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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1982


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1982





    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 23 November - 2 December 1982

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1983


    BROMOPHOS

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Explanation

         Bromophos was evaluated in 1972, 1975 and 1977 (FAO/WHO 1973,
    1976, 1978)1/. Although there were no specific requirements for
    further work due in 1982, additional information became available on
    residues in vegetables, field crops, pome fruit, stone fruit and
    berries. These data are reviewed for confirming or adjusting previous
    recommendations or for making new recommendations on additional
    commodities.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

    In Crops

         Data were received on the results of supervised trials on a wide
    variety of crops carried out by the manufacturer in numerous field
    locations throughout the Federal Republic of Germany (Celamerck 1982).
    This information is summarized in Tables 1-8.

         Information on residues in oats, barley, wheat, oilseed rape and
    sugarbeets is summarized in Table 1. Maximum residues at 7 days
    preharvest were 1.09 mg/kg for barley, 0.77 mg/kg for oats, 0.95 mg/kg
    for wheat, <0.02 mg/kg (at 70 days) for oilseed rape, <0.02 mg/kg
    for sugarbeet roots and 0.16 mg/kg for sugarbeet leaves. The data on
    oats, barley and wheat show that residues from field treatment of
    these crops would not exceed the existing recommended level for new
    grain, which is based on the levels found in storage uses of bromophos
    on grains. Both sugarbeet roots and leaves can be included in the
    existing recommendation of 0.5 mg/kg. No change in recommendation is
    indicated by the data for oilseed rape.

              

    1/  See Annex 2 for FAO and WHO documentation.

        Table 1.  Bromophos Residues in Field Crops
                                                                                                             

                                     Application        Preharvest          Residues
    Crop             Formulation     rate (a.i.)        interval (days)     (mg/kg)
                                                                                                             

    Oats             Seed Dressing   59.5 g/100 kg      146                 <0.01 (Seed + Straw)
                     23.8%                   seed

    Spring Barley          "         59.5 g/100 kg      135                 <0.01 (Seed + Straw)
                                             seed

          "                "         59.5 g/100 kg      111                 <0.01 (Seed + Straw)
                                             seed

    Sugarbeet
       roots         EC, 300 g/l     2x 0.285 kg/ha +   0-7-14-21-          0.01-<0.01-<0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Sugarbeet
       leaves              "         2x 0.152 kg/ha     28                  6.07-0.16-<0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Sugarbeet
       roots               "         2x 0.228 kg/ha +   0-13-20-27-         0.02 (all)

    Sugarbeet
       leaves              "         2x 0.114 kg/ha     35                  0.8-0.02-<0.02-<0.02-<0.02

    Oilseed Rape     EC, 380 g/1     0.228 kg/ha        70                  <0.02

    Oilseed Rape           "         0.285 kg/ha        64                  <0.01

    Spring Barley          "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-35           6.62-1.09-0.13-
                                                                            straw 35: 0.02
                                                                            seed  35: <0.01
                                                                                                             

    Table 1.  (con't)
                                                                                                             

                                     Application        Preharvest          Residues
    Crop             Formulation     rate (a.i.)        interval (days)     (mg/kg)
                                                                                                             

    Barley                 "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-21-30        seed + straw: 7.03-0.95-0.36-0.12
                                                                            straw 30    : 0.06

    Oats                   "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-22           seed + straw: 16.2-0.77-0.54
                                                                            seed 22     : <0.01
                                                                            straw 22    : 0.08

    Wheat                  "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-21-28        11.40-0.53-0.43-0.43-0-41

    Wheat                  "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-21-37        11.80-0.95-1.06-0.48-0.05

    Wheat                  "         2x 0.380 kg/ha     0-7-14-21-28        6.69-0.72-0.19-0.10-<0.02
                                                                                                             

    Table 2.  Bromophos Residues in Apples
                                                                                                                      

    Crop      Formulation     Application           Residue (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest Interval (days)
                              rate (a.i.)
                                                    0           3-4         7           14          21         28
                                                                                                                      

    Apple     EC, 380 g/l     5  0.836 g/tree      3.03        2.74        2.58        2.30        1.74

    Apple          "          5  0.836 g/tree      4.57        4.19        3.54        3.43        2.76

    Apple          "          5  0.380 kg/ha       3.74        3.75        2.63        3.44        2.04

    Apple          "          5  0.76 kg/ha        4.10        4.14        4.20        4.47        3.76

    Apple          "          4  0.38 kg + 2      3.00        2.70        2.52        2.28        1.32       1.25
                              0.608 kg/ha

    Apple          "          4  0.95 kg + 2      2.76        2.05        2.21        2.27        1.78       1.57
                              1.52 kg/ha

    Apple          "          4  0.95 kg + 2      2.48        2.08        1.54        1.37        0.76       0.34
                              1.52 kg/ha

    Apple     Dust, 2%        1  0.4 kg/ha +       0.47        0.36        0.26        0.37        0.33
                              3  0.8 kg/ha

    Apple          "          1  0.4 kg/ha +       0.67        1.15        0.52        0.53        0.48
                              3  0.8 kg/ha

    Apple          "          1  0.4 kg/ha +       0.29        0.19        0.15        0.21        0.06       0.04
                              3  0.8 kg/ha
                                                                                                                      

    Table 3.  Bromophos Residues in Stone Fruits
                                                                                                                          

                                                             Residue (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest interval (days)
    Crop              Formulation       Application
                                     rate (kg/ha a.i.)       0          3-4        7          14         21         28
                                                                                                                          

    Sour Cherries     EC, 380 g/l       2  0.285 +         1.27        0.24      0.16       0.04       0.02
                                        1  0.570

    Sour Cherries          "            2  0.285 +         1.75        1.00      0.45       0.12       0.04
                                        1  0.570

    Sour Cherries          "            2  0.285 +         3.1         1.35      0.63       0.085      0.015
                                        1  0.570

    Sour Cherries     Dust, 2%          2  0.8 +           0.03       <0.01     <0.01      <0.01      <0.01
                                        1  0.4

    Sour Cherries          "            2  0.8 +           0.18        0.03      0.01      <0.01      <0.01
                                        1  0.4

    Sour Cherries          "            2  0.8 +           0.42        0.045     0.032     <0.01      <0.01
                                        1  0.4

    Plums             EC, 380 g/l       5  0.712           2.26        1.11      0.97       0.54       0.50       0.35

    Plums                  "            5  0.950           2.32        2.36      1.82       1.45       0.84

    Plums                  "            5  0.950           4.02        3.98      2.47       2.90       1.60

    Plums             Dust, 2%          2  0.8 +           0.27        0.16      0.15       0.16       0.15
                                        1  0.4
                                                                                                                          

    Table 3 (con't)
                                                                                                                          

                                                             Residue (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest interval (days)
    Crop              Formulation       Application
                                     rate (kg/ha a.i.)       0          3-4        7          14         21         28
                                                                                                                          
    Plums                  "            2  0.8 +           0.16        0.14      0.13       0.11       0.10
                                        1  0.4

    Plums                  "            2  0.8 +           0.10        0.09      0.10       0.09       0.07
                                        1  0.4

    Peaches           EC, 380 g/l       2  0.570 +         0.57        0.24      0.16       0.11       0.05
                                        1  0.285

    Peaches           Dust, 2%          0.8 +               0.78        0.27      0.24       0.14       0.07
                                        0.4

    Peaches                "            2  0.8 +           0.65        0.53      0.42       0.19       0.10
                                        1  0.4

    Peaches           EC, 380 g/l       2  0.475 +         1.04        0.61      0.52       0.25       0.11
                                        1  0.237
                                                                                                                          

    Table 4.  Bromophos residues in Berries
                                                                                                                      

    Crop             Formulation        Application        Residues (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest intervals (days)
                                     rate (kg/ha a.i.)       0          3           7           14           21
                                                                                                                      

    Red currants     EC, 380 g/l     0.230 kg + 0.460       3.05       1.31        0.70        0.46         0.30

    Red currants          "          0.237 kg + 0.475       1.28       1.28        0.49        0.42         0.26

    Red currants          "          0.23 kg + 0.475        0.65       0.58        0.39        0.25         0.38

    Red currants     Dust, 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4           0.37       0.24        0.13        0.10         0.23

    Red currants          "          0.8 kg + 0.4           1.19       0.39        0.19        0.08         0.05

    Red currants          "          0.8 kg + 0.4           0.71       0.43        0.12        0.07         0.06

    Raspberries      EC, 380 g/l     2  0.380              1.50       0.37        0.12        0.03         0.02

    Raspberries      Dust, 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4           0.64       0.09        0.02        0.01        <0.01
                                                                                                                      

    Table 5.  Bromophos Residues in Leafy Vegetables
                                                                                                           

    Crop        Formulation        Application         Preharvest
                                   rate (kg/ha a.i.)   Interval (days)       Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                           

    Lettuce     Coarse Dust, 3%    6                   51-58-64              0.03-<0.02-<0.02

    Lettuce          "             6                   50-57-64              0.02-0.01-<0.01

    Lettuce          "             6                   38-45-52-59           0.034-0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Lettuce     EC, 380 g/l        3  0.237           0-3-7-14-20           1.82-0.50-0.12-0.04-<0.02

    Lettuce          "             3  0.237           0-3-7-14-21           1.39-0.27-0.13-<0.02-<0.02

    Lettuce          "             3  0.380           0-3-7-14-21           2.8-1.4-0.24-0.07-<0.01

    Lettuce     Dust, 2%           0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-13-20           2.95-1.16-0.38-0.11-<0.02

    Lettuce          "             0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-14-21           1.65-0.58-0.34-<0.02-<0.02

    Lettuce          "             0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-14-21           6.7-2.8-1.45-0.04-0.035

    Spinach     EC, 380 g/1        3  0.152           0-3-7-14-21           3.88-0.61-0.03-0.03-0.02

    Spinach          "             3  0.152           0-3-7-14-21           4.63-1.74-0.33-0.03-0.03

    Spinach          "             3  0.152           0-3-7-14-22           1.79-0.35-0.03-<0.01-<0.01

    Spinach     Dust, 2%           0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-14-21           9.46-2.04-0.28-0.03-0.02

    Spinach          "             0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-14-21           6.91-6.0-1.89-0.50-0.11

    Spinach          "             0.8 kg + 0.4        0-3-7-14-20           5.85-6.25-0.40-0.05-0.05
                                                                                                           

    Table 5.  (con't)
                                                                                                           

    Crop        Formulation        Application         Preharvest
                                   rate (kg/ha a.i.)   Interval (days)       Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                           

    Spinach          "             2  0.40 +          0-7-14-21             7.30-0.09-0.02-0.01
                                   1  0.80

    Spinach     Coarse Dust, 3%    6                   44-47-51-58           0.15-0.07-0.02-<0.01
                                                                                                           
 
    Table 6.  Bromophos Residues in Cole Vegetables and Onions
                                                                                                                      

    Crop             Formulation        Application             Preharvest
                                        rate (a.i.)             Interval (days)          Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                      

    Cabbage          Coarse Dust,3%     6 kg/ha                 109-116-124              <0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Cabbage               "             6 kg/ha                 63-70-76                 <0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Cabbage               "             6 kg/ha                 41-48-55                 <0.01-<0.03-<0.01

    Savoy            EC, 380 g/l        pour, 2  38 mg/        0-7-14-21                1.48-0.02-<0.01-<0.01
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Savoy                 "             pour, 2  38 mg/
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha         0-6-13-20                0.023-0.013-<0.01-<0.01

    Savoy                 "             pour, 2  38 mg/
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha         0-7-14-21                1.62-0.03-<0.01-<0.01

    Savoy            Dust, 2%           0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-7-14-21                0.71-0.02-0.06-<0.01

    Savoy                 "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              0.041-0.010-0.015-0.01-<0.01

    Savoy                 "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              1.03-0.43-0.02-<0.01-<0.01

    Cauliflower      Coarse Dust, 3%    6 kg/ha                 56-63-70                 0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Cauliflower           "             6 kg/ha                 61-68-75                 0.01-<0.01-<0.01
                                                                                                                      

    Table 6.  (con't)
                                                                                                                      

    Crop             Formulation        Application             Preharvest
                                        rate (a.i.)             Interval (days)          Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                      

    Cauliflower           "             6 kg/ha                 42-50-56                 0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Cauliflower      EC, 380 g/l        pour, 2  38 mg/        0-7-14-21                0.59-0.01-0.01-<0.01
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Cauliflower           "             pour, 2  38 mg/
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha         0-6-13-20                0.78-0.02-<0.01-<0.01

    Cauliflower           "             pour, 2  38 mg/        0-7-14-21                0.96-<0.01-<0.01-<0.01
                                        plant, spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Cauliflower           "             pour, 2  38 mg/        0-7-14-21                0.19-<0.01-<0.01-<0.01
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Cauliflower      Dust, 2%           0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-7-14                   0.57-0.03-<0.01

    Cauliflower           "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-6-14                   0.80-0.03-<0.01

    Cauliflower           "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-7-14                   0.90-0.09-0.06

    Kohlrabi         Coarse Dust, 3%    6 kg/ha                 64-71-78                 0.01-<0.01-<0.01

    Kohlrabi              "             6 kg/ha                 44-51-58                 0.02-<0.02-<0.02
                                                                                                                      

    Table 6.  (con't)
                                                                                                                      

    Crop             Formulation        Application             Preharvest
                                        rate (a.i.)             Interval (days)          Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                      

    Kohlrabi              "             6 kg/ha                 44-51-58                 0.02-<0.02-<0.02

    Kohlrabi         EC, 380 g/kg       pour, 2  38 mg/        0-3-6-14-21              0.23-0.06-0.03-0.02-<0.02
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  9.285 kg/ha

    Kohlrabi              "             pour, 2  38 mg/        0-3-7-14-21              0.18-0.06-0.02-0.01-<0.01
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Kohlrabi              "             pour, 2  38 mg/        0-3-7-14-21              0.27-0.10-0.03-<0.01-<0.01
                                        plant + spray,
                                        2  0.285 kg/ha

    Kohlrabi         Dust 2%            0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-6-14-21              0.73-0.03-0.03-0.03-0.02

    Kohlrabi              "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              0.06-0.04-<0.02-<0.02-<0.02

    Kohlrabi              "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              0.08-0.06-0.02-<0.02-<0.02

    Kale                  "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              13.88-2.13-1.23-0.09-0.03

    Kale                  "             0.8 kg + 0.4 kg/ha      0-3-7-14-21              7.95-1.97-0.90-0.11-0.08

    Kale                  "             2  0.40 kg + 1        0-7-14-21                8.18-1.43-0.52-0.22
                                        0.80 kg/ha
                                                                                                                      

    Table 6.  (con't)
                                                                                                                      

    Crop             Formulation        Application             Preharvest
                                        rate (a.i.)             Interval (days)          Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                                      

    Onions           EC, 380 g/l        2  0.19 g/run.m        32-46-60                 0.09-<0.01-<0.01

    Onions                "             2  0.19 g/run.m        57-71-85                 0.22-0.05-<0.01

    Onions                "             2  0.19 g/run.m        57-71-85                 0.10-<0.01-<0.01
                                                                                                                      

    Table 7.  Bromophos Residues in Root Vegetables
                                                                                                            

                                 Application          Preharvest
    Crop        Formulation      rate (a.i.)          Interval (days)       Residues (mg/kg)
                                                                                                            

    Carrots    Seed Dressing     47.6 g/kg seed       82-96-110             1.54-0.42-0.25
                   23.8%

    Carrots          "           47.6 g/kg seed       64-78-92              1.10-0.25-0.15

    Carrots          "           47.6 g/kg seed       106-120-134           0.27-0.17-0.12

    Carrots   Coarse Dust, 3%    4.5 kg + 3 kg/ha     0-14-21-28-35-42      <0.01-0.39-0.61-0.22-0.19-0.49

    Carrots     EC, 380 g/l      pour, 2  0.19 g/    0-14-21-28-35-42      1.90-1.14-1.37-1.16-1.45-1.08
                                 run.m + spray,
                                 0.285 kg/ha

    Carrots          "           pour, 2  0.19 g/    0-14-21-28-35-42      1.88-2.21-1.71-1.50-1.45-1.40
                                 run.m + spray,
                                 0.285 kg/ha

    Radish      EC, 380 g/l      0.237 g/run.m        0-4-7-14-21-23        19.6-6.1-3.7-0.03-1.39-1.01

    Radish           "           0.19 g/run.m         11-14-17-21-28        2.66-1.81-1.04-0.70-0.45
                                                                                                            

    Table 8.  Bromophos Residues in Fruiting Vegetables and Legumes
                                                                                                              

    Crop          Formulation      Applications       Residue (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest interval (days)
                                   rate (kg/ha a.i.)  0         1         4-5       7-8       14-15
                                                                                                              

    Cucumbers     EC, 380 g/l      3  0.285          0.17      0.08      0.04      0.05

    Cucumbers          "           3  0.285          0.14      0.03      0.02      0.01

    Cucumbers          "           3  0.285          0.03      0.03      0.03      0.02

    Cucumbers      Dust, 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4       0.46      0.34      0.11      0.12

    Cucumbers          "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.03      0.03      0.03      0.02

    Cucumbers          "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.43      0.17      0.04      0.03

    Tomatoes      EC, 380 g/l      3  0.427          0.47                0.32      0.30      0.21

    Tomatoes           "           3  0.427          0.23                0.07      0.03      0.01

    Tomatoes           "           3  0.427          0.69      0.44      0.22      0.08      0.06

    Tomatoes       Dust, 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4       0.34      0.45      0.43      0.49

    Tomatoes           "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.07      0.06      0.02      0.02

    Tomatoes           "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.16      0.08      0.03      0.05

    Beans         EC, 380 g/l      3  0.285          0.42                0.08      0.04      0.01

    Beans              "           3  0.285          0.29                0.07      0.02      <0.01

    Beans              "           4  0.285          0.30                0.11      0.04      0.02
                                                                                                              

    Table 8.  (con't)
                                                                                                              

    Crop          Formulation      Applications       Residue (mg/kg) at indicated preharvest interval (days)
                                   rate (kg/ha a.i.)  0         1         4-5       7-8       14-15
                                                                                                              

    Beans          Dust, 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4       0.24                0.03      <0.01     <0.01

    Beans              "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.28                0.07      0.03      <0.01

    Peas          EC, 380 g/l      3  0.19           0.21                0.03      0.02      0.01
    (whole hulls)                                                                   <0.01
    (peas)                                                                          0.29
    (straw)

    Peas               "           3  0.19
    (whole hulls)                                     0.14                0.02      0.01      <0.01
    (peas)                                                                          <0.01
    (straw)                                                                         0.44

    Peas               "           3  0.285
    (whole hulls)                                     0.35                0.10      0.12      0.04

    Peas            Dust 2%        0.8 kg + 0.4       0.27                0.07      0.04      0.04

    Peas               "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.39                0.09      0.05      0.04

    Peas               "           0.8 kg + 0.4       0.33                0.16      0.11      0.09
                                                                                                              
             Extensive trials on apples, presented in Table 2, show that
    residues as high as 4.47 mg/kg could be found even at 14 days
    preharvest and indicate a need to increase the recommended limit from
    2 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg.

         The data on cherries, plums and peaches, shown in Table 3, reveal
    maximum levels of 0.63 mg/kg on cherries, 2.90 mg/kg on plums and
    0.52 mg/kg on peaches at preharvest intervals of 7, 14 and 7 days,
    respectively. These data support an increase in recommended levels for
    cherries and peaches from 0.5 to 1 mg/kg and for plums from 1 to
    5 mg/kg.

         Additional data on red currants and new data on raspberries are
    presented in Table 4. The maximum level of 0.7 mg/kg at 7 days
    preharvest for red currants supports the existing recommendation of
    1 mg/kg. A maximum level of 0.12 mg/kg at 7 days preharvest for
    raspberries show that the existing level of 1 mg/kg for blackberries
    would not be exceeded and that a new combined recommendation can be
    accommodated.

         The additional data on residues on lettuce and spinach, in
    Table 5, indicate that maximum levels of 1.45 mg/kg for lettuce and
    1.89 mg/kg for spinach could be reached at 7 days preharvest. These
    figures indicate a need to increase the recommended maximum residue
    level for both commodities to 2 mg/kg.

         Additional residue data on cabbage, savoy cabbage, cauliflower,
    kohlrabi and onions and new data on kale are summarized in Table 6.
    Maximum residues of <0.03 mg/kg on cabbage (at 41-48 days
    preharvest), 0.03 mg/kg on savoy cabbage at 7 days preharvest, and
    0.09 mg/kg on cauliflower at 7 days preharvest indicate that the
    previously recommended levels of 0.1, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg respectively
    would not be exceeded. The additional data on kohlrabi show a maximum
    level of 0.02 mg/kg at 44 days preharvest, which supports the previous
    recommendation limit of 0.1 mg/kg. Additional data on residues on
    onions at 57 days preharvest reached a level of 0.22 mg/kg, requiring
    an increase to 0.5 mg/kg from the existing recommended limit of
    0.1 mg/kg. New data on kale show that a maximum residue of 0.22 mg/kg
    was possible at 21 days preharvest arising from 3 applications of 2%
    dust.

         Additional data on residues on carrots and radishes are shown in
    Table 7, where maximum values of 1.40 mg/kg for carrots and 1.39 mg/kg
    for radishes are found at 42 and 21 days preharvest respectively.
    These data require that the recommended level for carrots be increased
    from 1 to 2 mg/kg while that for radishes (2 mg/kg) can remain
    unchanged.

         Table 8 summarizes additional residue data on cucumbers, bush
    beans and peas and new data on tomatoes. At 7 days preharvest, the
    maximum level found were 0.11 mg/kg on cucumbers, 0.04 mg/kg on beans
    and <0.01 on peas (without pods). For peas (whole hulls) the maximum
    at 8 days was 0.12 mg/kg. From an examination of all of the tabular
    data on cucumbers, beans and peas it appears unlikely that the
    existing recommendation of 0.1 mg/kg would be exceeded for these
    commodities. The residue data on tomatoes show that a maximum level of
    0.43 mg/kg was reached on one trial at 4 days preharvest, therefore a
    new recommendation for tomatoes of 0.05 mg/kg can be proposed.

         From Tables 1 and 8, residue data on oat, barley and pea straws
    are available, which reach maximum levels of 0.08 mg/kg on oat straw,
    0.06 mg/kg on barley straw and 0.44 mg/kg on pea straw, supporting a
    new recommendation for a maximum residue level of 0.5 mg/kg for straw
    (barley, oat, pea).

    NATIONAL MAXIMUM RESIDUE LIMITS

         Information on the current national tolerances in effect in the
    Federal Republic of Germany was available (Celamerck 1982) and is
    presented in Table 9.

    Table 9.  Maximum Residue Limits for Bromophos in the Federal
              Republic of Germany
                                                                        

    MRL (mg/kg)                    Commodities
                                                                        

       2.0           Leafy and other stem vegetables (except
                     brassicas), pome fruit, plums, root vegetables,
                     citrus fruits.

       1.0           Berries, cereals (except maize), brassica,
                     other stone fruit.

       0.5           Other vegetables

       0.2           Maize, oilseed rape, turnip rape

       0.1           Other edible crops.
                                                                        

    APPRAISAL

         A substantial amount of new information was made available to the
    Meeting on residues resulting from supervised trials in the Federal
    Republic of Germany on field crops, apples, stone fruit, berries and
    vegetables. Evaluation of these data resulted in the need to increase
    the recommended limits for apples, plums, carrots, lettuce, spinach,
    cherries, peaches and onions; supported existing limits for sugarbeet
    roots, wheat, rape seed and rape seed oil, red currants, cabbage,
    savoy cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, radish, cucumbers, beans and
    peas; and resulted in the addition of new recommendations for barley
    and oats (included in the cereal grains group), raspberries, kale,
    sugarbeet leaves, tomatoes and straw (barley, oat, pea).

         Since the previous recommended limit for raw grain (now changed
    to cereal grains) was based on the higher residue levels that accrue
    from storage uses of bromophos, the contribution from field
    applications to barley, oats and pea straw, combined with the new
    recommendations for sugar-beat roots and leaves and the existing
    limits for wheat bran and apples, reveals an increasing use pattern
    affecting animal feed, forage and fodder. The rather scanty data on
    which existing meat (of sheep) and milk limits are based should be
    supported or supplemented with new information on meat (except sheep)
    and milk residues likely to arise from feed sources. There is also an
    indication from national tolerances reported to the Meeting that
    bromophos is used on citrus in some locations, although no data are
    available from which to make recommendations.

         The Meeting agreed with the need to increase the recommendation
    for milk from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg (at or about the limit of
    determination) in order to reflect analytical limitations more
    accurately.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

         The following recommended maximum residue limits are in addition
    to or replace those previously recommended. The preharvest intervals
    on which these recommendations are based are discussed in the
    addendum. The limits refer to bromophos only.

                                                            

    Commodity                    Limit (mg/kg)
                                                            

    Cereal grains                10

    Apples                       5 (increased from 2)

    Plums                        5 (increased from 1)

    Carrots, spinach             2 (increased from 1)

    Lettuce                      2 (increased from 0.5)

    Cherries, peaches            1 (increased from 0.5)

    Raspberries                  1

    Onions                       0.5 (increased from 0.1)

    Sugarbeet leaves             0.5

    Kale                         0.5

    Tomatoes                     0.5

    Straw (barley, oats, pea)    0.5

    Milk                         0.05*
                                                            

    *    at or about the limit of determination

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Desirable

    1.   Supervised trial data on residues in meat and milk arising from
         the use of treated feed, forages and fodder.

    2.   Information from supervised trials on residues in citrus arising
         from approved uses.

    REFERENCES

    Celamerck GmbH & Co. Kg. Ingelheim am Rhein. Reports on residues of
    1982     bromophos in field crops, apples, stone fruit, berries and
             vegetables. (Direct communication, unpublished)


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Bromophos (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2)
       Bromophos (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Bromophos (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Bromophos (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)