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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1982


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1982





    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 23 November - 2 December 1982

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1983


    ALDICARB

      CH3       O   H
       '        " /
    CH3SCCH = NOCN
       '          \  
      CH3         CH3

    Explanation

         Aldicarb was reviewed by the JMPR in 1979 (FAO/WHO 1980)1/. An
    ADI of 0-0.001 mg/kg body weight was established, based on the
    no-effect level of 0.125 mg/kg bw observed in a short-term feeding
    study on rats. Further desirable information was noted at that time.

         Additional data on aldicarb metabolites have become available,
    primarily on aldicarb sulphone, which is one of the two major terminal
    residues. The other major metabolite is aldicarb sulphoxide. The data
    consist of acute, subchronic and chronic studies, with additional
    information and observations in humans, as well as a water inclusion
    study in rats.

         The data considered in support of the ADI established by the 1970
    JMPR are re-evaluated in this monograph addendum in light of the
    additional data received, and a rationale is provided for revising the
    previously recommended ADI.

    EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Special Study on Reproduction

    Rat - aldicarb sulphone

         Aldicarb sulphone (99.76% pure) was administered to rats
    (10 males and 20 females/group) at dosage levels of 0, 0.6, 2.4 and
    9.6 mg/kg/day in their diet for approximately 100 days. Rats were then
    mated to initiate a three generation, one litter per generation,
    reproduction study. Fertility, gestation survival (4, 14 and 21 days)
    and lactation indices were determined, as well as body weights and
    food consumption. Male rats fed 9.6 mg/kg exhibited reduced body
    weights. There were no differences from the control with regard to
    fertility, gestation survival or viability indices. Marginal effects

              

    1/  See Annex 2 for WHO and FAO documentation.

    on the lactation index were noted. It was determined that aldicarb
    sulphone, at levels up to and including 9.6 mg/kg, was without adverse
    effects on reproduction under the conditions of this study (Woodside
     et al 1977a).

    Special Study on Teratogenicity

    Rat - aldicarb sulphone

         The aldicarb sulphone reproduction study conducted by Woodside
     et al (1977a) incorporated a teratology bioassay. The animals were
    divided into four groups and orally dosed with either 0, 0.6, 2.4 or
    9.6 mg/kg at one of the following time intervals of gestation: 0-20
    days, 6-15 days, or 7-9 days. All animals were sacrificed before
    parturition (day 20) and the foetuses examined for skeletal and
    visceral changes. Resorption sites, number and condition of pups and
    litter weights were recorded. The pregnancy rate was unaffected by
    treatment, except that resorption sites per female were slightly
    increased in 9.6 mg/kg-treated females for the 6-15 day treatment
    interval. No increase in resorption was seen at the same dosage level
    for days 0-20. Anomalies were essentially non-existent and there was
    no indication of terata produced under the conditions of the study at
    levels up to and including 9.6 mg/kg.

    Special Study for Carcinogenicity

    Mice - aldicarb sulphone

         Groups of Charles River CD-1 mice (50/sex/group) were
    administered 0, 0.15, 0.6, 2.4 and 9.6 mg/kg aldicarb sulphone in the
    feed for 18 months. Mice were housed two per cage in the first year
    and singly thereafter. Observations were made routinely throughout and
    included mortality, food consumption and body weight determinations.
    Gross and microscopic examination were performed on all mice. Body
    weight changes were sporadic and exhibited no trends. Histologic
    changes were not statistically different from controls at any dose
    level for either sex. Based on these criteria, aldicarb sulphone did
    not affect tumour incidence or produce any pathological alteration in
    this strain of mouse (Woodside et al 1977b).

    Special Study on Neurotoxicity

    Hen - aldicarb sulphone

         Adult white Leghorn hens (40 each) were intubated to receive
    250 mg/kg bw aldicarb sulphone suspended in maize oil. Two other
    groups, each with 10 hens, received either TOCP (500 mg/kg) or maize
    oil alone, and served as positive and negative control groups
    respectively. The birds received single oral doses, 21 days apart, in
    a typical acute delayed neurotoxicity evaluation. The hens were

    observed every third day for 42 days. There were no neurological
    effects other than acute cholinergic signs of poisoning in the TOCP
    dosed group. No histological examination was performed, owing to the
    lack of demonstrated neurotoxic signs. Aldicarb sulphone did not cause
    delayed neurotoxic reactions under the conditions of the study (Babish
    and Salerno 1977).

    Special Study on Sensitization

         Skin sensitization to aldicarb sulphone (UC 21865, technical) or
    a 75% WP formulation was evaluated in albino guinea pigs (Hartley
    Strain) using a modified Landsteiner technique. Neither substance was
    determined to be a sensitizer under the conditions of this study
    (Conroy and Carpenter 1977).

    Acute Toxicity

         The acute toxicity of aldicarb, aldicarb metabolites and of
    aldicarb formulations to several animal species is summarized in
    Table 1.

         Aldicarb is very highly toxic to mammals by oral exposure. In all
    species tested, the acute oral toxicity of aldicarb and its
    formulations are similar. The oral toxicity of the formulations is
    basically that associated with ingestion of the active toxicant; the
    lower acute oral toxicity of aldicarb formulations reflects the
    reduced concentrations of aldicarb as formulated in the granular
    material. The toxicity of aldicarb when injected intraperitoneally or
    intravenously is substantially similar to the toxicity via the oral
    route, suggesting rapid absorption into the body.

         Aldicarb is also highly toxic by dermal exposure; it readily
    penetrates the skin, especially moist skin. In contrast, the dermal
    toxicity of TEMIKR formulations is extremely low, reflecting the
    greatly reduced availability of aldicarb from the formulations.
    Moistening the TemikR formulation on the skin during dermal exposure
    similarly enhances penetration of aldicarb; granular TemikR
    formulations are more toxic in contact with moist skin than with dry
    skin.

         The oral toxicities of aldicarb and its principal metabolite,
    aldicarb sulphoxide, are similar, while the oral toxicity of aldicarb
    sulphone is approximately 4% that of aldicarb. The other aldicarb
    metabolites are considerably less toxic than these.

        Table 1.  Acute Toxicity of Aldicarb and Its Metabolites in Animals
                                                                                                                           

                                                                           LD50
    Chemical               Species      Sex    Route     Vehicle           (mg/kg bw)    Reference
                                                                                                                           

    Aldicarb               Guinea pig          oral      maize oil         1.0           Nycum and Carpenter 1968

                           Rabbit              oral      propylene glycol  1.3                      "

                           Rat          M      dermal    maize oil         >10           Field 1979b

                           Rabbit       M      dermal    maize oil         >10           Field 1979a

    Aldicarb Metabolites

    Aldicarb               Mouse        M      oral      maize oil         0.8-1.6       Nycum and Carpenter 1968
    sulphoxide             Guinea pig          oral      maize oil         0.8-1.8                   "

                           Rabbit              oral      maize oil         0.4-1.8                   "

                           Rat          M      i.p.      maize oil         0.71          Johnson and Carpenter 1966

    Aldicarb sulphone      Mouse        M      oral      maize oil         25            Nycum and Carpenter 1968

                           Guinea pig          oral      maize oil         >50                       "

                           Rabbit              oral      maize oil         75                        "
                                                                                                                           

    Table 1 (con't)
                                                                                                                           

                                                                           LD50
    Chemical               Species      Sex    Route     Vehicle           (mg/kg bw)    Reference
                                                                                                                           

    Aldicarb Formulations

    10 G gypsum            Rat          M      oral      none              7.07          Weil and Carpenter 1972

    TSX (a)                Rat          M      oral      maize oil         7.9           Wolfe and Bristol 1980

                           Rat          F      oral      maize oil         6.7                       "

    10G gypsum             Rabbit       F      oral      none              7.9-17.8      Myers et al 1975b; Weil
    maize cob                                                                            and Carpenter 1974a

    15G gypsum             Rabbit       F      oral      none              5.29-10.6     Myers et al 1975b; Weil
    maize cob                                                                            and Carpenter 1974a

    15G maize cob          Rabbit       F      oral      none              8.4           Myers et al 1975b

    10G gypsum             Rat          M&F    dermal    dry               2100->5000    Myers et al 1975b; Weil and
    maize cob                                                                            Carpenter 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974a

    10G gypsum             Rat          M&F    dermal    water             283-673       Myers et al 1975a,b; Weil and
    maize cob                                                                            Carpenter, 1968, 1969, 1974a.

    15G gypsum             Rat          M&F    dermal    dry               1980-6320     Myers et al 1975b; Weil and
    maize cob                                                                            Carpenter 1971, 1972, 1974a.

                           Rat          M&F    dermal    water             283-1010      Myers et al 1975b; Weil and
                                                                                         Carpenter 1974a.
                                                                                                                           

    Table 1 (con't)
                                                                                                                           

                                                                           LD50
    Chemical               Species      Sex    Route     Vehicle           (mg/kg bw)    Reference
                                                                                                                           

    Aldicarb Formulations (con't)

    10G gypsum             Rabbit       M      dermal    dry               >4800         Weil and Carpenter 1974a

    15G gypsum             Rabbit       M      dermal    dry               >4800                     "

    TSX1/                  Rabbit       M&F    dermal    none              >2000         Wolfe et al 1980
                                                                                                                           

    1/  TSX is a mixture of Temik (5.5%), Terrachlor fungicide (9.5%) and Terrazole fungicide (2.3%).
        Short-Term Studies

    Mice - aldicarb sulphone

         Groups of Charles River, CD-1 mice (5/sex/group) were fed
    aldicarb sulphone in the diet at levels of 0, 0.15, 0.6, 2.4, 9.6 and
    38.4 mg/kg for seven days. Body weights were determined on three
    separate days. Mice were observed daily for signs of toxicity or
    abnormality. Selected organ weights (liver and kidneys) were measured
    and their absolute and relative organ weights determined. It was
    concluded that only the highest dose produced statistically
    significant body weight decrease. There were no dose-related or
    statistically significant organ weight changes. Cholinesterase values
    were not determined (Weil and Carpenter 1974b).

    Rat - aldicarb

         Groups of CFE rats (10 per sex per group) were fed aldicarb in
    their diet for 93 days at dosage levels of 0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg
    body weight. One rat per level was killed for cholinesterase (plasma,
    RBC and brain) determinations at 1 or 2, 4 and 29 days of dosing. Body
    weights, diet consumption and selected organ weights (liver and
    kidney) were determined, and histopathological examination of lung,
    liver, kidney and trachea were done. Mortality was increased for the
    highest dose levels, statistically at the 0.5 mg/kg bw dose level.
    Body weight and food consumption were also decreased at the highest
    level. Relative liver and kidney weights were not affected at any dose
    level in comparison to control. Histopathology of the selected organs
    was unremarkable and there were no compound-related effects noted.
    There were no consistent dose-related effects on the cholinesterase
    determinations, except for plasma cholinesterase depression in both
    sexes after 30 days at the highest level. There was no indication of
    how soon after feeding the ChE determinations were performed, which
    could account for the sporadic results, together with the small number
    of animals sampled at each interval (Weil and Carpenter 1963).

    Rat - aldicarb sulphoxide: aldicarb sulphone (1:1)

         Wistar rats (10 males and 10 females per group) were administered
    aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone in a 1:1 ratio, in the
    drinking water, ad libitum, for 29 days. Nominal dose levels were 0,
    0.075, 0.3, 1.2, 4.8 and 19.2 ppm. Body weight, food and water
    consumption, and clinical haematology parameters were measured weekly.
    Plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase levels were determined after
    8, 15 and 29 days of treatment. Brain cholinesterase was measured at
    termination. Animals were continuously exposed to the test substances
    in water until blood samples were taken or sacrifice was performed,
    Cholinesterase activity in blood and brain was analysed by a
    modification of an automated procedure described by Humiston and
    Wright (1965), which is an adaptation of the method described by

    Ellman  et al (1961). Preliminary  in vitro enzyme inhibition
    kinetic studies verify the methodology as acceptable for defining
    reversible carbamate-induced cholinesterase inhibition in rats.
    Significant depression of plasma, RBC and brain cholinesterase, in
    both sexes, occurred at the highest dose level. Sporadic differences
    in plasma and RBC cholinesterase values, which occurred in males only,
    were inconsistently depressed and within the range of biological
    variability. The data demonstrate that a level of 4.8 ppm of aldicarb
    sulphoxide: aldicarb sulphone in water is without effect on
    cholinesterase (plasma, RBC, brain) in either sex. Based on the actual
    concentrations being approximately 80% of the nominal values, the no-
    effect level is roughly 3.84 ppm or 0.384 mg/kg (in water). Food and
    water consumption values together with body weight gains were
    significantly decreased in both sexes at the high dose level when
    compared to controls. There were no such differences at any of the
    other dose levels. There was no mortality (Mirro  et al 1982).

    Rabbit - aldicarb sulphone (dermal)

         Aldicarb sulphone (technical and 75 WP) were administered to
    the unabraded, but closely clipped, ventral surface of rabbits
    (6 males/group, 5 days/week for 19 applications) at dosages of
    4.8 mg/kg bw for 75 WP and 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mg/kg bw for technical
    aldicarb sulphone. No mortality, skin irritation or cholinesterase
    depression were observed. However, rabbits were removed from treatment
    19 hours prior to ChE analysis, which could account for the lack of
    response (ChE depression) considering the rapid reversibility of ChE
    inhibition for aldicarb and its ChE-inhibiting metabolites. Body
    weight was significantly depressed in the high dose level rabbits.
    There were no reported treatment-related effects on organ weights or
    organ-to-body weight ratios (liver, kidney, brain). Necropsy findings
    were unremarkable (Weil  et al 1977).

    Observations in Humans

         Fifteen male volunteers participated in a study in Panama to
    evaluate human exposure in a banana plantation where Temik-15G was
    applied under natural conditions. Temperatures ranged from 75F (24C)
    to 92F (32C) with 80 to 90% relative humidity. The workers used
    three different types of hand-held applicators. Blood samples were
    taken from all volunteers prior to initiating the test and immediately
    following each 6-hour working period. Samples were obtained in the
    field and analysed 1-2 hours later in the laboratory using the
    Boehringer Mannheim method, a photometric test based on the method of
    Ellman  et al (1961). Urine samples were also collected. Only two
    workers showed greater than 25% reduction in their blood
    cholinesterase activity (29% and 50%). Spontaneous reversibility was
    evident in both cases. The worker with 50% reduction showed 25%
    recovery within three hours. Blood samples from the other worker
    indicated 100% recovery 24 hours later. Results of blood analyses

    indicated that cholinesterase activity was below the normal range
    (population) in samples collected from six workers during the second
    day of the study. Cholinesterase activity in all samples taken during
    the first and third day of the study were within the normal range. No
    clinical signs of aldicarb-induced intoxication were found, although
    one individual presented symptoms of nausea, stomachache and headache
    (Union Carbide 1979).

    COMMENTS

         Aldicarb, the active ingredient of the nematocide-insecticide
    sold under the trade name TEMIKR, is rapidly absorbed and
    metabolized by mammals to aldicarb sulphoxide, its major metabolite.
    Aldicarb sulphoxide is more slowly degraded to aldicarb sulphone. All
    metabolites of aldicarb, both oxidative and hydrolytic, are rapidly
    and completely eliminated from the body, 80-90% being excreted within
    24 hours, and leave no detectable residues by the fifth day. Data
    demonstrate that they are not stored in body tissues.

         The toxicological properties of aldicarb and its metabolites have
    been assessed in several species of laboratory animals under a variety
    of exposure conditions (acute, subchronic and chronic) and routes
    (oral by gavage, diet and drinking water; dermal; inhalation and
    injection). Aldicarb is extremely toxic acutely, with an oral LD50 in
    rats of approximately 1 mg/kg body weight. Aldicarb sulphoxide is a
    more potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor than aldicarb, and the
    rapid conversion in animals to aldicarb sulphoxide is probably
    responsible for the acute toxic reaction associated with aldicarb.
    The acute toxicity of aldicarb sulphone is considerably less (LD50 =
    20-25 mg/kg) than either aldicarb or aldicarb sulphoxide.

         Studies examining the acute and subchronic effects of aldicarb
    administered orally to human volunteers and under a variety of actual
    working conditions reveal the same pattern of acetylcholinesterase
    depression and rapid recovery as that demonstrated in experimental
    animals. Depressed cholinesterase levels return rapidly to normal and
    symptoms, if any, subside immediately following removal from exposure
    to aldicarb. There have been no lasting effects on the health of
    volunteers exposed to aldicarb under natural or laboratory conditions.
    The toxicological responses of humans to aldicarb and its metabolites,
    under such conditions, do not differ from those of laboratory animals.

         Aldicarb's inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase is rapidly
    reversed following hydrolysis of the carbamylated enzyme to regenerate
    active enzyme. In experimental animals and humans, spontaneous
    recovery from sublethal doses of aldicarb occurs very rapidly (within
    a few hours of exposure). The competition of acetylcholine and
    aldicarb for the enzyme's active site, the instability of carbamylated
    enzyme, together with the efficient metabolism and high aqueous

    solubility of aldicarb, contribute to the spontaneous rapid recovery
    of inhibited enzyme. The rate at which acetylcholinesterase activity
    recovers makes it difficult to measure acetylcholinesterase inhibition
    analytically in the laboratory, and rapid assays must be used under
    carefully controls conditions.

         Short-term and long-term studies with aldicarb and its sulphone
    and sulphoxide metabolites have revealed no neurological,
    carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic effects, and no adverse effect
    on reproduction. At a dietary dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day, a minimal
    depression of blood cholinesterase was observed in rats. In dogs, a
    no-effect level was noted at 0.25 mg/kg/day. Cholinesterase levels
    (RBC and plasma) were apparently unaffected in this study, although
    these were measured after a period that allowed the spontaneous
    recovery of the enzyme. In a subchronic study where aldicarb
    sulphoxide and sulphone were added to drinking water in a 1:1 ratio,
    the no-effect level was observed to be 4.8 ppm, based on
    cholinesterase depression. In a 6-month rat feeding study with the
    sulphoxide metabolite, the no-effect level for cholinesterase
    depression has been accepted as 0.125 mg/kg body weight, with no other
    effects observed at higher doses.

         These studies demonstrate that the method of administering the
    dose to the animal can greatly modify the toxic properties of
    aldicarb, as contrasted in the acute oral versus short- and long-term
    dietary studies. Rats, mice and dogs have tolerated LD50 doses
    repeatedly administered from 7 days to 2 years, when incorporated in
    their diet. Similarly, a 1:1 mixture of aldicarb sulphoxide and
    aldicarb sulphone when administered in the drinking water to rats for
    28 consecutive days at doses equivalent to the LD50 for aldicarb
    sulphoxide (e.g. 0.38 to 1.5 mg/kg bw) caused no deaths and only
    moderate ChE depression at the high dose. Conversely, a single bolus
    of aldicarb or aldicarb sulphoxide equivalent to the above doses, when
    administered by gavage or intubation to laboratory animals, caused
    death in less than 2 hours. This ability of all animals to survive
    daily doses of aldicarb equivalent to single-dose LD50 values
    suggests the reduced bioavailability of aldicarb when administered in
    the diet. Human volunteers tolerated single oral doses of aqueous
    solutions of aldicarb (in doses of 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) with only
    mild depression of whole blood cholinesterase in all cases. Only the
    persons receiving 0.1 mg/kg aldicarb presented symptoms of acute
    cholinergic stress (i.e. nausea, sweating, pin-point pupils,
    salivation). These data indicate that humans are no more sensitive to
    aldicarb, aldicarb sulphoxide or aldicarb sulphone than laboratory
    animals.

         In the light of the data on aldicarb, the spontaneous recovery of
    the carbamylated cholinesterase enzyme within a few hours and the
    reduced bioavailability from dietary exposure, it is unlikely that
    humans exposed to residues of aldicarb in food will suffer any

    prolonged or significant cholinesterase depression, provided such
    residues are from purposeful use in accordance with GAP (good
    agricultural practice) and within established international limits
    (MRLs). This is suggested by the no-effect levels determined from
    reproduction, teratogenic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic, subchronic and
    chronic dietary studies. ChE inhibition is transient and recovery is
    rapid and spontaneous.

         Accordingly, the Committee has revised the ADI to reflect more
    accurately the concern for aldicarb residues that may be present in
    foodstuffs.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    Level Causing no Toxicological Effects

    Rat: 2.5 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 0.125 mg/kg bw.

    Dog: 0.25 mg/kg bw

    Estimate of Acceptable Daily Intake for Man

    0 - 0.005 mg/kg bw.

    REFERENCES

    Babish, J.G. and Salerno, A. Neurotoxicity evaluation of UC 21865
    1977     in white Leghorn hens  (Gallus domesticus). Report from
             Food and Drug Research Laboratories submitted to the World
             Health Organization by Union Carbide Corporation.
             (Unpublished)

    Conroy, W.J. and Carpenter, C.P. UC 21865 Technical and 75% WP
             sensitization potential 1977 in guinea pigs as determined by
             intradermal injection. Report from Carnegie-Mellon Institute
             (No. 40-12) submitted to the World Health Organization by
             Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Ellmann, G.L. Courtney, K.D., Andres, V. Jr. and Featherstone, R.M.
    1961     A new and rapid colorimetric determination of
             acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem. Pharmacol. 7:88.

    Field, W.E. Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits. Report from CDC
    1979a    Research, Inc, (CDC-UC-009-79) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1979b    Acute dermal toxicity in rats. Report from CDC Research,
             Inc. (CDC-UC-008-79) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Humiston, C.G. and Wright, G.J. A new automated method for the
    1965     determination of cholinesterase activity. Clin. Chem.
             11:802.

    Johnson, H.E. and Carpenter, C.P. Temik (technical grade compound
    1966     21149). Comparative behavioural effect in rats. Report from
             Mellon Institute (No. 29-89) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Myers, R.C., Weil, C.W. and Carpenter, C.P. Temik, 10G: Acute 4-hour
    1975a    skin penetration of rats. Report from Mellon Institute (no.
             38-40) submitted to the World Health Organization by Union
             Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Myers, R.C., Weil, C.S. and Cox, E.F. Temik 19G B.C. (coal); 10G and
    1975b    15G (gypsum); 15G (corn cob). Comparative toxicity studies
             via peroral, dermal and inhalation routes. Report from
             Mellon Institute (no. 38-141) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Mirro, E.J., DePass, L.R. and Frank, F.R. Twenty-nine day water
    1982     inclusion study in rats. Report from Bushy Run Research
             Laboratory (no. 45-181) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Nycum, J.S. and Carpenter, C.P. Toxicity studies on Temik and
    1968     related carbamates. Report from Mellon Institute (no. 31-48)
             submitted to the World Health Organization by Union Carbide
             Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Volunteer worker's exposure monitoring study
    1979     (Panama). Report from Union Carbide Corporation submitted to
             the World Health Organization by Union Carbide Corporation.
             (Unpublished)

    Weil, C.S. and Carpenter, C.P. Results of three months of inclusion
    1963     of Compound 21149 in the diet of rats. Report from Mellon
             Institute (No. 26-47) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1968     Temik 10G-V (10.3% granular formulation of Compound 21149).
             Acute and 14-day dermal application to rabbits. Report from
             Mellon Institute (no. 31-137) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1969     Four-hour wet skin contact test on rats. Report from Mellon
             Institute (no. 32-64) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Weil, C.S. and Carpenter, C.P. Comparative skin penetration toxicity
    1970     of Temik 10GV and 15 other pesticide formulations as
             marketed. Report from Mellon Institute (No. 33-15) submitted
             to the World Health Organization by Union Carbide
             Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1971     Comparative skin penetration toxicity of Temik, Temik 10GV,
             Temik 15GV, and 5 other pesticide formulations as marketed.
             Report from Mellon Institute (No. 34-76) submitted to the
             World Health Organization. (Unpublished)

    1972     Miscellaneous toxicity studies. Report from Mellon Institute
             (No. 35-41) submitted to the World Health Organization by
             Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1974a    Temik aldicarb pesticide 10G and 15G. Range-finding toxicity
             studies. Report from Mellon Institute (no. 37-39) submitted
             to the World Health Organization by Union Carbide
             Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1974b    UC 21865; results of feeding in the diet of mice for 7 days.
             Report from Mellon Institute (No. 37-89) submitted to the
             World Health Organization by Union Carbide Corporation.
             (Unpublished)

    Weil, C.S., Conroy, W.J., Condra, N.I. and Cox, E.F. Aldicarb
    1977     sulphone UC 21865. 19-day rabbit skin inunction. Report from
             Mellon Institute (No. 40-13) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Woodside, M.D., Weil, C.S. and Cox, E.F. Inclusion in the diet of
    1977a    rats for three generations (aldicarb sulphone), dominant
             lethal mutagenesis and teratology studies. Report from
             Carnegie Mellon (no. 40-1) submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Union Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    1977b    Aldicarb sulphone; 18-month feeding in the diet of mice.
             Report from Carnegie Mellon (No. 40-38) submitted to the
             World Health Organization by Union Carbide Corporation.
             (Unpublished)

    Wolfe, G.W. and Bristol, K.L. Acute oral toxicity study in rats. Temik
    1980     TSX. Report from Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc. (Report
             400-631) submitted to the World Health Organization by Union
             Carbide Corporation. (Unpublished)

    Wolfe, G.W., Voelker, R.W. and Dauvin, E.M. Acute dermal toxicity
    1980     studies in rabbits. Temik TSX. Report from Hazleton
             Laboratories America, Inc., (Report 400-632) submitted to
             the World Health Organization by Union Carbide Corporation.
             (Unpublished)

    ALDICARB

      CH3       O   H
       '        " /
    CH3SCCH = NOCN
       '          \
      CH3          CH3

    Explanation

         Aldicarb was reviewed by the Joint Meeting in 1979 (FAO/WHO
    1980b)1/ and maximum residue levels estimated for several major
    commodities. As a result of actions and discussions by the Thirteenth
    and Fourteenth Sessions of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues
    (CCPR), additional residue data and good agricultural practice (GAP)
    information or other information have been provided to the Meeting for
    citrus, potatoes and milk. Residue data and GAP information have also
    been provided for the first time for several additional commodities.
    These new submissions are reviewed in this addendum.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    USE PATTERN

         Aldicarb is sold as a granular formulation (0.5-15% active
    ingredient). It may be applied at the stage of pre-planting, planting,
    post-emergence or in some crops before or as the new growth begins.
    Application may be broadcast or band and the granules are typically
    covered with or worked into the soil. A more extensive description has
    been provided previously (FAO/WHO 1980b). Labels for currently
    registered U.S. uses as well as information on proposed uses were
    available to this Meeting and are summarized in Table 1. Typically
    only one application annually is recommended. The manufacturer
    informed the Meeting that U.S. use directions will cover most user
    situations. The manufacturer provided limited agricultural practice
    information for Argentina, Brazil, France, Mexico, South Africa and
    the United Kingdom. This information and new information provided by
    the Netherlands' government are summarized in Table 2.

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

    Brussels sprouts

         Residue data were available from 1980 (CIVO 1981) and 1981
    (CIVO 1982) supervised trials in the Netherlands. The data resulted
    from single applications at planting or one day preplanting of 10G

              

    1/  See Annex 2 for FAO and WHO documentation.

        Table 1.  Summary of U.S. Federally Registered and Proposes Uses for Aldicarb on
              Various Commodities
                                                                                               

    Registered Uses1/

                                           Time of           kg a.i./ha         Preharvest
    Commodity            Formulation       Application       or 100 m of row    Interval (days)
                                                                                               

    Beans (dry)          15G               at planting       0.59-2.4           90

    Citrus               15G               prior to or       5.5-11.3           30 (for
    (grapefruit,                           during                               lemons)
    lemons, limes,                         spring flush
    oranges)                               or new growth

    Cotton               15G               at planting       0.34-3.4           90

    Grain sorghum        15G               at planting       0.59-1.2           902/
                                                             or
                                                             6-9.8 g/100 m

    Peanuts              15G               at planting       1.2-3.4            90

    Pecans               15G               bud break to      5.5-11.3           -
                                           nut set

    Potatoes             15G               at planting       1.2-3.5            90
                                           or
                                           after planting    2.3-3.3
                                                             or
                                                             9.8-30 g/100 m     50

    Soybeans             15G               at planting       0.84-3.4           90

    Sugarbeets           15G               at planting       1.8-2.3            90
                                           1 week before

    Sugarcane            15G               at planting       2.4-3.4            120
    (Louisiana only)                                         or
                                                             36-52 g/100 m

    Sweet potatoes       15G               at planting       1.7-3.4            120 (also
                                                             or                 a restriction
                                                             21-43 g/100 m      on vines)
                                                                                               

    Table 1 (con't)
                                                                                               

                                           Time of           kg a.i./ha         Preharvest
    Commodity            Formulation       Application       or 100 m of row    Interval (days)
                                                                                               

    Grapes               10G               just prior to     4.5                120
                         or                or at
                         15 G              beginning of
                                           active vine
                                           growth

    Maize                10G               at planting       1.1-1.7            60-day
    (field corn)                                             or                 forage feed
                                                             10-15 g/100 m      restriction.

                         15G               at planting       1.1-1.7            60-day
                                                             or                 forage feed
                                                             7-10 g/100 m       restriction.

    Tomatoes3/           10G               at or just        2.2-3.4
    (field grown)                          prior to          or
                                           transplanting     35-54 g/100 m
                                           or seeding
                                           (10g and 15g)

                         15G                                 2.2-3.4
                                                             or
                                                             39-55 g/100 m
                                                                                               

    1/   U.S. EPA Reg. No. 264-330; EPA EST. 10352-GA-01;

    2/   Feeding or foraging before harvest is not recommended as residue levels on green
           forage may be unsafe for animals;

    3/   Proposed use limited to California and Florida.

    Table 2.  Summary of Aldicarb Uses in Several Countries1/
                                                                                               

    Crop          Country         Formulation    Application          Preharvest
                                                 Rate                 Interval (days)
                                                                                               

    Banana        Brazil          10G            2-3 g a.i./cova      21
                  South Africa    15G            3 g a.i./station
                                                 (new plt.)
                                                 2.6-3 g a.i./mat
                                                 twice a year
                                                 (established)

    Beans         Brazil          10G            1-2 kg a.i./ha       80
                                                 or
                                                 5-10 kg/100 m

    Beet          Netherlands     10G            1.2-2.5 kg a.i./ha   entire growing
    (sugarbeet                                   (row at plt.)        period.
    and fodder)

    Brussels      Netherlands     10G            3 kg a.i./ha         entire growing
    sprouts                                      (broadcast,          period
                                                 worked in)

    Citrus        Brazil          10G            1-5 g/cova           60

                                                 10-20 g/adult tree

    Coffee        Brazil          10G            3-15 g/cova          90

    Cotton        Argentina       10G            0.3-3 kg a.i./ha
                  Brazil          10G            0.6-2 kg a.i/ha
                  South Africa    15G            0.5-1.5 kg a.i./ha

    Figs          Brazil          10G            5-10 kg a.i./ha

    Garlic        Argentina       10G            0.5-3 kg a.i./ha

    Leaf          U.K.            10G            5.1 g/100 m          70
    brassicas2/
    (cabbage,
    cauliflower,
    Brussels
    sprouts)

    Maize and     U.K.            10G            5.1 g/100 m
    sweet corn2/  South Africa    15G3/          11-15 g/100 m
                                                                                               

    Table 2 (con't)
                                                                                               

    Crop          Country         Formulation    Application          Preharvest
                                                 Rate                 Interval (days)
                                                                                               

    Onions        Argentina       10G            0.5-3 kg a.i./ha

    Onions        Netherlands     10G            1.5 kg a.i./ha       entire growing
    (bulbs)                                      (row at sowing)      period

    Oranges       Argentina       10G            22 g/plant

    Peanuts       Argentina       10G            0.3-2 kg a.i./ha

    Peas2/        U.K.            10G            1 kg a.i./ha
                                                 (preplant broadcast)

    Peppers       Argentina       10G            1-3 kg a.i./ha

    Potatoes      South Africa    15G            2.6-7.5 kg a.i./ha
                  Netherlands     10G            3 kg a.i./ha 
                                                 (broadcast and work
                                                 in shortly before
                                                 plt.)

    Ratoon cane   South Africa    15G            2.3-3 kg a.i./ha

    Sugarcane     South Africa    10G            3 kg a.i./ha
                  Brazil          10G            2-3 kg a.i./ha
                  Argentina       10G            1.5-3 kg a.i./ha

    Swedes and    U.K.            10G            7.7 g/100 m row
    turnips2/                                    at planting

    Sweet         Argentina       10G            2-3 kg a.i./ha
    potatoes      Brazil          10G            1-2 kg a.i./ha

    Tomatoes      Argentina       10G            0.5-3 kg a.i./ha
                  U.K.            10G            55 g active/100 m2
                                                 (in propagating house)

                                                 0.1 a.i./plant (spot)
                                                 75 g a.i./100 m2
                                                                                               

    1/   Information for Mexico and France was too limited to be useful;

    2/   Cleared until 31 March 1981 U.K.;

    3/   Only maize.
    
    formulation at or at twice the approved rate (Table 2). At the
    approved application rate residues were 0.01 and 0.02 (0.01-
    0.03 mg/kg) at 133 and 150 days, respectively, after treatment. At
    twice the approved rate, residues were 0.01 and 0.05 (0.04-0.07 mg/kg)
    at the same respective periods. In each case, the number of samples
    could not be determined from the submission. The values are
    uncorrected for approximately 85% analytical method recoveries at 0.05
    and 0.06 mg/kg fortification levels.

    Citrus

         The current 0.2 mg/kg limit is based on extensive data, including
    over 200 samples on oranges alone, and on a 90-day preharvest interval
    (FAO/WHO 1980b). Additional data have been provided to this Meeting
    and have been examined in conjunction with data previously submitted,
    along with information on current good agricultural practices. These
    additional data include residue data for over 160 additional citrus
    samples, including lemons and different varieties of grapefruit and
    oranges. Residues in the three lemon samples were < 0.1 mg/kg a.i. at
    30-90 days after treatment at the recommended 11 kg a.i./ha. Residues
    in grapefruit were < 0.02 for all 18 samples, although the
    preharvest intervals were 158-300 days for all 18 samples, except for
    one sample (0.02 mg/kg) at 42 days. Of the 100 orange samples, only
    one mature fruit sample had residues at the current 0.2 mg/kg limit at
    > 90-day preharvest interval and a < 11 kg a.i./ha recommended
    application rate. However, maximum residues from this application rate
    were 0.29 and 0.31 mg/kg at a 30-day interval and 0.21 at 60 days.

         With these recent submissions, the Meeting has examined data for
    well over 600 samples of various types and varieties of citrus,
    representing mature whole fruit, immature fruit, peel, pulp, numerous
    locations, application rates (recommended and higher), types of
    applications, cooperators, pre-harvest intervals and split treatments.
    These data and conditions are too numerous for tabulation in a concise
    manner suitable to this document. Of the total of over 600 samples,
    about one third were treated at approximately the maximum recommended
    rate (excluding higher rates); these accounted for most of the samples
    with residues in excess of the current 0.2 mg/kg limit. Those samples
    on mature or ripe citrus, and a few where the stage of maturity is
    unknown, with residues exceeding 0.2 mg/kg are summarized in Table 3.

         It can be observed that most residues exceeding 0.2 mg/kg are at
    intervals after application of less than the 90-day basis for the
    current limit. Some of these resulted from other than recommended
    agricultural practices. However, it was brought to the attention of
    the Meeting that some varieties of citrus have overlapping spring
    flush and harvesting seasons (e.g. Valencia) or have continuous fruit
    harvesting (lemons). For this reason, preharvest intervals on the
    order of 30 to 60 days can be pertinent in practice in some

        Table 3.  Citrus Samples with Aldicarb Residue Exceeding the Current 0.2 mg/kg Limit1/
                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                  Interval After
                 Species        Date          Type of             Aldicarb Rate   Last Treatment     Part                Residues
    Location     (Variety)      Treated       Treatment           (lb a.i./A)*    (days)             Sampled             (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                                           

    Florida      Orange         7-30-74       Two 76 cm           10              31                 full size fruit,
                 (Valencia)                   strips, one                                            pulp 0.11           0.22
                                              on each                                                peel 0.54           (whole basis)
                                              side of tree

    Florida      Orange         7-30-74       Two 76 cm           10              199                Mature ripe         0.23
                 (Valencia)                   strips, one                                            fruit
                                              on each side
                                              of tree

                                                                  10              15                 Ripe fruit          0.213/
                                                                                  30                 Ripe fruit          0.253/
                                                                                  60                 Ripe fruit          0.363/

    Arizona      Orange
                 (Valencia)     3-31-75       Applied with        10              45                 Whole mature        0.432/
                                              cyclone spreader,                                      ripe fruit
                                              disc incorporated,                  60                 Whole mature        0.292/
                                              then irrigated2/                                       ripe fruit

    Arizona      Orange
                 (Valencia)     3-31-75       Split application2/ 5+5             0                  Mature ripe         0.282/
                                and                                                                  fruit
                                5-30-75       Applied as above
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3 (con't)
                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                  Interval After
                 Species        Date          Type of             Aldicarb Rate   Last Treatment     Part                Residues
    Location     (Variety)      Treated       Treatment           (lb a.i./A)*    (days)             Sampled             (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                                           

    Florida      Orange         3-25-76       Banded and          10              60                 Ripe fruit          0.214/
                 (Valencia)                   incorporated on
                                              two sides of
                                              tree row

    Florida      Orange         3-25-76       Injected into a     10              30                 Ripe fruit          0.214/
                 (Valencia)                   band on two sides
                                              of tree                             60                 Ripe fruit          0.294/

    Arizona      Orange         2-15-77       1.2 m band along    10              60                 Ripe fruit          0.25
                 (Valencia)                   two sides of
                                              tree row

    Israel       Orange         5-31-76       Applied beneath     7               47                 "whole fruit"       0.23
                 (Valencia)                   tree dripline
                                              and incorporated    7               47                 "whole fruit"       0.34

    Florida      Grapefruit     4-8-77        Broadcast and       10              61                 Mature fruit        0.22
                 (variety                     incorporated in
                 not given)                   a band under
                                              trees

    Florida      Grapefruit     4-8-77        Incorporated        10              42                 Mature fruit        0.21
                 (Marsh)                      under trees
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3 (con't)
                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                  Interval After
                 Species        Date          Type of             Aldicarb Rate   Last Treatment     Part                Residues
    Location     (Variety)      Treated       Treatment           (lb a.i./A)*    (days)             Sampled             (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                                           

    Peru         Lime           7-23-80       Hand                4.5             31                 Mature fruit        0.235/
                                              application
                                                                  6.25            31                 Mature fruit        0.265/

    Mexico       Lime           4-7-81        Hand application    7.9             42                 "whole fruit"       0.345/
                 (Cridlo)                     incorporated by     10.7            42                 "whole fruit"       0.445/
                                              irrigation on
                                              4-9-81
                                                                                                                                           

    *    1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha

    1/   Citrus data sheets previously submitted and newly submitted are in Supplementary Book III of IV, Aldicarb Residue Data on Citrus, July 1982,
         submitted by Union Carbide Agricultural Products, Inc. P.O. Box 12014, T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 277091.
         Those data previously submitted and the basis for the current 0.2 mg/kg limit were also submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection
         Agency in tolerance petitions GF1829 and 9F2201.

    2/   Not applied in manner consistent with use directions.

    3/   Previously treated 8 months (244 days) earlier which is not consistent with use directions of approximately one year.

    4/   "New Residue Data on Citrus", see Ref. 1 for source.

    5/   Original studies unavailable.
        situations, especially for lemons and Valencia. Although none of the
    18 samples of lemons contained residues above 0.1 mg/kg, only two were
    harvested at intervals of approximately the 30-day interval that is
    considered good agricultural practice (Table 1). All but three were at
    91 days or over and most over 140 days. Data on limes (Table 3) do not
    exceed 0.3 mg/kg at 42 days although the stage of fruit maturity is
    unknown.

    Grapes

         Aldicarb is not currently registered for use on bearing grapes
    although it is said to be registered for nursery grapes in five
    countries. All discussions here are based on proposed uses in the U.S.
    (Table 1), from which residue data are available.

         Residue data are available from 8 states in the U.S. (Table 4),
    reflecting the proposed application rate of 4.5 kg a.i./ha, and
    include samples from 58-133 days after last application (120 days
    recommended). The type of treatment varies widely among the samples.
    In many, if not most, the types of treatment either do not closely
    follow that of the proposed use or insufficient information is
    available to determine just how close the proposed good agricultural
    practices are followed.

         Most of the higher residues resulted from treatments with
    intervals of last treatment to harvest substantially less than the 120
    days recommended. At intervals approximately at or exceeding the 120
    days, maximum residues are <0.3 mg/kg except for one value at
    0.49 mg/kg (sample 7). Two other samples from the same cooperator at
    the same and different times (samples 8 and 9) were much lower,
    although the methods of application were different.

         Residue data were available from processing of grapes (Table 5)
    and includes data on raisins, fresh juice, pomace and dry pomace,
    wine, stems, trash and leaves (see also Fate of Residues - In Storage
    and Processing).

         The limit of detection for aldicarb in grapes is approximately
    0.02 mg/kg. Recoveries averaged about 87% at fortification levels
    ranging from 0.04 - 0.9 mg/kg.

    Maize

         The Meeting was informed that maize is registered for use in six
    countries, although no residue data or current good agricultural
    practice information was available for those countries. Data were
    available from 27 trials in 13 states in the U.S. representing
    proposed good agricultural practice. Data for grain, cobs, green
    kernels and green kernels plus cob are summarized in Table 6 (Union
    Carbide 1982a and 1982b). From 48 samples of mature grain representing

        Table 4.  Aldicarb Residues in Ripe Grapes
                                                                                                  

                                                      Interval between
    Location   Year    Variety     Rate               Treatment and      Residues2/      Recovery
                                   lb a.i./A1/        Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)           (%)
                                                                                                  

       PA      1977    Concord     0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  102                   0.03

       PA      1978    Concord     4                  133                  <0.02           87

       OH      1977    Clinton     4                  110                   0.03           87

       OH      1978    Clinton     0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  89                    0.02

       OH      1979    Clinton     0                                       <0.02           85
                                   4                  109                   0.04

       OH      1980    Clinton     0                                       <0.01           91
                                   4                  115                   0.01

       WA      1977    Concord     0                                        0.033/         87
                                   4                  116                   0.494/
                                   (shanked)
                                   4 (broadcast)      116                  <0.02

       WA      1980    Concord     0                                       <0.02           94
                                   4                  133                  <0.02
                                   (76 cm band
                                   incorp. 5 cm)
                                                                                                  

    Table 4.  (con't)
                                                                                                  

                                                      Interval between
    Location   Year    Variety     Rate               Treatment and      Residues2/      Recovery
                                   lb a.i./A1/        Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)           (%)
                                                                                                  

       AZ      1978    Thompson    4                  62                    0.29
                                   (shanked,
                                   both sides)

       AR      1980    Concord     0                                       <0.01           91
                                   4                  118                  <0.03

       OR      1979    Concord     0                                       <0.02           73
                                   4                  125                   0.19
                                   (61 cm area
                                   drip line 2
                                   sides disced)

       MI      1980    Concord     0                                       <0.01           91
                                   4                  92                   <0.01

       CA      1978    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  122                  <0.02
                                   0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  120                  <0.02

       CA      1977    Thompson    0                                        0.02           87
                                   4                  93                    0.42
                                                      (91 cm band
                                                      shanked 2
                                                      sides)
                                                                                                  

    Table 4.  (con't)
                                                                                                  

                                                      Interval between
    Location   Year    Variety     Rate               Treatment and      Residues2/      Recovery
                                   lb a.i./A1/        Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)           (%)
                                                                                                  

       CA      1978    Thompson    4                  131                   0.08           87
                                   4                  122                   0.23           87
                                   4                  120                   0.05           87
                                                      (91 cm band
                                                      raked in 2
                                                      sides)

       CA      1977    Riesling    0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  70                    0.13

       CA      1976    Chardonnay  0                                       <0.02           87
                                   4                  58                    0.27
                                                      (shanked 1.2 m
                                                      band 2 sides)

       CA      1979    Alicante-   4                  130                   0.18           97
                       Bouche      4                  130                   0.21
                                   4                  130                   0.18

       CA      1979    Muscat of   4                  131                   0.26           97
                                   4                  131                   0.15
                                   4                  131                   0.10
                                                      (hand shaker
                                                      61 cm band
                                                      2 sides)

       CA      1979    Thompson    4                  127                  <0.02           97
                                                                                                  

    Table 4.  (con't)
                                                                                                  

                                                      Interval between
    Location   Year    Variety     Rate               Treatment and      Residues2/      Recovery
                                   lb a.i./A1/        Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)           (%)
                                                                                                  

       CA      1979    Emperor     4                  106                   0.04

       CA      1980    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           73
                                   4                  105                   0.11
                                   4(20 G)            105                   0.17           73
                                   4                  75                    0.32
                                                      (3 shanks
                                                      30 cm apart in
                                                      crop 7.6-10 cm)

       CA      1980    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           73
                                   4                  119                   0.05

       CA      1980    Rubired     0                                       <0.02           73
                                   4                  108                   0.10

       CA      1980    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           73
                                   4                  119                   0.11

       CA      1980    Tokay       0                                       <0.02           93
                                   4                  127                   0.17

       CA      1980    Tokay       0                                       <0.02           93
                                   4                  129                  <0.02
                                                                                                  

    Table 4.  (con't)
                                                                                                  

                                                      Interval between
    Location   Year    Variety     Rate               Treatment and      Residues2/      Recovery
                                   lb a.i./A1/        Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)           (%)
                                                                                                  

       CA      1980    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           93
                                   4                  119                  <0.02

       CA      1980    Thompson    0                                       <0.02           93
                                   4                  125                   0.09
                                   4                  125                   0.11
                                                                                                  

    1/   Treatment at maximum proposed rate of 4 lb a.i./A; 15g formulation except where indicated 
          otherwise; 1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha.

    2/   Corrected for recoveries shown.

    3/   Said to be contaminated.

    4/   Average of duplicate samples (0.48 and 0.49 mg/kg).
    
        Table 5.  Concentration of Aldicarb Residues in Grape Processing Products or Related
              Products1/
                                                                                          

                                         Residue (mg/kg)
    Processed                      Residue        Residue Range      Concentration Factor
    Grape             Number of    Range in       in Processed                            
    Product           Samples      Grapes         Product            Range        Average
                                                                                          

    Raisins           25           0.02-2.3       0.02-2.2           1-4.52/        1.6

    Pomace            163/         0.04-3.3       0.03-3.1           0.5-2.34/      1.15/

    Fresh juice       17           0.04-3.3       0.02-1.8           0.5-2.46/      0.9

    Wine              13           0.04-3.3       0.02-2.37/         0.2-0.77/      0.48/

    Stems             4            0.04-2.59/     0.13-2.5           1-3.2          1.7

    Raisin trash      7            0.02-0.3       0.9-2.810/         1-2.411/       2
           lees       4            0.04-2.5       0.03-1.4           0.6-8.0        0.7
                                                                                          

    1/   Union Carbide 1982b.

    2/   2.5 or less except the 4.5 factor resulting from grapes with residues of 0.04 mg/kg.
         7 of 25 a factor of 2 or greater.

    3/   7 pomace, 9 dry pomace.

    4/   5 of 16 a factor of 1.5 or greater.

    5/   Regardless of whether "pomace" or dry pomace.

    6/   All factors 0.9 or less except 2.5 factor.

    7/   Excludes residues up to 3.6 mg/kg in first sediments.

    8/   Excluding 3.1 apparent aberrant value.

    9/   Two applications at label rate is not considered "good agricultural practice".

    10/  High value treated according to proposed label

    11/  Includes factors at 2.3, 2.4, 2.4.

    Table 6.  Aldicarb Residues in Maize (Field Corn) Grain
                                                                                        

                                                 Interval Between
                                   Rate          Treatment and        Residue
    Location    Year    Variety    lb a.i./A1/   Harvest (days)       (mg/kg)     Code2/
                                                                                        

       NC       1976    Golden     1.5           163                  <0.01       C
                        Harvest                  163                  <0.02

       NC       1976    Golden     0                                  <0.01
                        Harvest    1.5           159                  <0.01
                                   0                                  <0.02       C
                                   1.5           159                  <0.02       C

       GA       1976    DeKalb     0                                  <0.01
                        XL-80      1.5           133                  <0.01
                                   1.5           133                  <0.01
                                   1.5           133                  <0.01
                                   1.5           133                  <0.01

       IA       1977    DeKalb     1.5           91                   <0.02       K*
                        XL-25      1.5           116                  <0.02       K*
                                   1.5           146                  <0.02
                                   1.5           146                  <0.02       C

       IA       1977    DeKalb     1.5           77                   0.04        K*
                        43A                      103                  <0.02       K*
                                                 133                  <0.02
                                                 133                  <0.02       C

       GA       1977    Funks      0                                  <0.02
                        G-4810     1.5           127                  <0.02

       MO       1977    Pioneer    1.5           125                  <0.02       +*
                        3388       1.5           167                  <0.02
                                   1.5           167                  <0.02       C

       MO       1977    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3388       1.5           156                  <0.02
                                   0                                  <0.02       C
                                   1.5           156                  <0.02       C

       OK       1977    DeKalb     0                                  <0.02
                        XL-75      1.5           158                  <0.02
                                   0                                  <0.02       C
                                   1.5           158                  <0.02       C
                                                                                        

    Table 6 (con't)
                                                                                        

                                                 Interval Between
                                   Rate          Treatment and        Residue
    Location    Year    Variety    lb a.i./A1/   Harvest (days)       (mg/kg)     Code2/
                                                                                        

       KS       1979    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3183       1.5           128                  <0.02

       IL       1979    B73 X      0                                  <0.02
                        M017       1.5           151                  <0.02

       CA       1980    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3541       1.5           126                  <0.02

       MO       1980    Pioneer    1.5           138                  <0.02
                        3183

       NC       1980    Coker      0                                  <0.02
                                   1.5           134                  0.03

       MI       1980    NK, PX-7   0                                  <0.02
                                   1.5           134                  <0.02

       NC       1980    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3184       1.5           143                  <0.02

       MS       1980    Trucker's  0                                  <0.02
                        Favorite   1.5           113                  <0.02

       IA       1980    Jacques    0                                  <0.02
                        JX-177     1.5           123                  <0.02

       IA       1981    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3780       1.5           151                  <0.02
                                   1.5           151                  <0.02
                                   1.5           151                  <0.02

       IA       1981    Pioneer    1.5           151                  <0.02
                        3780       1.5           151                  0.03
                                   1.5           151                  0.02
                                                                                        

    Table 6 (con't)
                                                                                        

                                                 Interval Between
                                   Rate          Treatment and        Residue
    Location    Year    Variety    lb a.i./A1/   Harvest (days)       (mg/kg)     Code2/
                                                                                        

    Clayton     1981    Northrup   1.5           152                  0.02
       NC               King                                          <0.02
                                                                      0.02

                1981    Northrup   1.5           152                  <0.02
                        King                                          0.23
                                                                      <0.02
                                   0                                  <0.02

       CA       1981    XL-72AA    0                                  <0.02
                                   1.5           175                  <0.02
                                   1.5           175                  <0.02
                                   1.5           175                  <0.02

       MS       1981    DeKalb     0                                  <0.03
                        XL-72B     1.5           119                  <0.03
                                   1.5           119                  <0.03
                                   1.5           119                  <0.03

       CO       1981    Pioneer    0                                  <0.02
                        3360       1.5           108                  <0.02
                                   1.5           108                  <0.02
                                   1.5           108                  <0.02

       TX       1981    Horizon    0                                  <0.02
                        870        1.5           87                   <0.02
                                   1.5           87                   <0.02
                                   1.5           87                   <0.02

       NM       1981    Funk       0                                  <0.02
                        G4449      1.5           78                   <0.02
                                   1.5           78                   <0.02
                                   1.5           78                   <0.02
                                                                                        

    1/   Formulation: 15g; 1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha.
    2/   Code:
         C  : Cobs, with grain removed, sampled at maturity;
         K* : Green kernels samples before maturity;
         +* : Green kernels plus cobs sampled before maturity. All residues values with no
              code designation represent shelled grain sampled at maturity;
            : Less than
    All residue values include correction for recovery.
    
    21 varieties, residues ranged from <0.01-0.23 mg/kg at 78 to 175 days
    after last treatment at the proposed rate. The 0.23 mg/kg appears to
    be aberrant since all other samples were 0.03 or less. Even at the
    same site and date, by either band or in-furrow application, five
    other replicates were < 0.02 mg/kg. Maximum residues on untreated
    samples were <0.03 mg/kg. Maximum residues were 0.04 mg/kg and
    0.02 mg/kg on the few samples of cob and green kernels or green
    kernels plus cob, respectively. A limit of 0.05 mg/kg is supported for
    maize (field corn) grain.

    Forage

         Residues on 57 samples of maize (field corn) (whole green plants
    prior to maturity) ranged from <0.02 mg/kg - 11 mg/kg in 17 trials at
    60 to 103 days after treatment. The results are summarized in Table 7.
    Residues from one location (Clayton, NC) are generally higher than
    other locations, even within the same state. At this location,
    residues ranged from 0.6 - 11 mg/kg and averaged 3.5 mg/kg from 18
    samples in 6 trials. High apparent residues (up to 4.8 mg/kg) in
    untreated samples in two of the trials suggest possible contamination
    of untreated samples or analytical problems.

         Disregarding data from this location, residues on the remaining
    49 samples ranged from <0.02 - 1.6 mg/kg. The 1.6 mg/kg value and the
    next higher residue at 1.3 mg/kg, under some assumptions, might be
    considered outliers since the next highest value without the Clayton,
    NC, studies would be 0.34 mg/kg. A limit of 10 mg/kg is supported
    (20 mg/kg on a dry weight basis).

         In 43 samples of maize (field corn) fodder (stover, or whole
    stalks, with ears removed) at maturity, residues ranged from
    <0.02-1.6 mg/kg at 87-175 days after treatment (Table 8). As in the
    case of forage, residues from the one location (2 trials, 6 samples
    with residues ranging from 0.07-1.6 mg/kg) were generally higher than
    other locations for which the residue range was <0.02-0.9 mg/kg,
    However, the difference is not as great and the control value from
    that location was typical of other locations (<0.02 mg/kg). If a
    separate limit is proposed for fodder, a 2 mg/kg limit is supported.

         The analytical method was validated on ears and shucks with 98%
    recoveries at fortification levels of 0.08-0.09 mg/kg. During field
    trials, recoveries generally ranged from 72-113% for grain, forage and
    fodder.

    Pecans

         Good agricultural practice information and residue data were
    available from one country. Data reasonably reflect the recommended
    single application at a rate of 5-10 lb. a.i./acres (5.5-11 kg/ha),
    method of application (two 1.2-1.8m bands on two sides of tree row at

    Table 7.  Aldicarb Residues in Maize (Field Corn) Forage
                                                                          

                                                Interval between
                                   Rate1/       Treatment and    Residue2

    Location  Year     Variety     lb a.i./A    Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)
                                                                          

       IA     1977     DeKalb      1.5          91                 0.19
                       XL-25                    116

       IA     1977     DeKalb      1.5          77                 1.6
                       43A                      103                0.34

       CA     1980     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3541        1.5          70                 0.21
                                   0                               <0.02
                                   1.5          100                0.06

       MO     1980     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3183        1.5          102                0.03

       MI     1980     NK,         0                               <0.02
                       PX-7        1.5          77                 0.03

       NC     1980     NC          1.5          111                <0.02

       MS     1980     Trucker's   0                               <0.02
                       Favorite    1.5          71                 0.05

       IA     1980     Jacques     0                               <0.02
                       JX-177      1.5          81                 0.12
                                   1.5          97                 0.09

       IA     1981     Pioneer     1.5          61                 0.15
                       3780        1.5          61                 0.19
                                   1.5          61                 0.03
                                   0                               <0.02
                                   1.5          81                 1.3
                                   1.5          81                 0.08
                                   1.5          81                 0.05
                                   1.5          101                0.03
                                   1.5          101                0.12
                                   1.5          101                0.04
                                                                          

    Table 7 (con't)
                                                                          

                                                Interval between
                                   Rate1/       Treatment and    Residue2
    Location  Year     Variety     lb a.i./A    Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)
                                                                          

       IA     1981    Pioneer      1.5          61                 0.07
                       3780        1.5          61                 0.32
                                   1.5          61                 0.20
                                   1.5          81                 0.02
                                   1.5          81                 0.02
                                   1.5          81                 0.03
                                   0                               <0.02
                                   1.5          101                0.05
                                   1.5          101                0.04
                                   1.5          101                0.04

       MS     1981     DeKalb      1.5          61                 0.11
                       XL-72B      1.5          61                 0.17
                                   1.5          61                 0.13
                                   0                               <0.03
                                   1.5          84                 0.08
                                   1.5          84                 0.05
                                   1.5          84                 0.09
                                   1.5          103                0.03
                                   1.5          103                0.08
                                   1.5          103                <0.03

    Clayton   6/2/81   Northrup    1.5          60                 4.2
       NC              King                                        9.1
                                                                   6.6

              6/22/81  Northrup    1.5          80                 4.4
                       King                                        9.9
                                                                   3.6
                                   0 (control)                     4.8

              7/12/81  Northrup    1.5          100                0.66
                       King                                        1.3
                                                                   1.9
                                                                          

    Table 7 (con't)
                                                                          

                                                Interval between
                                   Rate1/       Treatment and    Residue2
    Location  Year     Variety     lb a.i./A    Harvest (days)     (mg/kg)
                                                                          

    Clayton   6/2/81   Northrup    1.5          60                 1.3
       NC              King                                        1.5
                                                                   1.2

              6/22/81  Northrup    1.5          80                 3.1
                       King                                        2.7
                                                                   1.6

              7/12/81  Northrup    1.5          100                1.3
                       King                                        11
                                                                   0.71
                                   0                               0.60
                                                                          

    1/   Residues in whole, green plants prior to maturity;
         Formulation: 15 g;1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha.

    2/   All residue values corrected for recovery.

    bud break) and normal interval from application from five states of
    the U.S. as summarized in Table 9 (Union Carbide 1982c and 1982d).
    Substantially more recent data were available, but did not reasonably
    reflect recommended usage or available information did not permit such
    a determination. In those cases summarized in Table 9 where the method
    of application did not closely follow label directions, residues would
    be expected to equal if not exceed those resulting from the
    recommended method.

         At recommended application rates, residues in kernels ranged from
    <0.01-0.27 mg/kg. Although the 0.27 value (uncorrected for 80-90%
    recoveries and an average of 0.22 and 0.32) resulted from applications
    on four sides of the tree instead of two; good agricultural practice
    was reasonably followed. Corrected for recovery, a maximum residue
    approaching 0.4 mg/kg could reasonably be expected on occasion,
    although in most cases residues could be expected to be
    < 0.3 mg/kg. Controls were generally <0.01 and 0.02 for kernels
    and shells respectively. A 0.5 mg/kg limit can be supported for
    kernels.

    Table 8.  Aldicarb Residues in Maize (Field Corn) Stover (Fodder)
                                                                        

                                               Interval Between
    Location  Year     Variety     Rate1/      Treatment and   Residue2/
                                   lb a.i./A   Harvest (days)      (mg/kg)
                                                                        

       NC     1976     Golden      1.5         163                 0.04
                       Harvest

       NC     1976     Golden      1.5         159                 0.04
                       Harvest

       IA     1977     DeKalb      1.5         146                 0.04
                       XL-25

       IA     1977     DeKalb      1.5         133                 0.07
                       43A

       GA     1977     Funks       0                               <0.02
                       G4810       1.5         127                 <0.02

       MO     1977     Pioneer     1.5         167                 <0.02
                       3388

       MO     1977     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3388        1.5         156                 <0.02

       OK     1977     DeKalb      0                               <0.02
                       XL-75       1.5         158                 0.05

       KS     1979     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3183        1.5         128                 0.03

       IL     1979     B73X        0                               0.07
                       M017        1.5         151                 0.09

       CA     1980     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3541        1.5         126                 0.15

       MO     1980     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3183        1.5         138                 <0.02

       NC     1980     Coker       0                               <0.02
                                   1.5         134                 <0.02

       NC     1980     Pioneer     0                               <0.02
                       3184        1.5         143                 0.03
                                                                        

    Table 8 (con't)
                                                                        

                                               Interval Between
    Location  Year     Variety     Rate1/      Treatment and     Residue2/
                                   lb a.i./A   Harvest (days)      (mg/kg)
                                                                        

       MS     1980     Trucker's   0                               <0.02
                       Favorite    1.5         113                 0.07

       IA     1980     Jacques     0                               <0.02
                       JX-177      1.5         123                 <0.02

       IA     1981     Pioneer     0                               0.02
                       3780        1.5         151                 0.02
                                   1.5         151                 <0.02
                                   1.5         151                 0.02

       IA     1981     Pioneer     1.5         151                 0.02
                       3780        1.5         151                 <0.02
                                   1.5         151                 <0.02

    Clayton   9/2/81   Northrup    1.5         152                 0.22
       NC              King                                        0.07
                                                                   0.17

              9/2/81   Northrup    1.5         152                 0.02
                       King                                        1.6
                                                                   0.06
                                   0                               <0.02

       CA     1981     XL-72AA     0                               0.16
                                   1.5         175                 0.90
                                   1.5         175                 0.33
                                   1.5         175                 0.54

       MS     1981     DeKalb      0                               <0.03
                       XL-72B      1.5         119                 <0.03
                                   1.5         119                 <0.03
                                   1.5         119                 <0.03

       CO     1981     Pioneer     0                               <0.03
                       3360        1.5         108                 <0.03
                                   1.5         108                 0.03
                                   1.5         108                 0.05
                                                                        

    Table 8 (con't)
                                                                        

                                               Interval Between
    Location  Year     Variety     Rate1/      Treatment and     Residue2/
                                   lb a.i./A   Harvest (days)      (mg/kg)
                                                                        

       TX     1981     Horizon     0                               <0.02
                       870         1.5         87                  0.05
                                   1.5         87                  <0.02
                                   1.5         87                  <0.02

       NM     1981     Funk        0                               <0.02
                       G449        1.5         78                  <0.02
                                   1.5         78                  0.03
                                   1.5         78                  0.02

    1/   Residues in whole stalks, with ears removed, at maturity;
         Formulation: 15 g; 1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha.

    2/   All residue values corrected for recovery.

         In shells (a feed item) residues are concentrated an average of
    about four times more than in kernels. Maximum residues were 1.1 mg/kg
    in shells from the maximum recommended application rate. A limit of
    1 mg/kg should be adequate, if a limit is required.

         Some residue data for green nuts were also available. Generally,
    residues in green hulls were approximately twice that on immature
    shells and that on immature shells about twice that on kernels. No
    clear or consistent relationship can be drawn between immature and
    mature kernels, both being higher or lower at times.

         Recoveries of aldicarb sulphoxide and sulphone were 84% and 94%
    respectively in kernels fortified at 0.02-0.09 mg/kg. Similar
    recoveries were attained for shells (a feed item) fortified at
    0.04-0.35 mg/kg. A realistic limit of determination of 0.02 mg/kg can
    be attained for both kernels and shells.

    Potatoes

         The Meeting previously estimated a maximum residue level of
    1.0 mg/kg for aldicarb in potatoes (FAO/WHO 1980b). At its 14th
    Session, the CCPR recommended a limit of 0.5 mg/kg based on
    information that some countries had revised their GAP to permit lower
    MRLs and because some delegations objected to the 1.0 mg/kg limit,
    which had been under discussion.

        Table 9.  Total Aldicarb Residues in Pecans at Harvest
                                                                                               

                                       Interval after   Aldicarb Residues2/ (mg/kg)
                           Rate1/      last
    Location      Year     lb a.i./A   Application      Kernels     Shells       Whole Nut
                                                                                               

    Georgia                                                                      (Calculated)

                  1976     2           197              0.02        0.04         0.03
                           4                            0.04        0.13         0.08
                           6                            0.07        0.20         0.13
                           8                            0.09        0.51         0.30
                           10                           0.11        0.12         0.12
                           10          183              0.10        0.27         0.17
                           20                           0.12        0.55         0.32
                           5 + 5       106              0.17        0.50         0.33

                  1975     2           180              0.01        0.03         0.02
                           4                            0.02        0.06         0.04
                           6                            0.01        0.04         0.02
                           8                            0.03        0.09         0.05
                           10                           0.01        0.05         0.03

                  1976     5-6         188              0.06
                           10          185              0.27
                           20                           0.16

                  1975     9.6         ca. 180          0.03
                           19.2                         0.04 (average of replicates)
                           38.4                         0.13

    Alabama

                  1976     5           171              0.08
                           10                           0.05
    South Carolina

                  1976     5           181              0.05        0.61         0.32
                           10                           0.12        1.1          0.60
                           20                           0.30        1.7          0.97

                  1976     5           268              0.01        0.02         0.02
                           10                           0.01        0.04         0.03
                                                                                               

    Table 9 (con't)
                                                                                               

                                       Interval after   Aldicarb Residues2/ (mg/kg)
                           Rate1/      last
    Location      Year     lb a.i./A   Application      Kernels     Shells       Whole Nut
                                                                                               

    Mississippi

                  1976     6           189              0.01
                           12                           0.13
                           24                           0.08

    New Mexico

                  1979     2           169              0.04
                                       133              <0.02
                           2.5         169              <0.02                    <0.02
                                       133              0.09                     0.17
                                                                                               

    1/   1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha;

    2/   Uncorrected for recoveries of 80-90%;

    3/   Closely approximate recommended 4-6 ft, (1.2-1.8 m) band on two sides of the tree row.
    
         The 1982 JMPR was informed that aldicarb is registered for use on
    potatoes in 32 countries although good agricultural practice
    information was provided to this Meeting only for the Netherlands,
    South Africa and the U.S. (Table 2). Also provided were previously
    submitted and new residue data, mostly from the U.S. (some Canadian),
    where aldicarb application rates on potatoes have been revised
    downward and other restrictions imposed.

         Residue data were available from well over 600 samples from
    Canada and 24 states in the U.S. for the period 1964-1979 and
    represent application rates from 1-3 lb a.i./A (1.1 - 3.3 kg/ha)
    either at planting, after planting or split applications.
    Approximately 40% of data were new. Residues in 144 untreated controls
    ranged from <0.01 to 0.11 mg/kg. The data are too numerous for a
    detailed summarization.

         Data from 240 samples treated at time of planting at a rate of
    2.3 lb a.i./A (2.2-3.3 kg/ha) with granular formulations (10G, 10GV,
    10G-1968 or 15 G) and a minimum of 90 days (GAP) are summarized in
    Table 10 (Union Carbide 1982e and 1982f). Sixteen of the 240 exceeded
    0.5 mg/kg. Five of the 16 were from Canada at 90-91 days after
    planting (DAP) on immature tubers. Four of the five were >1 mg/kg.
    Eight of the 16 were on the Pungo variety grown in Virginia, three of
    which were on immature potatoes (90-101 DAP) and the rest were on
    immature potatoes.

         Table 11 summarizes residues > 0.5 mg/kg on mostly immature
    potatoes treated at 2-3 lb a.i./A (2.2-3.3 kg/ha) at planting for the
    60-89 DAP interval. The 26 values are from a total of 41 at this
    interval and application rate. Most of these approach or exceed
    1.0 mg/kg. Again, Canadian data are noticeably and inexplicably
    higher. Data on the Pungo variety from one site in Virginia again tend
    to be higher than other varieties in other states. Data were
    unavailable for other varieties or sites in Virginia or the Pungo
    variety in other states.

         Data were also available for 63 samples treated at rates of
    < 2 lb a.i./A (2.2 kg/ha) (all <0.5 mg/kg) and for 65 treated at
    >3 lb active/A (3.3 kg/ha) and a 90 DAP minimum. For the latter,
    residues ranged from <0.5 mg/kg on 46 samples, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg on 9 and
    >1 mg/kg on 10. These are of less importance for estimating residue
    levels as they do not reflect good agricultural practices reported to
    this Meeting, except those from South Africa (no residue data were
    available).

         Eighty potato samples were available from post-plant sidedress
    applications from 0.5 - 11 lb a.i./A (0.55-12 kg/ha) and days after
    last application ranging from 25-175. All residues were <0.5 mg/kg.

         Although no information on registered uses permitting split
    applications to potatoes was available to the Meeting, residue data
    were available and are summarized for 100 samples in Table 12. These
    data suggest that residues would not exceed 0.5 mg/kg if a
    1-2 lb a.i./A (1.1-2.2 kg/ha) application at planting is followed by a
    1-2 lb (1.1-2.2 kg/ha) post-planting sidedress and a 90-day interval
    from last application to harvest is observed.

         The 1.0 mg/kg level previously estimated was based on a 120-day
    interval from last application to harvest. Good agricultural practices
    reported to this Meeting permit harvest at 90 days and 6.7% of samples
    treated in the U.S. and Canada at 2.3 lb a.i./A (2.2-3.3 kg/ha) at the
    90-day interval or longer exceeded 0.5 mg/kg. The 1.0 mg/kg limit is
    confirmed.

        Table 10.  Total Aldicarb Carbamate Residues in Potato Tubers; a Minimum of 90 Days Following Application of Granular Formulations
                                                                                                                                           

                                   Residue Levels From                                       Residue Levels From
                             2-2.5 lb a.i/A At Planting (mg/kg)1/                    2-75- 3.0 lb a.i./A at Planting (mg/kg)
                             0.01 -  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-                      0.10-  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-
    Location          <0.01  0.10    0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51       <0.01  0.10   0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51  TOTAL
                                                                                                                                           

    Canada                   4                     1                                               1                     52/    11

    U.S.:
    North Dakota      1      6       2                                               9                                          18

    Oregon                   2                            1                                                                     3

    Washington               2                                                1      4      2      1                            10

    Arizona                  5                                                       1      1                                   7

    California                                                                2      16     7      6      2                     33

    Colorado                 1       1                                               1             2      1                     6

    Connecticut                                                                      1                                          1

    Delaware                                                                  1      1                                          2

    Florida                                                                          2      2                                   4

    Idaho                    3       1                                               17     5      2      1      1       13/    31

    Indiana                          1                                                                                          1

    Maine                                                                                   2      5      2      3              12

    Michigan                 1       1                                               10     2                                   14
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 10 (con't)
                                                                                                                                           

                                   Residue Levels From                                       Residue Levels From
                             2-2.5 lb a.i/A At Planting (mg/kg)1/                    2-75- 3.0 lb a.i./A at Planting (mg/kg)
                             0.01 -  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-                      0.10-  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-
    Location          <0.01  0.10    0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51       <0.01  0.10   0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51  TOTAL
                                                                                                                                           

    Minnesota         2      5       1      1                                               2                                   11

    North Carolina                          1                                               1             2      1       14/    6

    New Hampshire                    1                                                      1                                   2

    New Jersey                                                    1           1                                                 2

    New York                 1       3                                               4      7      3      4              15/    23

    Ohio                             2                                               5                                          7

    Pennsylvania             1                                                                                                  1

    Rhode Island                     1                                                                                          1

    Texas                                                                            2                                          2

    Virginia                 2       2             1              56/                       2      1      2      1       37/    19
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 10 (con't)
                                                                                                                                           

                                   Residue Levels From                                       Residue Levels From
                             2-2.5 lb a.i/A At Planting (mg/kg)1/                    2-75- 3.0 lb a.i./A at Planting (mg/kg)
                             0.01 -  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-                      0.10-  0.11-  0.21-  0.31-  0.41-
    Location          <0.01  0.10    0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51       <0.01  0.10   0.20   0.30   0.40   0.50    >0.51  TOTAL
                                                                                                                                           

    Wisconsin                3                                                       5      2      3                            13

    Total             3      36      16     2      2      1       5           5      79     36     24     14     6       11     240
                                                                                                                                           

    1/   1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha;

    2/   4 of these 5 exceeded the 1.0 mg/kg tolerance; currently under investigation; rate = 3.0 lb a.i./A; 90-91 days following last application;
         0.98, 1.1, 1.5, 0.83, mg/kg. Original studies unavailable;

    3/   Rate = 3.0 lb a.i./A; 89 days following last application; Immature; 0.72 mg/kg;

    4/   Rate = 3.0 lb a.i./A; formulation 10g-1968 trial conducted on Union Carbide farm; immature tubers; 91 days following last application;
         0.82 mg/kg;

    5/   Rate = 3.0 lb a.i./A; 100 days following last application; immature tubers; 0.54 mg/kg;

    6/   Rate = 2.0 lb a.i./A; 1 sample from plot receiving 10GV formulation, 98 - 127 days following last application; immature 1; mature 4; Variety
         - Pungo; 0.76, 0.66, 0.53, 0.60, 0.97 mg/kg;

    7/   Rate = 3.0 lb a.i./A; 90-101 days following last application; immature tubers; variety - Pungo; 0.69, 0.69, 0.69 mg/kg.
            Table 11.  Aldicarb Residues in Potato Tubers Following Application at Planting of
               10G or 15G Formulations
                                                                                           

                                  Application rate   Days After
    Location     Variety          (lb a.i./A)1/      Application      Residue (mg/kg)2/
                                                                                           

    Canada       Unknown          3                  80               1.5, 2.4
                                  3                  85               1.6
                                  3                  79               3.4, 2.7, 2.5
                                  3                  84               2.4, 1.3, 2.1

    U.S.:
       CA        Kennebec         3                  70               0.84

       ID        Russet           3                  67               0.67
                 Burbank          3                  89               0.72

       NY        Superior         3                  81               0.62

       ME        Ketahdin         3                  63               0.78

       NC        Maine Cobbler    3                  57               0.98

       NC        Irish Cobbler    3                  77               0.99

       NC        Irish Cobbler    3                  61               3

       NC        Irish Cobbler    3                  77               1.2

       VA        Pungo            2                  66               2.9

       VA        Pungo            2                  86               1.4

       VA        Pungo            2                  66               0.73

       VA        Pungo            2                  86               0.69

       VA        Pungo            2                  86               0.72

       VA        Pungo            2                  66               1.0

       VA        Pungo            3                  70               1.5

       VA        Pungo            3                  70               0.93 (sulphoxide)
                                                                                           
    1/   1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha
    2/   The 26 values above 0.5 mg/kg are from a total of 41 "at planting"
         applications at given application rate and interval. Samples were described
         as "immature tubers" except in two cases that were described as "tubers".
    
    Table 12.  Residues in Potatoes Resulting from Supervised Trials
               Using Split Application of Aldicarb Granular Formulation
                                                                       

               Application          Interval Following
               Rate                 Last Application           Residue
    State      (lb a.i./A)1/        (days)                     (mg/kg)
                                                                       

      CA       1.0 + 1.0            52                         0.09
               1.5 + 1.5            52                         0.13

      CT       2.0 + 1.0            124                        0.022/

      ID       1.5 + 1.5            128                        0.07
               3.0 + 3.0            120                        0.04
               3.0 + 3.0            133                        0.15

      ME       2.0 + 1.0            69                         0.26
               3.0 + 3.0            90                         0.84

      MI       1.5 + 1.5            94                         0.15

      NC       3.0 + 3.0            15                         0.10
               3.0 + 3.0            15                         1.20
               3.0 + 3.0            34                         0.46
               3.0 + 3.0            57                         0.14
               3.0 + 3.0            58                         0.24

      ND       1.5 + 1.5            75                         0.03

      NJ       1.5 + 1.5            93                         0.01
               1.5 + 1.5            106                        0.05

      NY       1.5 + 1.5            62                         0.06
               2.0 + 1.0            62                         0.05
               2.0 + 2.0            93                         0.36
               2.0 + 3.0            93                         0.62
               3.0 + 2.0            93                         0.36
               3.0 + 2.0            90                         0.31
               3.0 + 2.0            70                         0.28
               3.0 + 3.0            85                         0.57
               3.0 + 3.0            110                        0.42
               3.0 + 3.0            42                         2.2
               3.0 + 3.0            76                         0.99
                                                                       

    Table 12 (con't)
                                                                       

               Application          Interval Following
               Rate                 Last Application           Residue
    State      (lb a.i./A)1/        (days)                     (mg/kg)
                                                                       

               3.8-4.8 + 1.8-2.1    107                        <0.01
               "                    109                        0.29
               "                    72                         0.41
               "                    86                         0.29
               "                    106                        0.29
               "                    110                        0.25
               "                    90                         0.34
               "                    106                        0.47
               "                    73                         0.35
               "                    88                         0.37
               "                    108                        0.46
               "                    108                        0.46
               "                    108                        0.34
               "                    107                        0.40
               "                    109                        0.25
               "                    73                         0.24
               "                    87                         0.20
               "                    108                        0.20
               "                    108                        0.21
               "                    108                        0.17
               "                    108                        0.61
               "                    108                        0.25
               "                    69                         0.41
               "                    84                         0.52
               "                    103                        0.52
               "                    72                         0.63
               "                    86                         0.31
               "                    107                        0.86
               "                    85                         0.70
               "                    110                        0.54
               "                    42                         1.40
               "                    76                         0.97
               4.0 + 3.0            85                         0.58
               "                    110                        0.48
               "                    42                         2.10
               "                    76                         1.30
               4.5 + 4.2            90                         0.43
               "                    108                        0.47
                                                                       

    Table 12 (con't)
                                                                       

               Application          Interval Following
               Rate                 Last Application           Residue
    State      (lb a.i./A)1/        (days)                     (mg/kg)
                                                                       

               5.0 + 2.1            74                         0.17
               "                    89                         0.11
               "                    108                        0.23
               "                    110                        0.59
               "                    110                        0.59
               "                    108                        0.46
               "                    109                        0.19
               "                    85                         0.90
               "                    110                        0.61
               "                    85                         0.79
               "                    110                        0.61
               "                    42                         2.2
               "                    76                         1.0
               6.0 + 2.1            103                        0.54

      OR       1.5 + 1.5            177                        0.01
               3.0 + 3.0            114                        0.093/
               "                    114                        0.113/
               "                    76                         0.34

      WA       0.9 + 1.4            104                        <0.01
               1.5 + 1.5            162                        0.09
               "                    142                        0.02
               2.0 + 4.0            24                         0.59
               "                    43                         0.53
               "                    70                         0.19
               "                    99                         0.55
                                                                       

    Table 12 (con't)
                                                                       

               Application          Interval Following
               Rate                 Last Application           Residue
    State      (lb a.i./A)1/        (days)                     (mg/kg)
                                                                       

      WA       3.0 + 3.0            85                         0.45
               "                    163                        1.40
               "                    49                         0.76
               "                    69                         0.46
               "                    99                         0.15
               "                    125                        0.18
               "                    107                        0.98
               "                    112                        0.02
               "                    112                        0.14
                                                                       

    1/   lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha;
    2/   First application 7 days preplanting;
    3/   At emergence + sidedress.

    Sample totals: 1.0+1.0 - 1; 0.9 + 1.4-1; 1.5+1.5-10; 2.0+1.0-3;
    2.0 + 2.0-1; 2.0 + 3.0-1; 2.0 + 4.0-4; 3.0 + 2.0-3; 3.0 + 3.0-24;
    3.8-4.8 + 1.8-2.1-32; 4.0 + 3.0-4; 4.5+4.2-2; 5.0 + 2.1-13; 6.0+2.1-1.

    Sorghum Grain and Sorghum Fodder

         Aldicarb is said to be registered for use on sorghum in four
    countries; good agricultural practice information and residue data
    were available only for the U.S. (Union Carbide 1982c and 1982d).

         Forty-five grain samples from six states (1970-1980) were treated
    at planting at approximately the recommended 0.5-1 lb a.i./A (0.55-
    1.1 kg/ha) rate and harvested at or near the normal harvest (92-170
    days after treatment except for 4 at 75 days). Residues ranged from
    <0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg (0.025 mg/kg av.).

         Residues in fodder from 22 of these samples ranged from
    <0.01-0.4 mg/kg (av. 0.05 mg/kg). The residue distribution for the
    grain and fodder were:

                                                                 
                                      No. of Samples at each
                                      Residue Level
              Residue (mg/kg)         Grain           Fodder
                                                                 

              <0.02                    37               16
              0.02                      0                1
              0.03                      3                1
              0.04                      3                0
              0.05                      0                1
              0.06-0.08                 0                0
              0.09                      1                1
              0.10                      0                0
              0.13-0.14                 1                1
              0.4                       0                1
                                       45               22
                                                                 

         At higher than recommended rates (1.53x) residues on 14 samples
    of grain ranged from <0.01-0.1 mg/kg (0.025 mg/kg av.) and on samples
    of fodder, <0.02-0.25 mg/kg (0.06 mg/kg av.). A minimal amount of
    data were available on milling products (see "Fate of Residues").

         Considering that most of the residues were not corrected for
    recoveries of approximately 90%, maximum residue levels of 0.2 and
    0.5 mg/kg respectively for sorghum grain and fodder can be supported.

         Some residue data were also available for green forage with a
    maximum residue of 12.4 mg/kg at 40 days after a 1.2 lb a.i./A
    (1.3 kg/ha) treatment at planting. This declined to 0.17 and
    0.05 mg/kg at 68 days and at harvest respectively. Other studies
    showed similar declines. However, because of potential danger to
    animals, feeding or foraging prior to grain harvest is not considered
    good agricultural practice in the U.S. Analytical recoveries of
    aldicarb residues were generally > 90% in sorghum grain and fodder
    at fortification levels of 0.04-2.2 mg/kg. The limit of determination
    is approximately 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg for grain and forage
    respectively.

    Sugarcane

         The Meeting was informed that aldicarb is registered for use on
    sugarcane in 26 countries. Good agricultural practice information was
    available for Argentina, Brazil, South Africa and the U.S. Residue
    data were available mostly from the U.S. and South Africa and some
    from India, Indonesia and Pakistan.

         A 120-day preharvest interval is imposed in the U.S. for a single
    application at planting. Normal harvest may be as soon as 6.5 months
    for first or second stubble crops or approximately 12-14 months for
    some autumn plantings. No information on preharvest intervals was
    available for countries other than the U.S. A summary of U.S. and
    Puerto Rico residue data in given in Table 13 (Union Carbide 1982c and
    1982d).

         Residues on stalks at 123 days or longer in the U.S. ranged from
    <0.01 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg when applications were 0.6-1.3  the
    maximum recommended application rate, even with a split application.
    Untreated controls were < 0.01 mg/kg. Residues for sugarcane leaf
    samples under similar conditions ranged from 0.04-0.19 mg/kg
    (av. 0.09). Residues at harvest would normally be expected to be less
    than the maximum value that resulted from 1.3  the maximum
    application rate and 123 days after last application, since a more
    typical interval is at least 180 days. Untreated controls for leaves
    were also 0.02 mg/kg.

         Data on sugarcane from Puerto Rico at similar application rates
    and longer intervals were noticeably higher, ranging from 0.03-
    0.07 mg/kg. Untreated samples were also higher, ranging from 0.02-
    0.05 mg/kg, although the sensitivity was said to be 0.02 mg/kg.

         A substantial amount of additional data were available from other
    countries, but most of the application rates and days after last
    treatment were not representative of GAP. One study from South Africa,
    which was representative of GAP (Union Carbide 1982d) showed residues
    of <0.02 mg/kg at 321 days in stalks/leaves from application of a 10G

    formulation at 3.3 kg a.i./ha. In another, in India (Union Carbide
    1982d) residues in stalks at 185 days after treatment at 1.5, 2, 3 and
    4 kg a.i./ha were <0.04, 0.04, 0.045 and 0.077 mg/kg respectively.
    The colorimetric analytical method used had a sensitivity of only
    0.04 mg/kg.

         Because the Indian data were determined by methodology with
    limited sensitivity, the U.S. data are more pertinent for estimating
    maximum residue levels. Maximum residues resulting from recommended
    application rates were, therefore, 0.03 mg/kg from the Puerto Rican
    studies where untreated controls had residues up to 0.05 mg/kg. Levels
    in untreated sugarcane controls have been observed at this level or
    higher in other studies (Table 14) although in this case there is some
    suggestive evidence of contamination.

         Maximum residue levels of 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg respectively for
    sugarcane stalk and fodder/forage are reasonable for application rates
    up to 3.4 kg a.i./ha and a 180-day preharvest interval. Data were
    insufficient for an estimate of residues in bagasse (see "Fate of
    Residues").

        Table 13.  Total Aldicarb Residues in Sugarcane Stalks and Leaves
                                                                                                             

    Experimental       Rate of                                        Interval from     Residue Found
    Station and        Treatment1/                                    last Treatment                       
    Location           (lb a.i./A)      Application                   to Sampling       Stalk         Leaves
                                                                      (days)            mg/kg         mg/kg
                                                                                                             

    Louisiana          2.0              Side-dress 2 sides to             35             0.05          0.28
                                        ratoon cane
    Belle Rose 1970                                                       64             0.10          0.66
                                                                          64             0.15          1.26
                                                                          89             0.06          1.02
                                                                         123             0.01          0.04
                                                                         216             0.01

                       2.0              Side-dress                        35             0.05          0.26
                                        2 sides to                        64             0.12          1.11
                                        ratoon cane                       89             0.01          0.18
                                                                         123             0.02          0.05

                       4.0              Side-dress                        35             0.14          0.86
                                        2 sides to                        64             0.18          1.36
                                        ratoon cane                       89             0.03          0.30
                                                                         123             0.01          0.08
                                                                         216             0.01

                       4                Side-dress                        64             0.01          0.02
                                        2 sides to                        64             0.01          0.02
                                        ratoon cane                       89             0.05          0.65
                                                                         123             0.02          0.19
                       Untreated                                          35             0.01          0.02
                       Untreated                                          64             0.01          0.02
                       Untreated                                          89             0.01          0.02
                                                                                                             

    Table 13 (con't)
                                                                                                             

    Experimental       Rate of                                        Interval from     Residue Found
    Station and        Treatment1/                                    last Treatment                       
    Location           (lb a.i./A)      Application                   to Sampling       Stalk         Leaves
                                                                      (days)            mg/kg         mg/kg
                                                                                                             

    Baton Rouge        4.0              Banded and                       392            <0.01
                       (1968)           rototilled                       392            <0.01
                                                                         392            <0.01
                                                                         392            <0.01
                       Untreated                                                        <0.01

                       2.0              Banded and                       378            <0.01
                       (1969)           incorporated at planting

    Louisiana          1.5 lb+1.5 lb2/  In-furrow at                     189             0.01
                                        planting plus side dress
                       Untreated2/                                         0             0.01

                       3 lb + 3 lb      In-furrow at                     189             0.01
                                        planting plus side dress
    Florida

    70-71              2 lb             36 cm Band incorporated          363             0.01
                                        at planting

                       4 lb             36 cm Band incorporated          363             0.01
                                        at planting
                                                                                                             

    Table 13 (con't)
                                                                                                             

    Experimental       Rate of                                        Interval from     Residue Found
    Station and        Treatment1/                                    last Treatment                       
    Location           (lb a.i./A)      Application                   to Sampling       Stalk         Leaves
                                                                      (days)            mg/kg         mg/kg
                                                                                                             

                       Untreated        -                                  0             0.01

                       2 lb             36 cm Band covered               242             0.01
                                        at off-bar with 2.5 cm
                                        soil (side-dress).

                       4 lb             36 cm Band covered               242             0.01
                                        at off-bar with 2.5 cm
                                        soil (side-dress).

                       Untreated                                                         0.01

    Puerto Rico        2                                                                 0.03         44
    (1979)             3                row                              300             0.03         42
                                        row                              300             0.04         43
                                        row                              300             0.05         44
                       4                row                              300             0.07         42
                       4                row                              300             0.05         43
                       4                row                                                           44

                       Untreated                                                         0.04         42
                                                                                         0.05         43
                                                                                         0.02         44
                                                                                                             

    1/   1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha; Formulation - 10G;

    2/   Treated 9/18/72 and 3/15/73.
            Table 14.  Total Aldicarb Residues in Sugarcane Stalks, South Africa, 1970
                                                                                               

    Rate                                    Residues (mg/kg)
    (lb a.i./A)1/      6 Days     14 Days   21 Days2/  27 Days  35 Days   56 Days   90 Days
                                                                                               

    2.5                 0.22       0.31       0.22      0.05      0.11      0.02     <0.02

    5.0                 0.34       0.90       0.29      0.15      0.23      0.03     <0.02

    7.5                 0.84       1.12       0.52      0.27      0.29      0.06     <0.02

    10.0                1.18       1.20       0.61      0.28      0.57      0.08     <0.02

    Control             0.08       0.02      <0.02     <0.02      0.08     <0.02     <0.02

    Control3/          <0.02      <0.02      <0.02                                   <0.02
                                                                                               

    1/   Broadcast and incorporated at planting (TEMIK 10g); 1 lb/A = 1.1 kg/ha;

    2/   Irrigated during this period;

    3/   Controls outside experimental area.
    
         Studies from outside the U.S. also confirm the U.S. data, which
    shows that residues in the leaves may be approximately 2-10 times that
    in the stalk. One of these studies from South Africa (Table 14)
    clearly shows residues peaking at 14 days after treatment with a
    subsequent rapid decline. Other studies have shown similar rapid
    dissipation of residues, although the period for peaking in leaves and
    stalks had been as much as 50 days (Union Carbide 1982c).

         Except for the Indian data, as noted, recoveries were generally
    > 80% in stalk and leaves at fortification levels of 0.01 and
    0.02 mg/kg in each respectively. Recoveries were somewhat lower from
    juice and bagasse. The Indian data were based on the same basic
    procedure, except that determination was by colorimetry instead of gas
    chromatography. The sensitivity was 0.04 mg/kg.

    Sweet Potatoes

         Good agricultural practice information was available from three
    countries (Table 2) and reportedly used in at least one other. Residue
    data (uncorrected for 90% analytical recoveries) were available only
    from the U.S., but from six states. Those studies representing GAP are
    summarized in Table 15 (Union Carbide 1982c).

        Table 15.  Aldicarb Residues in Sweet Potatoes at Harvest from Supervised Trials1/
                                                                                     

                                 Interval              Rate (lb a.i./A)2/
    Location        Year         to Harvest                                          
                                 (days)       1        2        3        4        5-6
                                                                                     

    Louisiana

                    1968         126                   <0.01    <0.01    <0.01
                    1969         125                            <0.01

                    1973         110          <0.01    0.01     0.02
                    1976         128          <0.01    <0.01

    North Carolina

                    1974         127          <0.01             <0.01             0.02
                    1976         114                   0.01     0.04
                    1973         146          0.02              0.03

    South Carolina

                    1975         156          (3 varieties)     0.01

    Virginia

                    1974         119                            0.04
                                 119                            0.05              0.16
                                 119                                              0.11
                    1975         122                   0.05     0.05              0.09
                                 122(3 replicates)     0.03

    Oklahoma

                    1974         157                            <0.01             0.02

    California

                    1976         149                            0.10
                                                                                     

    1/   Uncorrected for 90% recoveries.

    2/   Recommended rate is 2-3 lb a.i./A (2.2-3.3 kg/ha); Formulation, 10 G.
    
         These data indicate that residues in sweet potatoes following the
    recommended application rate should not exceed 0.1 mg/kg at the normal
    harvest interval of approximately 120 days after a single application
    at planting. Residues in untreated controls were <0.01-<0.02 mg/kg.

         Additional data were provided to the Meeting for immature sweet
    potatoes from three states, which had treatments at planting at higher
    than recommended and recommended application rates, 15 to 30 days
    before normal harvest. Residues in 12 samples that had been treated at
    recommended rates ranged from <0.01-0.19 (av. 0.07 mg/kg for seven
    samples) when harvested 30 days before normal harvest and <0.01-
    0.08 mg/kg (av. 0.05 mg/kg for 5 samples) at 15 days before normal
    harvest. Maximum residues on these 12 samples were 0.05 mg/kg at
    normal harvest.

         In sweet potatoes vines residues in two states following
    recommended application rates were <0.04, 0.89; 0.04, 0.21 and
    <0.04, 0.34 mg/kg at 30 days and 15 days before and at normal harvest
    respectively. Residues were significantly higher at higher than
    recommended rates. Residues could approach 1.0 mg/kg. The feeding of
    vines from aldicarb treated sweet potatoes is prohibited in the U.S. A
    0.1 mg/kg limit for aldicarb in sweet potatoes can be supported. This
    is less than the current or proposed limit for potatoes, but reflects
    different GAP.

         When sweet potatoes were fortified at 0.02-0.22 mg/kg, recoveries
    were 92, 88 and 97% for aldicarb, its sulphoxide and sulphone
    respectively. A realistic limit of determination for sweet potatoes is
    0.01 mg/kg.

    Carcase Meat and Milk

         The current 0.01 mg/kg limit for carcase meat and 0.002 mg/kg for
    milk (at or about the limits of determination) are based on the
    potential for residues resulting from those feed items on which
    maximum residue levels were estimated.

         Of the feed items considered at this Meeting, potential for
    residues in animals (cattle) is greatest for maize. The potential from
    grain is not so great, as the residues are low, hub from forage/
    fodder, where residues can be up to 10 mg/kg, an increased potential
    does exist. Assuming that a possible 50% of the cattle diet could be
    forage/fodder residues in the diet could be 5 mg/kg from the
    fodder/forage alone. If other feed items, such as grape pomace or
    citrus pulp, bearing aldicarb residues near proposed tolerance levels
    are fed at the same time, dietary levels of 6-7 mg/kg could
    theoretically exist. Based on one feeding study at 5 mg/kg in the diet
    previously examined by this Meeting (Romine 1973), no detectable
    residues (<0.01 mg/kg) would result in meat and <0.002 mg/kg in milk
    from 5 mg/kg in the diet. From another study (Dourough  et al 1970)

    carbamate residues of approximately 0.008 mg/kg can be estimated in
    liver from a dietary feeding level of 1.2 mg/kg. This would be
    0.03 mg/kg, translated to a 5 mg/kg dietary level. From the same
    study, translating the 0.002 mg/kg residues in milk to a 5 mg/kg
    dietary level would result in residues of 0.01 mg/kg, which is,
    incidentally, the limit recommended by the 14th Session of the CCPR.

         Therefore, because of the increased potential for residues in
    carcase meat and milk, another feeding study at a higher feeding level
    is needed.

         Maize may contribute up to 70% of the diet of poultry, which
    could result in a dietary intake of 0.035 mg/kg with 0.05 mg/kg in
    grain. A greater potential for residues, however, could come from
    sorghum grain (up to 60% of the diet), for which a 0.2 mg/kg residue
    level is estimated. Based on poultry feeding studies previously
    reviewed by this Meeting (Hicks  et al 1972) maximum aldicarb
    equivalent residues in poultry were found in liver at 0.14 mg/kg after
    feeding 1.0 mg/kg in the diet for 21 days. Based on this and similar
    data for eggs, any residues in poultry meat or eggs would be expected
    to be less than the 0.01 mg/kg limit of determination.

    FATE OF RESIDUES

    In Plants

         Although the fate of aldicarb in plants has been previously
    reviewed (FAO/WHO 1980b), some additional information was provided to
    this Meeting. When the ratio of aldicarb sulphoxide to sulphone was
    studied in sugarcane plants, the ratio declined from approximately 8
    at 35 days after last application to approximately 1.7 after 123 days
    (Union Carbide 1982c).

    In Storage and Processing

    Grapes

         Data were available for grape products from simulated commercial
    processing of grapes with field incurred residues and are summarized
    in Table 5 (Union Carbide 1982b). There appears to be no appreciable
    concentration of aldicarb in fresh grape juice and wine. There can be
    appreciable concentration in pomace, raisin trash and apparently in
    stems, although data are insufficient for the latter to permit a firm
    conclusion on the amount. The actual residues on stems in Table 5 do
    not represent GAP, since two applications were made. The proposed
    label permits only one. From Table 5, a concentration factor of 2.5
    would appear to be reasonable for estimating maximum residues in
    raisins and pomace from residues in grapes. This factor is somewhat
    lower than the theoretical concentration factor of approximately 4x
    for raisins, but is supported by the data. Actual residues for raisin
    trash represent GAP.

         Grape samples with field incurred residues from 0.15-4 mg/kg
    showed no appreciable change in the level of residue after storage at
    -10F (-23C) for 16 to 18 months.

    Maize

         The distribution of average aldicarb residues in endosperm
    (meat), hulls, and oil (germ) were 0.01, 0.034 and 0.005 mg/kg
    respectively from dry milled grain with field incurred residues of
    approximately 0.014 mg/kg (Union Carbide 1982a). Recoveries were
    > 81% at 0.025-0.05 mg/kg fortification levels. Untreated controls
    gave residues of < 0.005 mg/kg. Although grain samples with
    residues further removed from levels near the limit of determination
    (approximately 0.02 mg/kg for oil) would have been preferred, the
    study does suggest concentration in hulls only and at approximately
    2.5 times. Additional processing studies at higher residue levels
    would be useful to further elucidate potential residues in processed
    products of maize.

    Sorghum

         Minimal data on the effects of milling on residues in sorghum
    grain were available (Union Carbide 1982c) and are summarized below:

                                Residue (mg/kg)
                   grain        bran          shorts       flour
                                                                     
                   0.09         0.41          0.05         0.03
                   0.04         0.04          0.02        <0.02
                                                                     

         As in the case of maize, these data are inadequate to draw firm
    conclusions on possible residue concentrations during processing.
    Additional processing studies from grain with higher initial residues
    are desirable.

         When crops with field-incurred residues in sorghum grain of
    0.1-0.11 mg/kg and fodder of 0.14-0.25 mg/kg were stored for 10 months
    at -10F losses were about 10% for grain and 27% for fodder.

    Sugarcane

         When sugarcane stalk and leaves with residues of 0.018, 0.22 and
    0.26, 0.19 mg/kg respectively were held in storage at -15C for up to
    221 days, no losses in residues occurred. In fact, apparent
    unexplained increases on the order of 30% were found (Union Carbide
    1982c).

         When sugarcane stalks containing field incurred residues of
    <0.011 mg/kg were processed in a pilot unit, no measurable residues
    were detected in bagasse, dilute juice, syrup, raw sugar or molasses
    (Union Carbide 1982c,d). When dilute juice was fortified at
    0.24 mg/kg, residues were 0.1, 0.21, <0.011 and 0.034 mg/kg
    respectively in clarified juice, syrup, raw sugar and molasses (Union
    Carbide 1982c). Because the stalk residues were so low, a firm
    conclusion cannot be drawn for concentration of residues in juice or
    bagasse.

    METHODS OF RESIDUE ANALYSIS

         The analytical methods used for the supervised trials considered
    by this Meeting are basically the same as those examined previously
    (FAO/WHO 1980b). They are for the most part based on a 3:1
    acetone:water extraction, oxidation of aldicarb residues to the
    sulphone and determination by flame photometric gas liquid
    chromatography.

    Milk

         As a result of discussions at the 1982 Meeting of the CCPR on the
    limit of determination for aldicarb in milk, the manufacturer
    re-submitted the analytical method (Lykins 1969). The CCPR considered
    0.01 mg/kg to be a more realistic limit of determination than the
    0.002 mg/kg estimated by the JMPR.

         The method is similar to other variations of the basic method for
    aldicarb in crops, but includes a phosphoric acid precipitation step
    before oxidization of aldicarb residues to the sulphone. The
    manufacturer validated the method by analysing milk samples fortified
    from 0.0011 to 0.044 mg/kg with individual components of the aldicarb
    residue. Recoveries ranged from 76.2 to 121% with average recoveries
    being 91.3%.

         Both the CCPR and this Meeting were informed that the U.S.
    Environmental Protection Agency had validated the same basic method UC
    21149-III Milk, entitled: "Determination of Total Toxic Residues in
    Milk by Gas Chromatography". Validations were conducted with
    fortifications at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/kg sulphoxide, with recoveries
    ranging from 60-100% (79% av.) at the 0.002 mg/kg level. No major
    difficulties were encountered and no interferences were found at the
    retention of the sulphone. The limit of detection was estimated at
    0.0005 mg/kg.

    NATIONAL MAXIMUM RESIDUE LIMITS

         The Netherlands reported to the Meeting the following revisions
    of and additions to their 1979 submission:

                   Commodity                     mg/kg
                                                          
                   Brussels sprouts              0.05
                   Onions                        0.1
                   Potatoes                      0.3
                   Other food commodities        0 (0.02)

         The 0.05 mg/kg limit for Brussels sprouts is at or about the
    limit of determination. In "other commodities", no residues are
    permitted, the limit of determination being 0.02 mg/kg.

    APPRAISAL

         The Meeting examined residue data for several commodities not
    considered previously, as well as substantial additional data for
    citrus and potatoes. Data on the latter two resulted from discussions
    at the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. Additional information
    on the fate of residues and the analytical limit of determination for
    milk was also examined. Good agricultural practice (GAP) information
    was provided for some commodities for which residue data were
    available and only proposed GAP information was available for others.

         Data for Brussels sprouts were inadequate for estimating a
    maximum residue level. Data were adequate for estimating residue
    levels for maize (grain), maize fodder/forage, pecans, sorghum grain,
    sorghum fodder and sweet potatoes, and for confirmation of the limit
    for potatoes and citrus.

         In citrus, the Meeting examined new data in conjunction with
    substantial data previously reviewed. Except for one sample (out of
    600) with a residue of 0.22 mg/kg harvested 199 days after treatment,
    all samples with residues > 0.2 mg/kg resulted from preharvest
    intervals of 61 days or less. The current 0.2 mg/kg limit is based on
    a 90-day preharvest interval. However, the Meeting received new
    information that a 30-day preharvest interval is good agricultural
    practice for lemons. Available data on Valencia oranges and limes,
    reflecting recommended application rates and preharvest intervals of
    30-61 days, give indirect evidence that under some good agricultural
    practice conditions residues in lemons could exceed 0.2 mg/kg,
    possibly approaching 0.5 mg/kg. While the Meeting concluded that the
    0.2 mg/kg can be confirmed, it also concluded that additional residue
    data on lemons are highly desirable to give added assurance that the
    0.2 mg/kg limit is adequate. The Meeting was informed that
    consideration will be given to conducting additional studies to
    provide that assurance.

         In grapes, many of the treatments did not closely follow proposed
    uses or insufficient information was available to make that
    determination. For this reason, limits were not estimated. Residues
    from supervised trials at least partially consistent with proposed
    uses and harvest at intervals greater than or approximately the
    recommended 120-day interval between harvest and last treatment gave a
    maximum residue of 0.49 (a duplicate analysis that would appear to be
    a little higher relative to similar samples, but there is no basis for
    discarding it). Lower values on other samples from the same cooperator
    cannot be directly compared since the type of treatments were
    different.

         Additional supervised trials strictly following recommended
    application and last treatment to harvest interval are needed for
    grapes. Also needed is information on nationally approved agricultural
    practices.

         In maize (field corn) forage, data from one geographical area are
    substantially higher than those from other areas, but there is no firm
    basis for discounting the substantial amount of data from this area.

         In potatoes, a lot of additional data were examined along with
    the substantial amount of data previously examined by the Meeting. A
    significant number of trials representing current GAP resulted in
    residues exceeding 0.5 mg/kg. A few of these samples were on
    "immature" tubers, variety Pungo, or were inexplicably higher than
    even the previous JMPR maximum residue level estimate of 1.0 mg/kg.
    Too much emphasis cannot be attached to "immature" tubers since these
    may also be harvested, marketed and consumed. With all factors taken
    into account, the Meeting concluded that the available data continue
    to support the previously estimated limit of 1.0 mg/kg, while
    recognizing the preference of the Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues for a 0.5 mg/kg limit.

         In sugarcane, substantial data were available, but no residue
    level is recommended since sugarcane is not considered a major item in
    international trade. Studies show that residues may peak anywhere
    between 14 and 60 days after treatment, followed by a rapid decline.
    Residues in the leaves may be 2-10 times the level in the stalks.

         The increased potential for aldicarb residues in meat and milk
    from additional animal feed items considered by this Meeting,
    especially maize fodder/forage, indicates a possible need for a higher
    limit for carcase meat and milk. For this reason, feeding trials at
    feeding levels higher than 5 mg/kg in the diet are desirable.

         Processing studies indicate concentration of aldicarb residues
    only in grape pomace, raisin trash and maize hulls when grapes,
    sugarcane, maize and sorghum with field incurred residues were
    processed into their various products. However, data were inadequate

    for firm conclusions on residue concentration in processed products of
    maize, sorghum, and sugarcane. Additional studies from processing of
    raw commodities with higher field incurred residues are desirable for
    maize and sorghum.

         Analytical methodologies for supervised trials considered by the
    Meeting are basically the same as those previously considered. The
    Meeting did re-examine the limit of determination for the analytical
    method for aldicarb residues in milk. Since it was re-submitted as a
    result of actions of the CCPR. The Meeting considered validations
    conducted by the manufacturer and one government and re-affirmed
    0.002 mg/kg as a reasonable level at or about the limit of
    determination under normal circumstances. While the Meeting recognizes
    that this level may not always be easily attainable under the demands
    of some regulatory situations, residues in milk from good agricultural
    practice have not been shown to exceed this level. For these reasons
    the Meeting cannot justify recommending a higher limit.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

         The Meeting examined residue data from supervised trials
    reflecting current and proposed good agricultural practices for
    aldicarb on a number of crops. From these data the Meeting was able to
    estimate additional maximum residue levels that are likely to occur
    when aldicarb is used in accordance with these practices and when the
    reported intervals from last application to harvest are observed.
    Residues refer to aldicarb, aldicarb sulphoxide, and aldicarb sulphone
    expressed as aldicarb.

                                                                        

                      Maximum                  Interval Between
    Commodity         Residue Level            last application
                      (mg/kg)                  and harvest (days)
                                                                        

    Maize (grain)     0.05                     80

    Maize (forage)    20 (dry weight basis)

    Maize fodder      2 (dry weight basis)     80

    Pecans            0.5

    Sorghum (grain)   0.2                      90

    Sorghum fodder    0.5 (dry weight basis)   application at planting

    Sweet potatoes    0.1                      120
                                                                        

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Desirable

    1.   Additional good agricultural practice information, especially for
         maize, sorghum and grapes.

    2.   Additional supervised field trials data for grapes (closely
         following approved practice).

    3.   Additional processing studies for maize and sorghum, with field
         incurred residues at sufficiently high levels to allow a more
         conclusive estimate of residues in the various processed
         fractions.

    4.   Feeding studies in cattle at levels greater than 5 mg/kg in the
         diet.

    5.   Selected studies on lemons (and ideally also on Valencia oranges)
         in which aldicarb is applied in accordance with good agricultural
         practice at maximum recommended rates and harvested at
         approximately 30 days after treatment. Study details should be
         recorded, including amount and frequency of precipitation or
         irrigation.

    REFERENCES

    Dourough, H.W., Davis, R.B. and Ivie, G.W. Fate of Temik - Carbon-14
    1970    in lactating cows during a 14-day feeding period. Journal of
            Agricultural Food Chem. 18: 135-142.

    CIVO. Information provided by the Netherlands government.
    1981

    CIVO. Information provided by the Netherlands government.
    1982

    Hicks, W., Dourough, H.W. and Mehendele, H.M. Metabolism of aldicarb
    1972    pesticide in laying hens, Journal of Agricultural Food Chem.
            20: (I): 151-156.

    Lykins, H.F. Temik pesticide. The determination of Temik sulphoxide
    1969    and temik sulphone in milk. Project No. 111A13, 22 May 1969.
            Report submitted to the 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide, July
            1982. (Unpublished)

    Romine, R.R. Aldicarb pesticide. Aldicarb residues in milk and meat of
    1973    cows fed aldicarb aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone
            in the daily diet. Project no. 111A13, 27 February 1973.
            (Unpublished)

    Romine, R.R. Aldicarb residues in products from dry milling of
    1981    Temik(R)-treated corn, Project No. 813C50, 15 October 1981.
            Report submitted by Union Carbide. (Unpublished)

    Smith, F.F. Report of residue analysis, PCY-G8-11. Report submitted by
    1968    Union Carbide. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Grapes, maize, maize fodder, tomatoes. Submission to
    1982a   the 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co.,
            Inc. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Summary aldicarb residue data.
    1982b

    Union Carbide. Residues of aldicarb in food and their evaluation;
    1982c   pecans, sorghum, sorghum fodder, sugarcane and sweet
            potatoes. Report submitted to the 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide.
            (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Pecans, sorghum, sorghum fodder, sugarcane, sweet
    1982d   potatoes, grapes, maize, maize fodder and tomatoes. Report
            submitted to the 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Aldicarb residue data sheets for potatoes. Submitted
    1982e   to 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Introduction to citrus fruits and potatoes, July
    1982f   1982. Document submitted to the 1982 JMPR by Union Carbide.
            (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Aldicarb residue data for tomatoes, October, 1982.
    1982g   Data submitted by Union Carbide. (Unpublished)

    Union Carbide. Aldicarb residue data on citrus. Report submitted by
    1982h   Union Carbide. (Unpublished)


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Aldicarb (EHC 121, 1991)
       Aldicarb (HSG 64, 1991)
       Aldicarb (ICSC)
       Aldicarb (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Aldicarb (Pesticide residues in food: 1992 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Aldicarb (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)