American 0.08 10 2.05 1.65 1.2 0.95 0.55 0.3
Cyanamid Co. 0.12 10 3.2 1.65 1.45 1.35 1.15 0.65
1958 trial) +
* Residues determined in surface extraction.
+ Residues determined in extract of macerated fruit.
TABLE 5 Dodine residues on pears1
Application Dodine residue mg/kg after interval (days)
Variety Rate a.i.% Number 0 1 3 7 14 44 86 118 166
Comice 0.08 1 3.97 2.17 2.29 1.41 1.61
0.08 6 0.33
0.16 1 0.0
Bartlett 0.08 5 0.43-
Bosc 0.09 6 1.04
1 American Cyanamide Co., Petition 211.
TABLE 6 Dodine residues on sweet cherries1
Application Dodine residue mg/kg, after interval (days)
Variety Rate a.i.% Number 1 3 7 12 23-29
Schmidt 0.02 4 0.4-0.78
Emperor 0.02 4 0.27-0.35
0.02 5 0.59-0.63
0.04 5 1.06-1.18
Royal Ann 0.04 1 0.7 0.5 0.2
0.08 1 2.3 1.2 0.2
1 American Cyanamide Co., Petition 391.
TABLE 7 Dodine residues on peaches1
Region Dodine residue mg/kg, after interval (days)
Variety & date Treatment Number 0 3 6 10-12 12-18 22
Sunhigh New Jersey dodine 0.02% 6 0.5
dodine, 0.02%+ 6 0.73
dodine 0.04% 6 0.75
dodine 0.04%+ 6 1.5
dodine 0.08% 6 0.27
dodine 0.08%+ 6 4.85
New Jersey dodine 0.04% 7 0.58-0.69
1962 dodine 0.08% 7 1.18-1.52
Elberta Alabama dodine 0.04% 3 0.19
dodine 0.08% 3 0.27 0.21 0.1
Hale Michigan dodine 0.04% 1 0.56 0.49
No data New Jersey dodine 0.04%+ 3.2
1963 captan 0.12%
1 American Cyanamid Co., Petition 416.
TABLE 8 Dodine residues on strawberries
Rate, a.i., Dodine residue, mg/kg, after interval (days)
Variety % or kg/ha Number 0-1 2 4 6 7-8 11-12 15 21 24
Jerseybelle 0.12% 4 6.1 8.0 5.3 4.3
No data 0.12% 2 5.2
0.12% 3 10.9 12 7.8
No data 0.84 kg/ha 5 12.8 14.4
Pocahontas 0.56 kg/ha 5 0.5 0.3
1.12 kg/ha 5 2.3 0.9
0.84 kg/ha 1 0.52
1.68 kg/ha 1 0.57
1.68 kg/ha no data 41.5 10.1 3.8 3.8
3.2 kg/ha no data 23-33.4 13.2 13.2
Robinson 1.45 kg/ha 4 4.4 4.6 3.0
2.9 kg/ha 4 6.2 7.1 6.2
Paymaster 1.45 kg/ha 4 3.5 2.3
2.9 4 6.9 4.7
Armore 1.1 kg/ha 4 1.2 1.1 0.95 0.7
4.4 kg/ha 4 1.6 1.0 0.9
Robinson 5.8 kg/ha 1 24.4 23.2
TABLE 9 Dodine residues in Raboso grapes1
Rate, a.i., Dodine residues, mg/kg, after interval (days)
kg/ha Number 6 10 20
30 1 0.42 1.22 0.91
30 2 1.96 1.72 1.79
30 3 1.58 3.81 2.81
1 The trial was in Bologna, Italy, 1973.
The behaviour of residues on pears is similar to that on apples
In peaches residues were low if dodine was applied alone, but
were higher when captan or sulphur were incorporated in the spray
In strawberries the residue level was relatively high (up to
about 40 mg/kg usually in the range 5-20 mg/kg) but usually decreased
below 5 mg/kg within about two weeks.
Residues in grapes (Table 9) increased with the number of
applications. There was no consistent relation between the residue
level and the interval after the last application, possibly owing
partly to the high application rate.
FATE OF RESIDUES
In apples and apple trees
Curry (1962) examined the translocation and metabolism of dodine
in apple trees. He painted the lower surfaces of leaves with
14C-dodine (7 applications at 10-14 day intervals), and found that
only 5% of the activity on the bottom surfaces could be detected on
the top surfaces of the same leaves one month after the last
application. 8 of 16 apples from the treated branches were analysed
and found to contain radioactivity equivalent to 0.006-0.21 mg/kg of
total residue calculated as dodine. This represented less than 0.2% of
the total dodine applied during the season. The total residue in the
apples decreased in the order flesh > skin > seeds, based on dried
Since an analytical method sensitive only to dodine showed that
the entire residue of the parent compound was on the surface, the
radioactivity in the flesh was presumably due to metabolites. Curry
discusses evidence that the metabolites may become bound to proteins
and peptides as simple amino-acid and guanidine moieties. Curry's
results are at variance with those of Hamilton (1958) who reported
evidence of local translocation in apple trees. This may have been the
result of contact between treated and untreated surfaces and transfer
by rain washing.
Dodine was found (Gatterdam, 1973) to be practically immobile in
soil, with a mobility as low as that of paraquat. Goldberg (1969)
demonstrated that two naturally occurring soil organisms
(Flavobacterium sp. and Achromobacter sp.) utilize dodine as a
source of carbon. He estimated the probable rate of degradation of
dodine in soil under natural conditions to be of the order of 5% in 60
days. It has been reported that dodine temporarily inhibited soil
microfloral activity but did not affect the structure or stability of
the soil (Rotini, 1972).
Residues in food moving in commerce
Only New Zealand provided information on apples known to have
been treated with dodine. 9 samples were analysed in 1969 and the
residue levels were between 0.1 and 1.5 mg/kg, while in 1971 5 samples
were analysed and a maximum of 0.1 mg/kg was found.
METHODS OF RESIDUE ANALYSIS
A colorimetric method for dodine was developed by Steller et al.
(1960). The residue is extracted from the surface of the fruit with
methanol or from the whole fruit by macerating with
methanol-chloroform (2:1) and the dodecylguanidine is complexed with
bromocresol purple in a buffered aqueous alcohol solution. The complex
is extracted with chloroform and hydrolysed with aqueous alkali to the
sodium salt of the indicator. The aqueous solution of the sodium salt
is separated from the chloroform and its absorbance at 590 nm is
measured. Results obtained by the two extraction procedures were
similar (see Table 10 below).
TABLE 10 Dodine residues in fruit determined by surface and
macerate extraction procedures.
Dodine residue*, mg/kg, at interval
(days) after treatment
3 14 35 56
Surface extraction 1.3 0.7 0.3 1.0
Macerate extraction 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.9
* Corrected for crop blank.
The fungicide dodine has been used for controlling apple scab
since 1955. It is effective against various crop diseases such as
apple scab, cherry leaf spot, peach leaf curl, pear scab and
strawberry leaf scorch.
The main uses are from pre-bloom to first cover at a rate of
1.1-2.2 kg/ha at 5-7 day intervals and, if necessary, up to ten
further applications at 1.1 kg/ha.
Dodine is marketed as a wettable powder (65% a.i.) and as a
water-miscible liquid concentrate (24% a.i.).
Residues of the parent compound are determined by a colorimetric
method which is suitable for surface deposits or for macerates.
Analysis shows that virtually all the residue is on the surface of the
fruit. The colorimetric method is suitable for regulatory purposes.
Limited information is available on the fate of residues in apples.
Experiments with radio-labelled material showed that the degradation
products of dodine were translocated only very slightly and appeared
to be simple amino acids and guanidine type moieties bound to proteins
and peptides. No data have been provided on the metabolism in mammals.
Residue data from supervised trials were obtained from various
regions of the United States and, for grapes, from Italy.
Residues in apples were generally low at harvest (<0.5 mg/kg),
but higher residues can occur under dry conditions. Disappearance of
dodine is rapid initially but slow below 0.5 mg/kg. Residues decreased
from 5-8 mg/kg to 0.6 mg/kg or less in approximately 30 days.
The residue level and the rate of disappearance appear to be
slightly affected by apple variety or variation in use pattern.
Residue data were similar in 1957 and 1958.
The behaviour of residues in pears is similar to that in apples.
Residues in sweet cherries were relatively low in all experiments
immediately after treatment, and degradation was rapid.
In peaches the residues were low if dodine was applied alone, but
higher after simultaneous application with captan or sulphur.
Residues in grapes vary widely. They seem to be directly related
to the number of applications rather than to the interval after
application. No data were available on the fate of residues during the
processing of wine.
In the light of the information provided the following temporary
tolerances, for the parent compound only, are recommended.
Pre-harvest intervals on
Tolerances which recommendations
mg/kg are based
Apples, pears 2 21
strawberries 5 14
Cherries 2 7
FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION
REQUIRED (by 1976)
1. Metabolic studies of dodine in animals and plants.
1. Teratogenicity studies in appropriate animal species.
2. Fate of residues in apple and grape pomace when fed to dairy
3. Supervised trials on various crops in countries other than the
4. Further details on residues arising in supervised trials on
peaches and grapes, and during wine processing.
American Cyanamid Co. Apple, pear and sour cherry residue data.
Petition 211. (Unpublished).
American Cyanamid Co. Strawberry residue data. Petition 324.
Anonymous. (1974) Information on dodine from the Netherlands.
Anonymous. (1974) Information on dodine from New Zealand.
Belonozhko, G., Tovstenko, A. and Shevchenko, N. (1973) Mechanism of
action of dodecylguanidine acetate (dodine). Farmakol. Toksikol.,
Kiev, 8:134-137. (Abstract only).
Chu, J.P., Kirsch, E.J. and Born, G.S. (1971) Thin layer
chromatography of n-dodecylguanidines. Bull. Environ. Contam.
Curry, A.N. (1962) Translocation and metabolism of dodecylguanidine
acetate (dodine) fungicide in apple trees using C14 radiotagged
dodine. J. agr. Food Chem., 10:13-17.
Frear, D.E.H., Smith, E.C. and Bowery T.G. (1960) Dodecylguanidine
acetate (dodine) residues on apples. J. agr. Food Chem., 8(6):465-466.
Gatterdam, P.E. Mobility of Melprex(R) fungicide in soils by the
thin-layer technique. American Cyanamid Co., Report IC-1.
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acetate (dodine). Geological Survey Prof. Paper 650 D - D 235 - D 239.
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derivatives through the leaf in the control of apple scab and
cedar-apple rust fungi. Phytopathology, 48:262. (Abstract only).
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dodine. Report from the Am. Cyanamid Co. (Unpublished).
Huntingdon Research Centre. (1974) Dodine residues in grapes.
Technical Report No. 364. (Unpublished).
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and industrial chemicals for tumorigenicity in mice: A preliminary
note. J. natn. Cancer Inst., 42:1101-1114.
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McNerney, J., Ribelin, W., Levinskas, F. and Shaffer, C.B. (1967)
Report on Cyprex fruit fungicide: successive generation studies with
mice. Report from American Cyanamid Co. (Unpublished).
O'Grady, J., Winter, G. and Shaffer, C.B. (1958a) Report on
dodecylguanidine acetate (DDGA): one year feeding to dogs. Report from
American Cyanamid Co. (Unpublished).
O'Grady, J., Vidone, L., Winter, G., Levinskas, G and Shaffer, C.B.
(1958b) Report on dodecylguanidine acetate (DDGA): repeated feeding to
rats, successive generation studies. Report from American Cyanamid Co.
O'Grady, J., Vidone, L., Winter, G., Levinskas, G. and Shaffer, C.B.
(1959) Report on dodecylguanidine acetate: two year feeding to rats.
Report from American Cyanamid Co. (Unpublished).
Owens, R. (1969) Metabolism of fungicides and related compounds. Ann.
N.Y. Acad. Sci., 160:114-132.
Pasarela, N.R. (1964) Total dodine residues in fruits. J. Ass. off.
analyt. Chem., 47:300-303.
Powell, D., Khetry, A., Sasaki, P.J. and Brussell, G.E. (1958) The
fungicidal efficacy of Cyprex against apple scab. Pl. Dis. Rept.,
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