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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1994


    JOINT FAO/WHO MEETING ON PESTICIDE RESIDUES






    EVALUATIONS 1994

    PART II - TOXICOLOGY



    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO
    with the support of the International Programme
    on Chemical Safety (IPCS)

    Joint meeting of the
    FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment
    and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues

    Rome, 19-28 September 1994





 

    This report contains the collective views of two international
    groups of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions
    nor the stated policy of the Food and Agriculture Organization of
    the United Nations or the World Health Organization.



    INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY

    The preparatory work for the toxicological evaluations of pesticide
    residues carried out by the WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    for consideration by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment is actively supported by the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS).

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a joint
    venture of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization.  One of the
    main objectives of the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate
    evaluations of the effects of chemicals on human health and the
    quality of the environment.

    ISBN 92 4 166510 6

    (c) World Health Organization 1995

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    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

          The designations employed and the presentation of the material in
    this publication do not imply the impression of any opinion whatsoever
    on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of every country, territory, city, or area
    or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
    or boundaries.

          The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of participants
    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    The monographs
         Abamectin (addendum)
         Chlorfenvinphos
         Chlormequat
         Clethodim*
         Cyhexatin (addendum)
         Fenpropimorph*
         Phorate
         Phosmet
         Tebuconazole*
         Tecnazene
         Teflubenzuron*
         Tolclofos-methyl*

    Annex I.  Reports and other documents resulting from previous Joint
              Meetings of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
              in Food and the Environment and WHO Expert Groups on
              Pesticide Residues

                 

    * First full evaluation

    

    1994 Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide
    Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Expert Group on
    Pesticide Residues

    Rome, 19-28 September 1994

    PARTICIPANTS

    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues

    Dr A.L. Black, Medical Services Adviser in Toxicology, Department of
         Human Services and Health, Canberra ACT, Australia

    Professor J.F. Borzelleca, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Medical College
         of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA,
         United States  (Vice-Chairman)

    Dr P. Fenner-Crisp, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Pesticide
         Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC,
         United States  (Rapporteur)

    Professor O. Pelkonen, Professor of Pharmacology, Department of
         Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

    Professor A. Rico, Biochemistry-Toxicology, Physiopathology and
         Experimental Toxicology Laboratory (INRA), Ecole Nationale
         Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France

    Dr P.-P. Yao, Professor of Toxicology, Institute of Occupational
         Medicine, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, China

    FAO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues

    Dr D.C. Abbott, Ashtead, Surrey, United Kingdom

    Dr A. Ambrus, Budapest Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station,
         Budapest, Hungary  (Rapporteur)

    Dr U. Banasiak, Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture
         and Forestry, Kleinmachnow, Germany

    Mr D.J. Hamilton, Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly,
         Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    Mr N.F. Ives, Health Effects Division, US Environmental Protection
         Agency, Washington DC, United States  (Chairman)

    Ms E. Masoller, Servicios de Laboratorios, Ministerio de Ganaderia,
         Agricultura y Pesca, Montevideo, Uruguay

    Mr T. Sakamoto, Assistant Director, Plant Protection Division,
         Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan

    Dr B. Worobey, Chemical Evaluation Division, Bureau of Chemical
         Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Secretariat

    Dr E. Bosshard, Federal Office of Public Health, Division of Food
         Science, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Mrs M. Caris, Bureau of Chemical Hazards, Environmental Health
         Centre, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  (WHO Temporary
          Adviser)

    Dr P. Chamberlain, Veterinary Medical Officer, Center for Veterinary
         Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855,
         United States  (WHO Consultant)

    Dr W.H. van Eck, Food and Product Safety Division, Ministry of
         Health, Welfare and Sport, Rijswijk, Netherlands  (Chairman,
          Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues)

    Dr K. Fujimori, Division of Pharmacology, Biological Safety Research
         Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, Ministry of
         Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr J.L. Herrman, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World
         Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland  (WHO Joint Secretary)

    Mrs E. Heseltine, Communication in Science, St Léon-sur-Vézère,
         France  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Mrs P.H. van Hoeven-Arentzen, National Institute of Public Health
         and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, Netherlands  (WHO
          Temporary Adviser)

    Dr J.-J. Larsen, Head, Department of General Toxicology, Institute
         of Toxicology, National Food Agency of Denmark, Soborg, Denmark
          (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Mr A.F. Machin, London, United Kingdom  (FAO Consultant)

    Dr D. McGregor, Unit of Carcinogen Identification and Evaluation,
         International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

    Dr A. Moretto, Università di Padova, Istituto di Medicina del
         Lavoro, Padova, Italy  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr G. Moy, Food Safety Unit, Division of Food and Nutrition, World
         Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    Mr W. Murray, Plant Protection Service, Plant Production and
         Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
         United Nations, Rome, Italy  (FAO Joint Secretary)

    Dr. B. Röstel-Peters, Detached National Expert, DG III/E/3,
         Pharmaceuticals, Commission of the European Communities,
         Brussels, Belgium  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr G. Vettorazzi, International Toxicology Information Centre, San
         Sebastian, Spain  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Mr M. Walsh, Principal Administrator, European Commission,
         Législation des produits végétaux et de nutrition animale,
         VI/B/II.1, Brussels, Belgium

    Mr M. Watson, Head, Risk Evaluation Branch, Pesticides Safety
         Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, York,
         United Kingdom  (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    Dr Y. Yamada, Food Standards Officer, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards
         Programme, Food and Nutrition Division, Food and Agriculture
         Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

    Abbreviations used in these monographs

    ADI       acceptable daily intake
    ATP       adenosine triphosphate
    bw        body weight
    CCPR      Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues
    CHO       Chinese hamster ovary
    CI        confidence interval
    CMC       carboxymethylcellulose
    DMSO      dimethyl sulfoxide
    DNA       deoxyribonucleic acid
    F         female
    F0        parental generation
    F1        first filial generation
    F2        second filial generation
    HPLC      high-performance liquid chromatography
     hprt      hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene
    IPCS      International Programme on Chemical Safety
    JECFA     Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
    JMPR      Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues
    LC50      median lethal concentration
    LD50      median lethal dose
    LOAEL     lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
    M         male
    NADPH     reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    NOAEL     no-observed-adverse-effect level
    NR        not reported
    ppm       parts per million
    SD        standard deviation
    TLC       thin-layer chromatography
    Tween 80  polyoxyethylenesorbitan monooleate
    v/v       volume per volume
    w/w       weight per weight

    Introduction

         The toxicological monographs and monograph addenda contained in
    this volume were prepared by a WHO Expert Group on Pesticide
    Residues that met with the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide
    Residues in Food and the Environment in a Joint Meeting on Pesticide
    Residues (JMPR) in Rome, Italy, on 19-28 September 1994. These
    monographs summarize the safety data on those pesticide residues for
    which sufficient information was provided to the WHO Expert Group
    for it to make decisions about acceptable daily intakes.

         Five of the compounds considered by the WHO Expert Group at
    this Meeting had been evaluated at earlier meetings. For two of
    these, abamectin and cyhexatin, only information received since the
    previous evaluation is summarized, in 'monograph addenda'. The
    appropriate earlier documents should be consulted in order to obtain
    a full toxicological profile of these chemicals. In the cases of
    chlorfenvinphos, chlormequat, phorate, phosmet and tecnazene,
    toxicological monographs were prepared, summarizing new data and
    incorporating information from previous monographs and addenda.
    Reports and other documents resulting from previous Joint Meetings
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the
    Environment and WHO Expert Groups on Pesticide Residues are listed
    in Annex I.

         The report of the Joint Meeting has been published by the FAO
    as FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper No. 127. The report
    contains brief comments on the compounds considered, acceptable
    daily intakes established by the WHO Expert Group, and maximum
    residue limits or guideline levels established by the FAO Panel of
    Experts. Monographs on residues prepared by the FAO Panel of Experts
    are published as a companion volume, as Evaluations 1994, Part I,
    Residues, in the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

         The toxicological monographs and addenda contained in this
    volume are based on working papers that were prepared by temporary
    advisers before the 1994 Joint Meeting. A special acknowledgement is
    made to those advisers. The monographs were edited by Mrs E.
    Heseltine, St Léon-sur-Vézère, France.

         The preparation and editing of this volume were made possible
    by the technical and financial contributions of the lead
    institutions of the International Programme on Chemical Safety
    (IPCS), which supports the activities of the JMPR. The designations
    employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do
    not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of
    the Central Unit of the IPCS concerning the legal status of any
    country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, nor
    concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The
    mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products

    does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the IPCS in
    preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

         Any comments or new information on the biology or toxicology of
    the compounds included in this volume should be addressed to: Joint
    WHO Secretary of the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues,
    International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health
    Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations