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    FENARIMOL

    Summary
         Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation
         Environmental levels and human exposure
         Effects on organisms in the environment
              Terrestrial vertebrates
              Aquatic organisms
              Bees and other arthropod species
              Earthworms
              Microorganisms
         Environmental effects
    Identity, physical and Chemical properties, mode of action,
         and use
         Identity
         Physical and chemical properties
         Formulations
         Mode of action
         Use
    Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation
         Volatilization and aerial transport
         Water
              Hydrolysis
              Photolysis
              Persistence in surface water
              Degradation by microorganisms
              Bioaccumulation and biomagnification
         Soil
              Adsorption and desorption
              Photolysis
              Biotransformation
              Degradation by microorganisms
              Persistence
              Bioaccumulation and biomagnification
    Environmental levels
         Air
         Water
         Soil
    Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field
         Laboratory and field experiments
              Microorganisms
              Aquatic organisms
              Terrestrial organisms
         Risk assessment based on agricultural use
              Microorganisms
              Aquatic organisms
              Terrestrial organisms

    Evaluation of effects on the environment
         Risk assessment
    Further research
    Previous evaluations by international bodies
    References

    1.  Summary

    1.1  Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation

         Fenarimol is persistent in soil in laboratory studies but less so
    in the field under mid-European conditions. Photolysis was shown to
    occur on surfaces, but the rate was not quantified. As fenarimol is
    likely to be applied where a crop canopy exists, photolysis is not
    considered to be a significant mechanism for subsequent degradation in
    soil

         Fenarimol is not mobile and is therefore unlikely to reach water
    through the soil. Should it reach water by other means, it is stable
    to hydrolysis but susceptible to rapid photolysis. It also partitions
    rapidly into sediment, and this is likely to be the major process for
    removal from the water column. Once it is in the sediment, its
    degradation is slow.

    1.2  Environmental levels and human exposure

         No data on levels in air or water were provided, but levels in
    soil reached 0.1-0.4 mg/kg (averaged over the top 20 cm) directly
    after application of 270 g/ha. In laboratory experiments, the level in
    fish exposed to 0.1 mg/litre was 14.1 mg/kg tissue, and those in
    earthworms exposed to 1 and 10 mg/kg soil were 1.0 and 9.6 mg/kg
    tissue, respectively.

    1.3  Effects on organisms in the environment

    1.3.1.  Terrestrial vertebrates

         Birds and mammals are thought to be exposed to fenarimol mainly
    from feeding, either directly on grass or fruit treated with fenarimol
    or by eating contaminated insects or earthworms present in
    fenarimol-treated crops. As fenarimol generally has low toxicity for
    birds (LD50 > 2000 mg a.i./kg bw) and mammals (LD502500 mg
    a.i./kg bw), the toxicity:exposure ratios (TERs) were above the
    threshold for unacceptable effects set by the European Plant
    Protection Organisation (EPPO) (1993), indicating that use of
    fenarimol should present a low acute risk to wild birds and mammals.

         Reproducing birds are thought to be exposed to fenarimol only
    when multiple applications are made in orchards throughout the year.
    On the basis of a revised NOEC of 50 mg/litre for reproductive
    toxicity, the TERs for this end-point were above the EPPO threshold
    for unnacceptable effects and indicate that the risk to reproducing
    birds of use of fenarimol in orchards should be low.

    1.3.2  Aquatic organisms

         Technical-grade fenarimol and fenarimol-containing products had
    moderate acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, with LC50 and EC50
    values of 0.82 mg a.i./litre for the most sensitive fish species
    tested, 0.18 mg a.i./litre for aquatic invertebrates, and 0.76 mg
    a.i./litre for algal species. On the basis of these data, formulations
    of fenarimol are classified as 'harmful to fish or other aquatic
    life'. Worst-case assessments for over-spraying indicated that there
    is an acute risk (TER < 100) to all three aquatic groups from the use
    of fenarimol, particularly its use on turf and in orchards. An
    assessment of spray drift indicated, however, that the risk to aquatic
    life from use on turf was acceptable, particularly when a dissipation
    half-life (DT50) of < seven days for fenarimol in the aqueous phase
    of water and sediment systems was taken into account. Although this
    assessment indicates that the acute risk to fish and algae from the
    remaining agricultural and horticultural uses is also acceptable,
    aquatic invertebrates are at acute risk from contamination arising
    from air-assisted spray application, such as used in orchards.

         Fenarimol was also of moderate long-term toxicity to fish and
    aquatic invertebrates, with NOECs of 0.43 and 0.113 mg a.i./litre,
    respectively. After overspraying on turf and in agricultural and
    horticultural uses of fenarimol, fish and aquatic invertebrates have a
    high long-term risk (TER < 10), particularly from use on turf and in
    orchards. An assessment of spray drift after use on turf indicated,
    however, that the long-term risk to fish and aquatic invertebrates was
    acceptable, when a DT50 of < 7 days for fenarimol in the aqueous
    phase of water-sediment systems was taken into account.

         Although fenarimol was rapidly removed from the aqueous phase of
    natural water-sediment systems, it partitioned and persisted in the
    sediment phase. Sediment-dwelling invertebrates  (Daphnia magna) may
    be at long-term risk from the use of fenarimol by air-assisted spray
    application to tree and bush crops, such as in orchards.

    1.3.3 Bees and other arthropod species

         Fenarimol had little acute toxicity to honey bees, the acute oral
    LD50 being > 10 g a.i./bee and the contact LD50 being > 100 g
    a.i./bee. Although the hazard ratio for turf use, < 150, may have
    exceeded the EPPO threshold of 50, the risk to bees from this use was
    considered to be low, as application was done mainly in autumn or
    winter when bees are unlikely to forage. The hazard ratios for the
    remaining uses were < 50, indicating low risk to bees.

         As the recommended European Standard Characteristics of
    Beneficial Regulatory Testing for non-target arthropods were not
    satisfied, the data that were submitted could not be used to assess
    the risk to non-target arthropods from agricultural use of fenarimol.

    1.3.4  Earthworms

         Fenarimol had little toxicity for earthworms, with an acute
    LC50 of 200-300 mg a.i./kg soil and a reproductive NOEC of 1890 g
    a.i./ha. In a number of overspray assessments, the acute and sublethal
    risks to earthworms of application to turf and multiple applications
    in orchards at maximal rates were considered to be low.

    1.3.5  Microorganisms

         Fenarimol had no effect on soil respiration and nitrification
    processes at application rates up to 28 times the recommended maximum.
    Representative 'worst-case' multiple overspraying of turf and orchards
    at the maximal application rate resulted in a low risk to soil
    microorganisms from the use of fenarimol. Concentrations up to
    102.4 mg/litre had no effect on sewage treatment processes, indicating
    a low risk.

    1.4  Environmental effects

         Fenarimol is not mobile but is persistent. Under normal
    conditions of use on foliage, the amount that actually reaches the
    soil is likely to be significantly reduced. As the potential risk to
    aquatic invertebrates can be reduced by introducing a buffer zone, use
    of fenarimol should present a low risk to non-target organisms.

    2.  Identity, physical and chemical properties, mode of action,
        and use

    2.1  Identity

    ISO common name:             fenarimol
    Chemical name

      IUPAC:                     ()-2,4-dichloro-alpha-(pyrimidin-5-yl)
                                 benzhydryl alcohol

      Chemical Abstracts:        ()-alpha-(2-chlorophenyl)-alpha-
                                 (4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol

    CAS Registry No:             60168-88-9 (unstated steriochemistry)

    CIPAC No:                    380

    Synonyms:                    compound 5732; development code EL-222

    Structural formula:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    Molecular formula:           C17H12Cl2N2O

    Relative molecular mass:     331.2

    2.2  Physical and chemical properties

    Pure active ingredient

    Vapour pressure:             6.5  10-5 Pa at 25C (99.7% pure)

    Hydrolysis                   At 25, 37 and 52C:

                                 (no purity stated)pH 3 no hydrolysis
                                 pH 6       no hydrolysis
                                 pH 9       no hydrolysis

                                 After reflux at 100C for 40 h

                                 pH 3       30% hydrolysis
                                 pH 6       no hydrolysis
                                 pH 9       13% hydrolysis

    Photolysis (no purity stated)

      Natural sunlight:          half-life in 2 mg/litre aqueous solution
                                 in summer sun, 12h
                                 half-life in water in
                                 laboratory-simulated sunlight, < 1 h
                                 half-life on silica gel plates in
                                 sunlight approx. 14 h

      Laboratory irradiation:
                                 half-life in distilled water, 0.6 h
                                 half-life in 2% acetone-water, 2.0 h

    No information was submitted on melting-point, octanol-water partition
    coefficient, solubility, or specific gravity.

    Technical material

    Purity:                      typically > 97%, with certified limits
                                 of 95-101% to allow for assay and
                                 production variability.

    Impurities                   < 0.5%, except for 2,2'-, 2,3'-, and
                                 4,4'-dichloro isomers, total max. 3%

    Colour:                      off-white to buff

    Physical state:              crystalline solid

    Odour:                       slightly aromatic

    Melting point:               117-119C

    Octanol-water partition      log Kow = 3.69
      coefficient:

    Solubility (mg/litre at 25C; purity either 95.4% or unspecified)

      water at pH 3              14.6
      water at pH 7              13.7
      water at pH 10             13.8
      acetone                    >250
      acetonitrile               40-45
      benzene                    100-125
      chloroform                 > 500
      cyclohexanone              > 500
      ethyl cellulosolve         > 250
      heavy aromatic naphtha     40-45
      hexane                     1.1
      methanol                   100-125
      methyl cellulose           > 250
      xylene                     40-45 (A 09 & A 14)

    Packed bulk density:         0.7-0.8 kg/m3

    2.3  Formulations

         Fenarimol is formulated mainly as wettable powders, emulsifiable
    concentrates (EC) or suspension concentrates (SC).

    2.4  Mode of action

         Fenarimol inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis by inhibing C14
    demethylation.

    2.5  Use

         Fenarimol is a systemic fungicide, which protects, cures, and
    eradicates. It is usually applied to leaves and moves apoplastically
    through the leaf towards the tip. Movement from treated to untreated
    leaves is not significant enough to control disease. Application to
    roots and seeds results in translocation to all of the aerial parts of
    the plant.

         Fenarimol is registered in many countries for use on a wide range
    of fruits, vegetables, hops, and wheat, at application rates of
    0.005-0.2 kg/ha on fruit with up to 14 applications per season,
    0.002-0.06 kg/ha on vegetables with 1-10 applications per season, <
    1.5 kg/ha on turf with one to four applications per season, and
    0.04-0.06 kg/ha on cereals and hops with one to four applications per
    season.

    3.  Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation

    3.1  Volatilization and aerial transport

         The dimensionless Henry's law constant (air-water partition
    coefficient) for fenarimol is 2.83  10-7, indicating that it has
    moderately low volatility. The volatilization of fenarimol from plant
    and soil surfaces was investigated by Day (1993). Formulated fenarimol
    was sprayed onto Borstel soil at 60% maximal water-holding capacity or
    onto stands of French beans about 30 cm high covering 70-80% of the
    soil, at a rate of 70 g a.i./ha. The temperature was maintained at
    20C, with a relative humidity of 40% and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s.
    Less than 0.2% radioactivity was volatilized from the soil and 1.5%
    from the plants.

    3.2  Water

    3.2.1  Hydrolysis

         Fenarimol in sterile buffer solutions at pH 3, 6 or 9 was
    incubated in the dark at 25, 37, or 52C for four weeks. No
    degradation occurred. When the solutions were refluxed at 100C for
    40 h, about 30% hydrolysis occurred at pH 3 and 13% at pH 9 (Anon.,
    undated). Thus, fenarimol is stable to hydrolysis.

    3.2.2  Photolysis

         Aqueous solutions of fenarimol and silica plates coated with
    fenarimol were subjected to artificial light or natural summer
    sunlight at 40 N in the USA. The first-order half-lives were < 13 h
    under all conditions. Similar results were obtained by Mosier &
    Saunders (1976) and Smith & Saunders (1982a), who also reported that
    the major metabolite is 2'-chloro-2-(5-pyrimidyl)-4-chloro-benzo-
    phenone. Saunders (1991) calculated the quantum efficiency of
    photolysis and predicted half-lives ranging from 0.93 days in summer
    at 30 N to 5.3 days in winter at 50 N. Fenarimol is thus susceptible
    to rapid photolysis, but the significance of this process in turbid
    waters is uncertain.

    3.2.3  Persistence in surface water

         Fenarimol may reach surface waters by spray drift, direct
    overspray, or erosive run-off of water or particulate matter. Rapid
    photolysis is a possible mechanism of degradation, but this may not
    occur in turbid waters. In natural water-sediment systems in the dark,
    fenarimol partitioned rapidly into the sediment (75-80% within seven
    days), with a partition DT50 of < 7 days, a DT90 of < 14 days
    (re-calculated from raw data), and no appreciable degradation over 80
    days (Jackson & Lewis, 1994a). In a study conducted outdoors in the

    USA, a slower rate of partitioning from water to sediment was seen
    (DT50, 18 days; re-calculated from raw data) (Althaus & Goebel,
    1981). This value does not agree with the probable photolysis rate or
    the results of the previous study; since the study was conducted in
    1981, the result is considered to be less reliable. In general,
    irrespective of the route of entry of fenarimol into surface water, it
    will be adsorbed onto sediment and persist, as its degradation is
    slow.

    3.2.4  Degradation by microorganisms

         No data were submitted on the degradation of fenarimol by
    microoganisms in aqueous systems. It was not degraded during a
    semi-continuous, 28-day study of aerated sewage sludge (Kline & Knox,
    1981).

    3.2.5  Bioaccumulation and biomagnification

         In a 14-day study of bioaccumulation under static conditions,
    bluegill sunfish  (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed for seven days
    to a mean measured concentration of 0.083 mg/litre fenarimol (Althaus
    & Beaty, 1981; Althaus, 1983). The maximal plateau concentrations were
    5.1 mg/kg fenarimol in muscle after one day, 14.1 mg/kg in carcass
    after four days, and 9.1 mg/kg in whole fish after two days,
    equivalent to bioconcentration factors of 60,175, and 113 for muscle,
    carcass, and whole fish, respectively. Depuration after transfer to
    uncontaminated water was biphasic, with DT50 values of 0.6 day for
    the first three days of depuration and 5.5-6.1 days for the last four
    days. Overall, > 95% of radioactivity was eliminated within four
    days.

    3.3  Soil

    3.3.1  Adsorption and desorption

         The Koc values for fenarimol in four soils with 0.3-1.2%
    organic carbon, pH 5.7-7.7, and a clay content of 5-32%, were 500-992
    for adsorption and 482-2468 for desorption (re-calculated from the raw
    data, since organic matter content was not converted to organic carbon
    content in the original report) (Saunders & Powers, 1987).

         In studies of four representative soils, with organic carbon
    contents of 0.6-2%, pH 5.6-8.1, and clay contents of 4-28%,
    radiolabelled fenarimol was applied to 30-cm dry soil columns, which
    were then leached with 64 cm water for two to four days. Only 0-0.4%
    of the total radiolabel was found in the leachate, and 91-100%
    remained in the top 10 cm of soil. For comparison, 3.4-43% of atrazine
    was found in the leachate from the same soils and the compound was
    spread evenly throughout the soil (Sullivan & Saunders, 1976).

         When soil (organic carbon, 0.6-1.8%; pH 6.4-8.1; clay content,
    4-33%) containing fenarimol was aged for 30 days and then placed on
    the tops of four columns which were then leached with 51 cm water,
    unidentified radiolabel in the leachate accounted for 0.24-0.32%, and
    essentially all of the radiolabel was in the top 12 cm of soil
    (Saunders  et al., 1983).

         After 50 h photolysis of fenarimol in soil in natural sunlight,
    46% of the radiolabel was identified as fenarimol. Portions of the
    treated soil (organic carbon, 1.7-2.5%; pH 5-7.5; clay content, 4-21%)
    were placed on two columns which were then leached with 30 cm water
    over three days. The leachate contained 1.7-9% of the radiolabel, and
    80-92% remained in the top 5 cm of the column. The main component of
    the leachate was  ortho-chlorobenzoic acid (34-50% of the
    radiolabel); the remainder was a complex mixture of very polar
    compounds (Vonk & van den Hoven, 1981).

    3.3.2  Photolysis

         Conflicting results have been obtained with regard to the
    photolysis of fenarimol in soil, perhaps due to differences in
    incident light or the nature of the surface. The fate of a thin film
    of fenarimol in a pan in sunlight for 18 h and of a dry deposit under
    the same conditions for 200 h was studied in Indiana, USA, at a
    maximal temperature of 37C: 62% of the fenarimol remained after 18 h
    and only 4% after 200 h. Numerous minor degradation products were
    found; the primary breakdown pathways were reported to be oxidation of
    the chlorobenzene rings and the carbinol carbon. Secondary pathways
    were ring closure, ring migration, and reduction of the carbinol
    carbon (Althaus & Bewley, 1978a). In a study of the photolysis of a
    dry deposit of fenarimol in a pan in natural winter sunlight in
    Indiana, USA, with a maximal temperature of 18C), 33-38% remained
    after 100 days, and the major metabolite was  ortho-chlorobenzoic
    acid (Althaus, 1984).

         In a further study of the photolysis of fenarimol on a soil film
    in natural sunlight in Indiana, USA, for up to 32 h, no degradation
    was observed (Smith & Saunders, 1982b).

    3.3.3  Biotransformation

         Three agricultural soils and one standard soil (organic carbon,
    0.8-2.5%; pH 5.2-7.7; clay content, 6-39%) were incubated with
    fenarimol at 0.05 or 0.25 mg/kg, 40% maximal water-holding capacity,
    and 20C. Fenarimol degraded very slowly, with DT50 values of
    436-1833 days, according to first-order kinetics (Jackson & Lewis,
    1994b). Similar results were obtained in a study in which a single
    metabolite, alpha-(2-chlorophenyl)-alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,2-
    dihydro-2-oxo-5-pyrimidinemethanol, was identified (Rainey, 1990).

         In a brief comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation, both
    aerobic and anaerobic metabolism were found to be slow, in keeping
    with other results (Althaus & Beaty, 1982). Slow anaerobic degradation
    had been observed previously (Althaus & Bewley, 1978b).

    3.3.4  Degradation by microorganisms

         Microbial degradation has not been addressed directly, but given
    the very slow degradation of fenarimol under aerobic and anaerobic
    conditions, a significant change in degradation rate is unlikely to be
    seen in sterile soil.

    3.3.5  Persistence

         As discussed above, the degradation of fenarimol incubated in the
    laboratory at 20C is very slow, and the half-lives apparently vary
    widely. The wide range is probably due to inaccuracies in
    calculations, owing to the degree of extrapolation required to reach a
    half-life. Nevertheless, the compound is clearly very persistent in
    soil under laboratory conditions. Studies of dissipation at
    agricultural sites in Germany gave much shorter DT50 values (18-140
    days), but the DT90 values were still in excess of one year.

    3.3.6  Bioaccumulation and biomagnification

         In a 21-day study of bioaccumulation in earthworms,  Lumbricus
     terrestris were exposed to technical-grade fenarimol for 14 days in
    a mixture of soil and rabbit faeces (for food source) at concen-
    trations of 0, 1, or 10 mg/kg soil, followed by a seven-day clearance
    period in uncontaminated soil. The mean concentrations of fenarimol in
    soil were 111-150% of the nominal level. The concentrations in the
    earthworms never exceeded the surrounding soil concentration, with
    levels of 0.027 mg/kg bw after 1 h, 0.957 mg/kg bw after seven days,
    and 1.037 mg/kg bw (to a maximum of 69% of the measured soil concen-
    tration) after 14 days of exposure to a nominal soil concentration of
    1 mg/kg soil. Similarly, the concentrations of fenarimol in earthworms
    exposed for 1 h or seven or 14 days to a nominal soil concentration of
    10 mg/kg soil were 0.105, 8.26, and 9.645 mg/kg bw (to a maximum of
    89% of the measured soil concentration), respectively. These results
    indicate that fenarimol was not bioaccumulated in earthworms at
    concentrations above that in the soil. Earthworms rapidly eliminated
    residues of fenarimol on transfer to uncontaminated soil, with a
    clearance DT50 of five days (Hoffman  et al., 1981).

    4.  Environmental levels

    4.1.  Air

         No data were available.

    4.2  Water

         No data were available.

    4.3  Soil

         An EC formulation of fenarimol was sprayed at a rate of 270 g
    a.i./ha onto bare soil containing 1.2-4.9% organic carbon, pH 5.6-7.3,
    and 9-26% clay, at four German agricultural field sites in May 1990,
    and fenarimol was analysed in a 0-20-cm deep segment. The DT50 was
    14-123 days and the DT90, 120-> 610 days (recalculated from the
    observed raw data rather than by curve fitting); however, uncertainty
    about the results obtained at the early sampling times reduces the
    confidence that can be placed in the DT50 value (Perkins, 1993).

         In a further trial in which an EC formulation of fenarimol was
    sprayed at a rate of 270 g a.i/ha onto bare soil containing 0.9-1.1%
    organic carbon, pH 4.8-5.7, and 12-21% clay) at two German
    agricultural field sites in May 1992, the concentrations in the
    0-20-cm layer on clay 0 were 0.076-0.082 mg/kg. The resulting
    dissipation DT50 value was 60-130 days and the DT90 was 489-> 609
    days (recalculated from the observed raw data rather than by curve
    fitting) (Butcher & Rawle, 1994).

         The effect of surface application or incorporation of fenarimol
    onto or into a silt loam soil was studied in Indiana, USA. When
    fenarimol was applied to the surface, the dissipation DT50 was 112
    days and 35% remained after 511 days. When fenarimol was incorporated
    into soil, none was dissipated from the 0-15-cm soil layer, and 65% of
    the applied fenarimol remained after 903 days. Fenarimol is generally
    applied to foliage, however, and hence dissipation rates after soil
    incorporation are probably of little practical relevance (Althaus &
    Bewley, 1978b).

    5.  Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field

    5.1  Laboratory and field experiments

    5.1.1  Microorgansims

    (a)  Water

         In a semi-continuous, 28-day study of aerated sewage, the effect
    of technical-grade fenarimol at concentrations up to 102.4 mg/litre on
    microorganisms and the effect of microorganisms on fenarimol were
    investigated (Kline & Knox, 1981). Fenarimol had no effect on
    biological oxygen demand, viable cell count, pH, or accumulation of
    solids in sewage inoculum, and it was not significantly degraded.
    Fenarimol at these concentrations therefore had no effect on sewage
    treatment processes.

    (b)  Soil

         In a 14-week study, the effect of fenarimol at 240 mg/kg soil was
    studied on respiration and microbial populations in a loam, a sandy
    loam, muck, and a greenhouse mixture (Kline & Knox, 1976). Slight
    reductions in comparison with controls were seen in carbon dioxide
    production in the loam (about 22% reduction) and greenhouse soils
    (about 40% reduction), but no effect was seen in the sandy loam or
    muck soils. There was no difference in the number of colony forming
    units in treated and control soils, except for an initial reduction in
    the number of soil fungi in the treated loam and sandy loam, both of
    which recovered to control levels within four to six weeks.

         In a 15-day study, the effect of technical-grade fenarimol at 0,
    0.4, 2, or 10 mg/litre was observed on nitrifying microorganisms
    (Peloso & Kline, 1982). Oxidation of ammonium to nitrite by  Nitro-
     somonas europaea was nearly complete at all test concentrations and
    in the control by day 25. There was a slight enhancement of nitrif-
    ication at 0.4 and 2 mg/litre fenarimol, whereas at 10 mg/litre there
    was either no effect or slight enhancement of nitrification of
    ammonia. Complete oxidation of nitrite to nitrate by  Nitrobacter
     winogradskyi had occurred by day 12 after treatment with 0, 0.4, or
    2.0 mg/litre fenarimol; at 10 mg/litre, a further three days were
    necessary to achieve the same level of nitrification.

         In a 28-day study conducted according to German Biologische
    Bundesanstalt fur Landund Forstwirtschaft (BBA) Guideline VI 1-1, the
    effect of a 120 g/litre EC formulation of fenarimol on soil microflora
    activity in a loamy sand and silty loam soil was investigated at
    application rates equivalent to 36 or 504 g/ha (Todt  et al., 1988).
    After 14 days, the dehydrogenase activity of all treated soils was
    lower (2.4-2.5 mg triphenyl formazene per 100 g dry soil weight) than
    that in the untreated control (3.5-4.3 mg triphenyl formazene per
    100 g dry soil weight). The decrease was thus not dependent on the

    application rate. The dehydrogenase activity of both soils returned to
    control levels by day 28. There was no significant difference between
    control and fenarimol-treated soils in nitrification activity, as
    measured by soil nitrite content; however, the amount of newly formed
    nitrate in both soils was twice that expected from the nitrite
    depletion. As this effect was also reported in the control, it was
    considered not to be related to treatment.

    5.1.2  Aquatic organisms

    (a)  Plants

         The acute toxicity of fenarimol to aquatic green algae is
    summarized in Table 1. In addition, McCowen (1982) reported that
    technical-grade fenarimol at concentrations up to 10 mg/litre had no
    effect on cultures of  Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliquus,
    or  Anacystis nidulans. The highest concentration had a moderate
    effect on  Raphidocellis subcapitata.

    (b)  Invertebrates

         The acute toxicity of fenarimol to aquatic invertebrates is
    summarized in Table 2.

         In a 21-day life cycle test under static conditions,  Daphnia
     magna were exposed to technical-grade fenarimol at nominal
    concentrations of 0.113-1.084 mg/litre, giving actual concentrations
    of 107-113% of the nominal value. Parental survival was 90-100% in
    water controls and at 0.113-0.331 mg/litre fenarimol but dropped to
    70% at 0.643 mg/litre and 10% at 1.084 mg/litre. Statistically
    significant reductions were seen in the numbers of broods, of 4.8-4.9
    in controls to 0-4.0 at > 0.219 mg/litre fenarimol, in the total
    number of young per female, from 103.2-105.2 in controls to 0-86.1 at
    > 0.331 mg/litre fenarimol, and in mean body length, from 4.13-
    4.24 mm in controls to 3.4-3.82 at > 0.643 mg/litre fenarimol. The
    NOEC, in mean measured test concentrations, was therefore 0.113
    mg/litre (Hoffman  et al., 1987).

    (c)  Vertebrates

         The acute toxicity of fenarimol to fish is summarized in Table 3.
    The chronic toxicity of technical-grade fenarimol to fathead minnows
     (Pimephales promelas) was investigated in a 33-day test during the
    early life stage in a flow-through system. By the end of the study,
    97-99% of eggs had hatched and 92-97% of fish in all groups were
    alive. There were no physical or behavioural signs of toxicity and no
    significant effects on fish length or weight throughout the study at
    any concentration. The actual test concentrations were reported to be
    92-100% of the nominal value. The NOEC as a mean measured test
    concentration was 0.98 mg/litre, the highest dose tested (Hoffman
     et al., 1982a).

        Table 1.  Acute toxicity of fenarimol to aquatic green algae
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism        Study type   Exposure (% of            End-point, result                   Test              Reference
                                 nominal concn)            (mg/litre)                          guideline
                                                                                      
                                                           Value                 95% CI
                                                                                                                                              

    Raphidocellis   Static       76-100% a.i.; 14 days     LC50 = 1.48a          0.63-20.0     None (broadly     Hoffman &
    subcapitata                  (32% at 1.5 mg/litre)                                         in line with      Cocke (1988)
                                                                                               OECD 210)
    Scenedesmus     Static       94-104%; a.i              ErC50 24-48 h = 3.8   3.5-4.2       OECD 201          Douglas et al.
    subspicatus                                            EbC50, 72 h = 3.0     2.7-3.3                         (1991)
                                                           EbC50, 96 h = 5.1     4.5-5.9
                                                           NOEC = 0.59
    Raphidocellis   Static       94-106% at 24 h;          Eb50, 72 h = 0.76     0.59-0.96     OECD 201          Bell (1994a)
    subcapitata                  120 g/litre EC            NOEC = < 0.12
                                 formulation               Er50, 72 h = 1.32     1.14-1.44
                                                           NOEC = 1.2
                                                                                                                                              

    CI, confidence interval; EbC, effective concentration for effect on biomass; ErC, effective concentration for effects on growth rate
    a   Based on measured test concentrations

    Table 2.  Acute toxicity of fenarimol to aquatic invertebrates
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism        Study type   Exposure (% of            End-point, result                   Test              Reference
                                 nominal concn)            (mg/litre)                          guideline
                                                                                      
                                                           Value                 95% CI
                                                                                                                                              

    Daphnia magna   Static       A.i.; not measured                                            None (broadly     Karnak et al.
                                 24 h                      LC50 = > 10                         in line with EC   (1978a)
                                 48 h                      LC50 = 6.8                          method C2)
                                                           NOEC = < 2.75
    Daphnia magna   Static       92-110%; 120 g/litre                                          EC method C2      Bell (1994b)
                                 SC formulation                                                (equivalent to
                                 24 h                      LC50 = 0.32           0.29-0.37     OECD 202)
                                 48 h                      LC50 = 0.18           0.12-0.26
                                                           NOEC = 0.12
    Daphnia magna   Static       86-109%; 120 g/litre                                          EC method C2      Douglas et al.
                                 SC formulation                                                (equivalent to    (1993)
                                 24 h                      LC50 = 5.6            4.6-7.1       OECD 202)
                                 48 h                      LC50 = 1.4            1.2-1.7
                                                           NOEC = 0.2
                                                                                                                                              

    CI, confidence interval; SC, suspension concentrate
             In a 69-day test during the early life stage in a flow-through
    system with rainbow trout  (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to technical-
    grade fenarimol, 96-100% of the eggs hatched and 92-100% of the fish
    were still alive 30 days after hatching. Survival 59 days after
    hatching was reduced to 86% at 0.97 mg/litre (the highest concen-
    tration), but this was not statistically significant. No behavioural
    signs of toxicity were reported at any concentration. The mean lengths
    of fish 30 days after hatching were statistically significantly lower
    than those of controls in solvent or in water or at 0.43 mg/litre
    fenarimol. These effects were not considered to be dose-related,
    however, since there was no statistically significant difference at
    the same doses 59 days after hatching. The mean lengths of fish at
    0.87 mg/litre fenarimol were significantly lower than those of
    controls 30 and 59 days after hatching, and this effect was considered
    to be treatment related as it was associated with a statistically
    significant drop in mean body weight. The NOEC as a mean measured test
    concentration was 0.43 mg/litre, on the basis of the statistically
    significant reduction in both mean length and weight at the highest
    dose. The actual concentrations were reported to be 88-140% of the
    nominal value (Hoffman  et al., 1982b).

    5.1.3  Terrestrial organisms

    (a)  Plants

         No data were available.

    (b)  Invertebrates

          Bees: Technical-grade fenarimol had little toxicity, with a
    48-h oral LD50 of > 10 g/bee and a 48-h contact LD50 of >
    100 g per bee (Bell, 1994d). Mortality at these doses was < 1% after
    contact, 23% after 24 h oral exposure, and 25% after 48 h; however,
    higher oral doses should have been tested. As both the oral and
    contact LD50 values for fenarimol are > 10 g per bee, all
    fenarimol-containing products should remain unclassified in terms of
    their hazard to honey bees.

          Other non-target arthropod species: No standard laboratory
    tests on the toxicity of technical-grade or formulated fenarimol to
    non-target arthropods were submitted. Primary data on the insecticidal
    properties of technical-grade fenarimol formulated in an acetone-
    ethanol mixture diluted with distilled water containing 0.25% Tween 20
    (a surfactant), administered as one spray of 400 mg a.i./litre or two
    sprays of 50 or 400 mg/litre, were, however, submitted (Hertlein
     et al., 1994). No effect was reported on cotton aphid  (Aphis gossypii)
    or spider mites  (Tetranychus urticae) when fenarimol was applied
    directly to infested plants. Similarly, application of fenarimol to a
    substrate, followed immediately by a drying period before introduction

        Table 3.  Acute toxicity of fenarimol to fish
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism         Study type          Exposure (% of            End-point, result                   Test              Reference
                                         nominal concn)            (mg/litre)                          guideline
                                                                                              
                                                                   Value                 95% CI
                                                                                                                                              

    Lepomis          Flow through        55-86%; a.i.; 186 h       2.74-5.17 (chronic                  None              Kehr et al. (1978a)
    macrochirus                                                    toxicity)
    Lepomis          Static, not         88-95%; a.i.                                                  None (broadly     Hoffman (1980)
    macrochirus      aerated             24 h                      > 4.0                               in line with
                                         48 h                      2.0                   1.7-2.5       OECD 203)
                                         72 h                      1.8                   1.5-2.4
                                         96 h                      1.8                   1.5-2.4
                                                                   NOEC = 0.86
                     Static, aerated     24 h                      9.6                   5.8-16
                                         48 h                      5.7                   3.4-9.6
                                         72 h                      5.7                   3.4-9.6
                                         96 h                      5.7                   3.4-9.6
                                                                   NOEC = < 2.1
    Oncorhynchus     Static, not         92-109% a.i.                                                  None (broadly     Hoffman (1980)
    mykiss           aerated             24 h                      > 2.4                               in line with
                                         48 h                      2.4-4.1                             OECD 203)
                                         72 h                      2.4-4.1
                                         96 h                      3.1                   2.4-4.1
                                                                   NOEC = 0.53
                     Static, aerated     24 h                      4.1                   3.2-5.3
                                         48 h                      4.1                   3.2-5.3
                                         72 h                      4.1                   3.2-5.3
                                         96 h                      4.1                   3.2-5.3
                                                                   NOEC = < 1.1
                                                                                                                                              

    Table 3.  (cont'd)
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism         Study type          Exposure (% of            End-point, result                   Test              Reference
                                         nominal concn)            (mg/litre)                          guideline
                                                                                              
                                                                   Value                 95% CI
                                                                                                                                              

    Oncorhynchus     Semi-static         81-109%; 120 g/litre                                          OECD 203          Bell (1994c)
    mykiss                               SC formulation
                                         (67.4% at 72 h)
                                         24 h                      1.8                   1.2-2.6
                                         48 h                      1.2                   0.8-1.7
                                         72 h                      0.9                   0.7-1.3
                                         96 h                      0.8                   0.6-1.2
                                                                   NOEC = 0.3
    Oncorhynchus     Semi-static         89-102%; 120 g/litre                                          OECD 203          Douglas (1993)
    mykiss                               SC formulation
                                         (74% at 100 mg/litre)
                                         24 h                      6.1                   4.9-7.4
                                         48 h                      5.0                   3.8-6.7
                                         72 h                      5.0                   3.8-6.7
                                         96 h                      5.0                   3.8-6.7
                                                                   NOEC = 0.12
                                                                                                                                              
    CI, confidence interval
        of test insects, had no effect on tobacco budworm  (Heliothis
     virecscens), beet armyworm  (Spodoptera exigua), German cockroach
     (Blattella germanica), southern corn rootworm  (Diabrotica 11-punctata
     howardi), or a free-living non-plant parasitic nematode  (Pelodera
    sp). Conflicting results were obtained for the aster leafhopper
     (Macrosteles severini) in two trials: In the first, one application
    of fenarimol at 400 mg/litre to the test substrate followed by a
    drying period resulted in the deaths of all aster leafhoppers, whereas
    in the second, two similar applications of fenarimol at 50 or 400
    mg/litre had no effect. The effect of fenarimol on aster leafhoppers
    in the first trial may therefore not have been treatment related.
    Applications of fenarimol at spray concentrations up to 400 mg/litre
    were thus generally of low toxicity to insects.

         Fenarimol formulated as a 120 g/litre EC formulation and applied
    as a 0.014% spray was classified as 'harmless' (< 50% effect in
    laboratory tests) to beneficial parasites such as  Encarsia formosa,
     Aphidius matricariae, Leptomastix dactylopii, Phygdeuon trichops, and
     Coccygomimus turionellae, to predatory mites and spiders such as
     Phytoseiulus persimilis, Amblyseius potentillae, Amblyseius
    finlandicus, Typhlodromus pyri, and  Chiracanthium mildei, and to
    predatory insects such as  Syrphus corollae, Harmonia axyridis,
     Anthocoris nemoralis, Bembidion lampros, and  Pterostichus cupreus.
    'Slightly harmful' effects (50-79%) were reported in tests with the
    parasitoid  Trichogramma cacoeciae and the predatory insects
     Chrysoperla carnea and  Semiadalia 11-notata. In semi-field and
    field studies, the same formulation was classified as 'harmless' (<
    25% effect in semi-field tests) for the predatory insects  Chrysoperla
     carnea and  Aleochara bilineata and the predatory mites  Phyto-
     seiulus persimilis and  Typhlodromus pyri but 'moderately harmful'
    (51-75%) for the predatory mite  Amblyseius finlandicus (Hassan
     et al., 1988).

         In a field study conducted in a Belgian orchard, the number of
    arthropods falling onto plastic sheets in replicate tree plots after
    treatment with a 120 g/litre EC formulation of fenarimol at a spray
    concentration of 0.033% (0.5 litre of product in a water volume of
    1500 litres/ha) and an application rate of 60 g/ha was compared with
    the total population in the plots, as the number present on plastic
    sheets after treatment with dichlorvos. The percentage change in
    populations of Heteroptera, Dermaptera, Chrysopidae (larvae),
    Chrysopidae (adults), Coccinellidae (larvae), Coccinellidae (adults),
    Syrphidae (adults), and  Hymenoptera parasitica was reported using
    'Steiner's formula'. The highest percentage change was 13.8% for
    Dermaptera (mainly earwigs); the remaining values were either negative
    or < 10. Fenarimol at an application rate of about 59.4 g/ha was thus
    considered to be 'harmless' to the beneficial arthropod fauna of
    orchards. This study was not conducted according to any recognized
    standard protocol (Anon., 1991).

          Earthworms: In a 14-day study,  Lumbricus terrestris was
    exposed to technical-grade fenarimol in a mixture of soil and rabbit
    faeces (for food source) at concentrations up to 100 mg/kg soil
    (Karnak  et al., 1978b). Fenarimol had little toxicity, since no
    deaths were reported. Body weight was reduced during the last seven
    days of the study at all concentrations including the control. This
    was not considered to be treatment related and was probably due to
    exhaustion of the food source.

         In a 14-day test in artificial soil,  Eisenia foetida was
    exposed to a 120 g/litre EC formulation of fenarimol. Little toxicity
    to compost worms was seen, with an LC50 of 200-300 mg/kg soil, in
    both the preliminary range-finding and the definitive test. In the
    preliminary test, no deaths occurred after 14 days' exposure at a
    concentration of < 100 mg/kg soil, but there was 100% mortality at
    500 and 1000 mg/kg. In the final test, 0, 5, 75, 100, and 100% of
    earthworms died after 14 days' exposure to 100, 200, 300, 400, and
    500 mg/kg, respectively. Mean weight losses of 47-62 mg per worm were
    reported after exposure to concentrations of 100-300 mg/kg, but as a
    weight loss of 47 mg was reported in the controls and the soil
    moisture content for all groups fell below the recommended 35%, the
    body-weight losses were not considered to be treatment-related but
    probably due to dehydration of the worms. The 14-day NOEC was
    100-200 mg/kg soil on the basis of mortality. The study was conducted
    according to the OECD 207 test guideline (Khner, 1992).

         In a 56-day test in artificial soil, the effect of a 120 g/litre
    EC formulation of fenarimol was observed on the reproduction of the
    earthworm  Eisenia foetida (Bauer & Dietze, 1993). Earthworms were
    exposed to soil that was sprayed directly with fenarimol at an
    application rate of 378 or 1890 g/ha. After 28 days, 2.5% mortality
    was seen at both test concentrations but was not considered to be
    treatment related. The mean biomass of treated earthworms was not
    significantly different (3.8-4.4% difference) from that of the control
    group at day 0 or 28 after treatment. Similarly, the numbers of
    offspring per surviving adult after 56 days (6.5 and 6.4 at 378 and
    1890 g/ha) were not significantly different from that of the control
    group (6.3). No morphological or behavioural symptoms of toxicity were
    reported during the trial. Application of this formulation of
    fenarimol at rates up to 1890 g/ha thus had no effect on the
    reproduction of  Eisenia foetida. The study was conducted according
    to a draft BBA guideline.

    (c)  Vertebrates

          Birds: Fenarimol had low acute oral toxicity to bobwhite quail
     (Colinus virginianus), with an LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw and an
    NOEC of 2000 mg/kg bw (the highest dose tested) (Kehr  et al.,
    1978b). In a poorly reported study of oral toxicity, fenarimol was
    found to have little acute toxicity to mallard ducks  (Anas

     platyrynchos) or bobwhite quail, with an LD50 of > 200 mg/kg bw
    (the only dose tested) for both species (Hoffman  et al., 1975).
    Fenarimol was found to have an eight-day LC50 for mallard ducks of
    > 6250 ppm (Kehr  et al., 1978c). The NOEC was reported to be
    1250 ppm, on the basis of reduced body weight gain during a three-day
    recovery phase at the highest dose; however, as reduced food consump-
    tion resulting in statistically significantly reduced body-weight gain
    was reported at all concentrations during the five-day exposure
    period, the NOEC is < 50 ppm (the lowest concentration tested). The
    eight-day LC50 for bobwhite quail was > 6250 ppm (Kehr  et al.,
    1978d). The NOEC was again reported to be 1250 ppm on the basis of
    reduced feed intake and a consequential statistically significant
    reduction in body-weight gain during both the exposure and recovery
    period at 6250 ppm; however, as a statistically significant reduction
    in body-weight gain was also reported during the recovery period after
    1250 ppm, perhaps indicating a dose-response relationship, the NOEC is
    250 ppm fenarimol.

         In a one-generation study of reproductive toxicity, which was not
    conducted according to any recognized standard protocol but which
    broadly conformed to OECD test guideline 206, fenarimol was reported
    to have little toxicity to mallard ducks, with 4, 16, 4, and 4% of
    adults dying at 0,10, 50, and 250 ppm fenarimol, respectively (Fink,
    1977). As all of the deaths were in females, no dose-response
    relationship was evident, and no signs of gross abnormalities were
    seen at necropsy, the effects were considered not to be related to
    treatment but to the stress of egg laying. No statistically
    significant effects were seen on reproductive parameters, such as the
    numbers of eggs laid and cracked, eggshell thickness, viable embryos,
    live three-week embryos, normal hatchling, and 14-day survivors, at
    any dose tested. The NOEC was stated to be 250 ppm (the highest dose
    tested), but the number of eggs laid was reduced by 9.2% at 50 ppm and
    27% at 250 ppm; this result may have been dose-related although not
    statistically significant. As the raw data were not available to
    confirm whether this reduction was dose-related, the NOEC is in fact
    50 ppm, on the basis of the 27% reduction in the number of eggs laid
    at the highest dose.

         In a one-generation study of reproductive toxicity, which was not
    conducted according to any recognized standard protocol but which
    broadly conformed to OECD test guideline 206, fenarimol was also
    reported to have low reproductive toxicity to bobwhite quail (Hoffman
     et al., 1980). In this study, 13% of adults at 0 and 50 ppm died,
    and this was attributed to trauma caused by aggressive male behaviour;
    however, there was a further 13% adult mortality at 50 ppm (for a
    total of 26%) for which the cause was not evident. As there were no
    deaths at the next highest dose (125 ppm fenarimol), and the eight-day

    dietary LC50 for this species was reported to be > 6250 ppm, the
    deaths at 50 ppm were not considered to be treatment-related. A
    statistically significant reduction in the number of eggs laid was
    seen at 50 ppm; however, as no such effect was reported at the next
    highest dose, it is unlikely to be treatment-related. The NOEC was
    125 ppm.

         In a further one-generation study of reproductive toxicity in
    bobwhite quail, conducted in accordance with EPA 71-4 test guideline
    and which conformed to OECD test guideline 206, fenarimol was again
    reported to have little reproductive toxicity to bobwhite quail, with
    an NOEC of 300 ppm (Hoffman & Cochrane, 1987). No statistically
    significant or dose-related effect was reported on any of the
    reproductive parameters measured, including egg production, number of
    eggs cracked, eggshell thickness, number of eggs set, fertility,
    embryo survival, hatchability, and hatchling survival.

          Mammals: No additional data were submitted on the toxicity of
    fenarimol-containing products to terrestrial vertebrate species other
    than those reported in Section 7.

    5.2  Risk assessment based on agricultural use

         The information on use and application rates used for this risk
    assessment is derived from the agricultural use of fenarimol within
    the European Union. It should be possible to extrapolate the
    assessment to other agricultural uses at similar application rates
    elsewhere in the world.

    5.2.1  Microorganisms

         The most significant routes of overexposure of soil micro-
    organisms to fenarimol are from the high application rates made to
    turf and the multiple applications made every season in orchards.

    (a)  Turf

         The maximal rate of application of fenarimol to turf is 6 kg/ha,
    as four applications of 1.5 kg/ha per year. As reported above, no
    significant effect on soil respiration or soil microbial populations
    was seen 98 days after application at a rate equivalent to 168 kg/ha,
    which is 28 times the maximal recommended field rate. No effect on
    soil nitrification processes was seen after 15 days at 100 ppm (7 kg
    a.i./ha) in a growth medium or 28 days at 5 kg/ha in a soil test.
    These results broadly meet the EPPO (1993) threshold for acceptability
    of < 25% effect after 100 days, thus indicating that the risk to soil
    microbial processes from use of fenarimol on turf is low.

    (b)  Orchards

         The maximal rate of application of fenarimol in orchards is
    1.1 kg/ha, from 14 applications of 0.076 kg/ha per year. The data on
    microbial toxicity presented above indicate that it has no significant
    effect on soil respiration or microbial processes 98 days after an
    application equivalent to 168 kg/ha, which is two orders of magnitude
    higher than the maximal recommended field rate. This result broadly
    meets the EPPO (1993) threshold for acceptability of < 25% effect
    after 100 days, thus indicating that the risk to soil microbial
    processes from use of fenarimol in orchards is low.

    5.2.2  Aquatic organisms

         The first route of high water contamination considered in aquatic
    risk assessment is overspray, and then the exposure assessment is
    refined to reflect spray drift. The maximal rates of application
    within the European Union in categories other than on turf do not
    differ significantly: 0.12 kg a.i./ha in orchards, 0.06 kg a.i./ha on
    grapes and hops, and 0.084 kg a.i./ha for other arable and horticul-
    tural uses; furthermore, multiple applications should not result in an
    accumulation in surface water, as fenarimol is rapidly removed from
    the aqueous phase into the sediment phase, with a DT50 of less than
    seven days in the aqueous phase (see above). The categories orchards,
    hops and grapes, and other arable and horticultural uses are therefore
    grouped into a general 'arable and horticultural' category for the
    purposes of aquatic risk assessment, and 'turf' uses are considered
    separately, as follows:

    -    application to turf by tractor-mounted and -drawn arable sprayer
         at 1.5 kg/ha, and

    -    arable and horticultural application by tractor-mounted and
         -drawn arable sprayer at 0.084 kg/ha and air-assisted sprayer at
         0.12 kg/ha.

    The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in surface water is:

    FIGURE

    (a)  Acute risk to pelagic organisms

         The acute LC50 and EC50 values for the most sensitive fish,
    aquatic invertebrates, and algae reported in section 5.1.2 were
    0.8 mg/litre for rainbow trout  (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 0.18 mg /litre
    for  Daphnia magna, and 0.76 mg/litre for  Raphidocellis subcapitata.
    These values were used in the 'worst-case' risk assessment for acute
    exposure of aquatic organisms.

          Use on turf: Aquatic life may be exposed to fenarimol from its
    use as the SC formulation on turf after contamination of surface water
    by direct overspray, spray drift, leaching, or run-off. The 'worst-
    case' acute surface water PEC for turf use has been calculated as
    0.5 mg/litre fenarimol, based on direct overspray contamination of a
    3-cm deep static water body at the maximal individual application
    rate.

         The TERs for overspray based on the acute PECs and data on
    toxicity reported in section 5.1.2, were 1.64 for fish, 0.36 for
    aquatic invertebrates, and 1.52 for algae, indicating a high risk
    (i.e. lower than the 'acceptable' EPPO (1993) threshold of 10) for all
    aquatic organisms.

         Contamination of water by overspray is, however, the worst case,
    and a more realistic route of contamination is spray drift. On the
    basis of German BBA data on spray drift -- 5% spray drift at 1 m for
    arable tractor-mounted and -drawn hydraulic sprayers -- the PEC would
    be 0.025 mg/litre 1 m from the point of application to turf. If this
    acute PEC is used, the TERs for spray drift would be revised to 32 for
    rainbow trout, 7.2 for  Daphnia, and 30 for algae, indicating a low
    acute risk, although the value for  Daphnia indicates an acute risk
    for aquatic invertebrates. Since fenarimol is rapidly removed from the
    aqueous phase (see section 4), however, the acute risk to fish,
    aquatic invertebrates, and algae is probably low.

          Arable and horticultural use: Aquatic life may be exposed to
    fenarimol in arable and horticultural uses as a result of contam-
    ination of surface water by direct overspray, spray drift, leaching,
    or run-off. The 'worst-case' PEC for acute contamination of surface
    water from this use has been calculated as 0.024 mg/litre for tractor-
    mounted spray-boom applications and 0.04 mg/litre for air-assisted
    applications in orchards, based on direct overspray contamination of a
    30-cm deep static water body at the maximal individual application
    rate.

         For tractor-mounted spray-boom applications, the TERs for
    overspray based on these acute PEC values and the data on toxicity
    reported in section 5.1.2 were 34.2 for fish, 7.5 for aquatic
    invertebrates, and 31.2 for algae. The values for fish and algae are
    higher than the 'acceptable' EPPO (1993) threshold of 10, indicating
    that the acute risk should be low. The TER for  Daphnia indicates,
    however, that there may be an acute risk for aquatic invertebrates.
    Since fenarimol is rapidly removed from the aqueous phase (see section
    4), the acute risk to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and algae should be
    low.

         For air-assisted spray applications in orchards, the TERs for
    overspray based on the acute PEC values and the data on toxicity
    reported in section 5.1.2, were 20.5 for fish, 4.5 for aquatic
    invertebrates, and 19 for algae. These values are higher than the
    'acceptable' EPPO (1993) threshold of 10, indicating that the acute
    risk to fish and algae should be low; however, the TER for  Daphnia
    indicates that there may be an acute risk for aquatic invertebrates.
    Since fenarimol is rapidly removed from the aqueous phase (see section
    4), the acute risk to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and algae should be
    low. The TER for spray drift based on 30% deposition at 3 m would
    increase to 25, indicating a low risk for aquatic invertebrates.

    (b)  Long-term risk for aquatic organisms

         The long-term NOEC values reported in section 5.1.2 for the most
    sensitive aquatic species tested were 0.43 mg/litre in a 69-day study
    of rainbow trout and 0.113 mg/litre in a 21-day study in  Daphnia
     magna. These values were used in the 'worst-case' risk assessment
    for acute exposure of aquatic organisms.

          Use on turf: Aquatic life may be exposed to fenarimol for long
    periods due to its use on turf as a result of initial contamination
    from overspray or spray drift from up to four successive applications
    The 'worst-case' PEC for acute contamination of surface water from
    this use has been calculated on the basis of initial direct contam-
    ination from overspray of a 30-cm deep, static water body at the
    maximal individual application rate (see  (a) above). As fenarimol is
    rapidly removed from the aqueous phase of natural sediment-water
    systems by either photolysis or adsorption onto sediment, with a
    DT50 in the aqueous phase of less than seven days (see section 4),
    the long-term PEC for surface water from overspray is unlikely to
    exceed the acute PEC. With a DT50 of one day, only 0.000003 mg/litre
    fenarimol of an original 0.5 mg/litre is likely to remain after 14
    days. Up to four applications can be made to turf, within a minimal
    interval of 21-42 days. The mean concentration over 14 days after one
    application of 1.5 kg/ha of 0.25 mg/litre on turf is used as the
    'worst-case' long-term PEC for surface water. The long-term TERs based
    on this PEC and the data on toxicity reported in section 5.1.2 were
    1.72 for rainbow trout and 0.45 for  Daphnia magna. These values are
    lower than the 'acceptable' EPPO (1993) threshold of 10, indicating
    that there may be a risk to fish and aquatic invertebrates from
    long-term contamination of water from overspray on turf.

         Contamination of water by overspray is, however, the worst case,
    and a more realistic route of contamination is spray drift. On the
    basis of German BBA data on spray drift-5% spray drift at 1 m for
    arable tractor-mounted and -drawn hydraulic sprayers -- the PEC would
    be 0.025 mg/litre for spray drift 1 m from the point of application to
    turf, which would fall to about 0.0000015 mg/litre after 14 days (for
    a DT50 of one day), resulting in a mean PEC for exposure to spray
    drift over 14 days of 0.0125 mg/litre. The TERs would be 34.4 for
    rainbow trout and 9.04 for  Daphnia The TER for fish is higher than
    the EPPO (1993) threshold of < 10 for unacceptable effects,
    indicating that the long-term risk for this species of use of
    fenarimol on turf should be low. Although the TER for  Daphnia is
    9.04, the fact that fenarimol is rapidly removed from the aqueous
    phase indicates that the long-term risk for free-swimming aquatic
    invertebrates should also be low.

          Arable and horticultural use: Aquatic life may be exposed to
    fenarimol in arable and horticultural uses as a result of
    contamination of water by multiple overspraying or spray drift. The
    'worst-case' PEC for long-term contamination of surface water from
    this use has been calculated on the basis of an initial contamination
    by overspray of a 30-cm deep, static water body at the maximal
    individual application rates of 0.084 kg/ha for tractor-mounted
    spray-boom applications and 0.12 kg/ha for air-assisted applications
    in orchards.

         In tractor-mounted spray-boom applications, fenarimol is rapidly
    removed from the aqueous phase of natural sediment-water systems by
    either photolysis or adsorption onto sediment, resulting in a DT50
    in the aqueous phase of less than seven days (see section 4). The
    long-term PEC in surface water from overspray is therefore unlikely to
    exceed the acute PEC. With a DT50 of one day, only 0.00019 mg/litre
    of an original acute PEC of 0.024 mg/litre should remain after seven
    days. As up to three applications can be made to crops with a minimal
    interval of 10-14 days, the mean concentration of 0.012 mg/litre over
    each 10-day period was used as the 'worst-case' long-term PEC in
    surface water for multiple spray-boom applications of fenarimol in
    agricultural and horticultural uses.

         The long-term TERs derived from these PEC values and data on
    toxicity reported in section 5.1.2 were 35.8 for rainbow trout and 9.4
    for  Daphnia magna. As the value for rainbow trout is higher than the
    'acceptable' EPPO (1993) threshold of 10, the long-term risk to fish
    is low; however, the value for  Daphnia magna is just below the
    threshold of 10, indicating that this risk should be investigated
    further. This long-term PEC, based on multiple initial overspraying at
    the maximal application rate and at the minimal spray interval, is,
    however, the worst case. The value likely in the field may well be
    lower, taking into consideration the rapid adsorption of fenarimol
    onto sediment and its rapid photolysis. It was therefore considered
    that the TER for  Daphnia magna is acceptable and indicates a low
    long-term risk for free-swimming aquatic invertebrates.

         In air-assisted spray applications in orchards, fenarimol is
    rapidly removed from the aqueous phase of natural sediment-water
    systems by either photolysis or adsorption onto sediment, resulting in
    a DT50 in the aqueous phase of less than seven days (see section 4).
    The long-term PEC in surface water from overspray is therefore
    unlikely to exceed the acute PEC. With a DT50 of one day, only
    0.00032 mg/litre of an original acute PEC of 0.04 mg/litre should
    remain after seven days. As up to four applications can be made to
    crops with a minimal spray interval of 14 days, the mean concentration
    of 0.02 mg/litre over each 14-day period was used as the 'worst-case'
    long-term PEC in surface water for multiple air-assisted spray
    applications of fenarimol in agricultural and horticultural uses. The
    chronic TERs based on these PECs and data on toxicity reported in
    section 5.1.2 were 21.5 for rainbow trout and 5.7 for  Daphnia magna.

    As the value for rainbow trout is higher than the 'acceptable' EPPO
    (1993) threshold of 10, the long-term risk for fish is low; however,
    the value for  Daphnia magna is below the threshold of 10, indicating
    that this risk should be investigated further.

         Contamination of water by overspray is, however, the worst case,
    and a more realistic route of contamination is spray drift. On the
    basis of German BBA data on spray drift -- 30% spray drift at 3 m for
    air-assisted sprayers -- the PEC would be 0.012 mg/litre for spray
    drift 3 m from the point of application which would fall to 0.00000075
    mg/litre after 14 days (for a DT50 of one day), resulting in a mean
    PEC for exposure to spray drift over 14 days of 0.006 mg/litre. On the
    basis of this PEC, the TER for  Daphnia would be 18.8, which is
    higher than the EPPO (1993) threshold of < 10 for unacceptable
    effects, indicating that the chronic risk to pelagic aquatic inverte-
    brates from air-assisted applications of fenarimol in orchards should
    be low.

    (c)  Risk to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

         It is reported in section 4 that 75-80% of fenarimol is
    partitioned into the sediment phase of natural sediment-water systems
    within seven days. Therefore, fenarimol entering water due to
    overspraying, spray drift, leaching, or surface run-off may pose a
    risk to sediment-dwelling invertebrates. Once fenarimol enters the
    sediment, there is no appreciable degradation over 80 days, indicating
    that there may be a long-term risk to sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

    The PEC in pore water (between sediment particles), calculated by
    equilibrium partitioning:

    FIGURE

          Use on turf: The total maximal amount of fenarimol applied to
    turf in one year is about 6 kg/ha. On the basis of the assumptions of
    overspraying made in the section on acute risk (overspraying of a
    30-cm deep, static water body at the maximal application rate) and
    assuming that overspraying occurs in all applications, the total
    amount of fenarimol entering the surrounding water in one year would
    be 2 mg/litre. Assuming further that all of this amount partitions
    into a 5-cm layer of sediment (from a 30-cm water column) and a
    sediment density of 1.5 g/cm3, the total concentration of fenarimol
    in sediment would be 8 mg/kg. Using equilibrium partitioning, the
    concentration of fenarimol in the pore water of these sediments,
    assuming a Koc of 500 (section 4) and an organic carbon content of
    2%, would be about 0.8 mg/litre. On the basis of the long-term NOEC
    for  Daphnia magna of 0.113 mg/litre (section 5.1.2) as an indicator
    of the toxicity of fenarimol to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, the
    TER would be 0.14, indicating a risk from overspraying on turf.

         Contamination of water by overspray is, however, the worst case,
    and a more realistic route of contamination is spray drift. On the
    basis of 5% drift at 1 m for application to turf (German BBA), the
    concentrations of fenarimol in sediment pore water would be reduced to
    about 0.04 mg/litre. On the basis of the long-term NOEC for  Daphnia
     magna of 0.113 mg/litre (section 5.1.2) as an indicator of the
    toxicity of fenarimol to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, the TER
    would be 2.8, indicating a long-term risk. The high application rate
    is, however, essentially a 'spot' treatment on e.g. golf courses, and
    such highly localized, small-scale applications would result in a low
    risk for sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

          Arable and horticultural use: The total maximal amount of
    fenarimol applied to any one crop in one year is about 0.36 kg/ha (5 
    0.072 kg/ha on ornamental plants) for tractor-mounted spray-boom
    applications and 1 kg/ha (14  0.072 kg/ha in orchards) for air-
    assisted applications. On the basis of the assumptions of overspraying
    made in the section on acute risk (overspraying of a 30-cm deep,
    static water body at the maximal application rate) and assuming that
    overspraying occurs in all applications, the total amount of fenarimol
    entering the surrounding water in one year could be 0.12 mg/litre by
    tractor-mounted spray-boom application and 0.33 mg/litre by air-
    assisted application. Assuming further that all of this amount
    partitions into a 5-cm layer of sediment (from a 30-cm water column)
    and a sediment density of 1.5 g/cm3, the total concentration of
    fenarimol in sediment would be 0.48 mg/kg with spray-boom application
    and 1.32 mg/kg with air-assisted application. Using equilibrium
    partitioning, the concentration of fenarimol in the pore water of
    these sediment, assuming a Koc of 500 (section 4) and an organic
    carbon content of 2%, would be about 0.048 mg/litre for spray-boom
    application and 0.132 mg/litre for air-assisted application. On the

    basis of the long-term NOEC for  Daphnia magna of 0.113 mg/litre
    (section 5.1.2) as an indicator of the toxicity of fenarimol to
    sediment-dwelling invertebrates, the TERs would be 2.4 for spray-boom
    application and 0.86 for air-assisted application. Sediment-dwelling
    invertebrates may therefore be at risk from overspraying by either
    route of application.

         Contamination of water by overspray is, however, the worst case,
    and a more realistic route of contamination is spray drift. On the
    basis of 5% drift at 1 m for spray-boom application on arable land and
    30% drift at 3 m for air-assisted application in orchards (German
    BBA), the concentrations of fenarimol in sediment pore water would be
    reduced to about 0.0024 mg/litre for spray-boom application and
    0.04 mg/litre for air-assisted application. On the basis of the
    long-term NOEC for  Daphnia magna of 0.113 mg/litre (section 5.1.2)
    as an indicator of the toxicity of fenarimol to sediment-dwelling
    invertebrates, the TERs would be 47 for spray-boom application and 2.8
    for air-assisted application, indicating a low risk from spray-boom
    applications but a long-term risk from air-assisted application. Data
    on the long-term toxicity of fenarimol to a sediment-dwelling species
    such as  Chironomus would be useful for refining this predicted risk.

    5.2.3.  Terrestrial organisms

    (a)  Plants

         No data were available.

    (b)  Invertebrates

          Bees: Honey bees may be exposed to fenarimol during e.g.
    application to turf at a maximal rate or orchards with attractive
    flowering trees. Fenarimol was reported to have low acute toxicity to
    honey bees, with an oral LD50 of > 10 g/bee and a contact LD50
    of > 100 g/bee (section 5.1.3).

         Bees may be exposed to fenarimol while foraging on flowering
    weeds during or after application. The hazard ratio for use of
    fenarimol on turf -- application rate (g/ha) divided by the LD50
    (g/bee) -- based on an application rate of 1.5 kg/ha and the data on
    toxicity reported in section 5.1.3 is < 150 for acute oral exposure
    and < 15 for acute contact. The hazard ratio for oral exposure is
    lower than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 50 for 'acceptable' effects,
    indicating that the acute risk for bees grazing treated turf is low;
    however, the contact hazard ratio is higher than the EPPO threshold of
    50, indicating that there may be a risk. Fenarimol is applied to turf
    mainly in autumn and winter, however, when bees are unlikely to be
    foraging. The risk of exposure, and therefore the risk, are thus
    considered to be low.

         Bees may also be exposed to fenarimol by foraging the flowers of
    treated crops or flowering weeds present in the crops. The hazard
    ratios for such use, based on a maximal application rate of 0.12 kg/ha
    and the data on toxicity reported in section 5.1.3, are < 12 for
    acute oral exposure and < 1.2 for acute contact. Both ratios are
    below the EPPO threshold of 51) for 'acceptable' effects, indicating a
    low risk for honey bees from these uses of fenarimol.

          Non-target arthropods: Non-target arthropods may be exposed to
    fenarimol e.g. from use on turf at the maximal rate or multiple
    applications on orchards. Small water volumes (200-500 litres/ha) are
    applied in northern Europe, whereas volumes up to an order of
    magnitude higher (1500-2000 litres/ha) are used in southern Europe.

         No data from standard laboratory tests were submitted for
    non-target arthropod species. A 120-g/litre EC formulation of
    fenarimol applied at 140 mg/litre was 'harmless' (< 50% effect) to
    selected non-target arthropods, including the aphid-specific parasi-
    toid  Aphidius matricariae and the predatory mite  Typhlodromus pyri
    (see section 5.1.3). As the EPPO (1993) threshold for further testing
    is > 30% effect in laboratory tests, it should be ascertained whether
    the value' < 50% is above that threshold; however, data from semi-
    field tests showed a < 25% effect on  Typhlodromus pyri at a
    concentration of 140 mg/litre fenarimol. As the concentrations sprayed
    at a volume of 300 litres/ha ranged from 400 mg/litre in orchards to a
    maximum of 5000 mg/litre on turf, these data do not fully address the
    probable effects of fenarimol at relevant concentrations or appli-
    cation rates, particularly in northern Europe where low-water-volume
    applications are prevalent.

         One spraying with a 120 g/litre EC formulation of fenarimol at a
    concentration of 40 g/litre and an application rate of 60 g/ha in a
    Belgian orchard had no adverse effect on populations of non-target
    arthropods (see section 5.1.3); however, the maximal recommended
    application rate (120 g a.i./ha) was used in a single application,
    whereas fenarimol can be applied up to 14 times at intervals of 7-14
    days.

         The data indicate that the risk to non-target arthropods should
    be low, but no results were available from standard laboratory tests
    with the internationally agreed indicator species  Typhlodromus pyri
    and  Aphidius rhopalosiphi (as recommended by Barret  et al., 1994)
    and with the approved maximal application rate and number of applica-
    tions, particularly in orchards. Such data would be useful for
    addressing fully the risk for non-target arthropods of exposure to
    fenarimol.

          Earthworms: The most significant sources of overexposure of
    earthworms to fenarimol are due to the high rates of application to
    turf and the multiple applications made each season in orchards.
    Fenarimol was moderately toxic to earthworms, with a 14-day LC50 of
    200-300 mg/kg of soil for the EC formulation and a 56-day NOEC for
    reproductive toxicity of 1890 g/ha (see section 5.1.3).

         The PEC in the top 5 cm of soil after four successive applica-
    tions of fenarimol at 1.5 kg/ha on turf is 8.57 mg/kg, assuming that
    the soil density is 1.4 g/cm3, that all of the applied fenarimol
    enters the soil, and that no degradation occurs between applications
    (DT50 in laboratory soil, 436-1833 days; section 4). The short-term
    TER based on this PEC and LD50 values would be 23-35, which is
    higher than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 10 and indicates a low acute
    risk for earthworms. When the short-term TER is < 100 and the active
    substance persists in soil (DT90 > 100 days), EPPO (1993) requires
    that expert judgement be used to assess whether further data are
    needed on sublethal toxicity.

         The TER based on the 14-day NOEC of 100-200 mg/kg of soil would
    be 12-23, indicating a low risk for sublethal effects. In addition, a
    study of reproductive toxicity in earthworms with the EC formulation
    showed a 56-day NOEC of 1890 g/ha, which is greater than the maximal
    individual application rate to turf and 0.32 times the maximal
    recommended seasonal application rate; this was the highest dose
    tested. In a further study, earthworms did not bioaccumulate
    technical-grade fenarimol over the concentration in the surrounding
    soil (see section 4). The additional information that degradation of
    fenarimol is faster in the field than in the laboratory (DT50 in
    soil in the field, 14-130 days; section 4) indicates that the risk (or
    sublethal effects in earthworms from the use of fenarimol on turf
    should be low.

         The PEC in the top 5 cm of orchard soil after 14 successive
    applications of fenarimol on apples at 0.072 kg/ha is 1.44 mg/kg of
    soil, assuming that the soil density is 1.4 g/cm3, that all of the
    applied fenarimol enters the soil, and that no degradation occurs
    between applications (DT50 in laboratory soil, 436-1833 days;
    section 4). The short-term TER based on this PEC and LD50 values
    would be 139-208, which is higher than the EPPO (1993) threshold of
    100 for unacceptable effects and indicates a low acute risk for
    earthworms from use of fenarimol in orchards.

    (c)  Vertebrates

         The risk for vertebrates is assessed for four broad categories of
    use:

    -    in orchards, on apples, pears, peaches, and cherries, at maximal
         application rates of 0.12 kg/ha of the wettable powder on peaches
         and 0.06 kg/ha of the EC formulation on cherries;

    -    on hops and grapes, with a maximal application rate of 0.06 kg/ha
         of the wettable powder on grapes;

    -    on turf, with a maximal application rate of 1.5 kg/ha on amenity
         and sports turf; and

    -    other horticultural and arable uses, including cane fruit,
         ornamental plants, and vegetables, with a maximal application
         rate of 0.084 kg/ha of the EC formulation on strawberries.

          Birds: LD50 values of > 200 and > 2000 mg/kg bw were
    reported in two studies of bobwhite quail (see section 5.1.3);
    however, the first value was derived from a poorly reported study
    conducted with insufficiently high doses. The value of > 2000 mg/kg
    bw was therefore used to assess the risk for oral exposure of the most
    sensitive species tested. The eight-day dietary LC50 of > 6250 ppm
    fenarimol for mallard duck and bobwhite quail was also used.

         The examples used were:

    -    a small insectivorous bird, an 11-g blue tit  (Parus caeruleus),
         with a total daily food consumption of 8.25 g, based on 3.3 g dry
         weight of food per day (Kenaga, 1973);

    -    a fruit-eating bird, an 80-g starling  (Sturnus vulgaris), with
         a total daily food consumption of 60 g, based on 24 g dry weight
         of food per day (EPPO, 1993);

    -    a grazing bird, a 3-kg greylag goose  (Anser anser), with a
         total daily food consumption of 900 g (Owen, 1975); and

    -    an earthworm-eating bird, an 89-g song thrush  (Turdus
          philomelos), with a total daily food consumption of 22 g, based
         on 8.8 g dry weight of food per day (Kenaga, 1973).

         In orchards, birds are exposed from eating either oversprayed
    insects or treated fruit contaminated with fenarimol residues. The
    initial residues expected on insects oversprayed at the maximal
    application rate of 0.12 kg/ha are 3.48 mg/kg of small insects (EPPO,
    1993). The short-term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50
    > 6250 ppm fenarimol, would therefore be > 1796. If the total daily
    food of a blue tit were contaminated insects, it would take in
    0.029 mg of fenarimol, or 2.61 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on
    the acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 766.
    Both of these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100,
    indicating that the acute risk for insectivorous birds in orchards
    treated with fenarimol should be low.

         The initial residues expected on cherries oversprayed at the
    maximal application rate of 0.06 kg/ha is 0.078 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO,
    1993). The short-term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50
    > 6250 ppm fenarimol, would therefore be > 80 128. If the total
    daily food of a starling were contaminated cherries, it would take in
    0.005 mg of fenarimol, or 0.063 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on
    the acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 31
    746. Both of these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of
    100; however, residues in cherries before harvesting have been
    reported to be as high as 0.89 mg/kg of fruit. As this residue is only
    one order of magnitude higher than the predicted initial residues used
    to calculate the TERs, those based on residues at harvesting will
    still be far higher than the threshold value, and the acute risk for
    fruit-eating birds in orchards treated with fenarimol should be low.

         In hop gardens and vineyards, birds are exposed from eating
    either oversprayed insects or treated fruit contaminated with
    fenarimol residues. The initial residues expected on insects
    oversprayed at the maximal application rate of 0.06 kg/ha is
    1.74 mg/kg of small insects (EPPO, 1993). The short-term dietary TER,
    based on a dietary eight-day LC50 > 6250 ppm fenarimol, would
    therefore be > 3592. If the total daily food of a blue tit were
    contaminated insects, it would take in 0.014 mg of fenarimol, or
    1.31 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute oral LD50 of >
    2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 1527. Both of these TERs are
    greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100, indicating that the
    acute risk for insectivorous birds in hop gardens and vineyards
    treated with fenarimol should be low.

         The initial residues expected on grapes oversprayed at the
    maximal application rate of 0.06 kg/ha is 0.078 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO,
    1993). The short-term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50
    > 6250 ppm fenarimol, would therefore be > 80 128. If the total
    daily food of a starling were contaminated grapes, it would take in
    0.005 mg of fenarimol, or 0.063 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on
    the acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be >
    31 746. Both of these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold
    of 100. Residues in grapes before harvesting have been reported to be
    as high as 0.04 mg/kg, which is lower than the predicted initial
    residues used to calculate the TERs and indicates that the risk for
    birds eating grapes around harvest time is less than that for birds
    eating grapes immediately after application. The values indicate that
    the acute risk to fruit-eating birds in vineyards and hop gardens
    treated with fenarimol should be low.

         When fenarimol is applied to turf, birds are likely to be exposed
    either by grazing treated grass or eating earthworms contaminated with
    fenarimol residues. The initial residue expected on short grass
    oversprayed at 1.5 kg/ha is 168 mg/kg of grass (EPPO, 1993). The
    short-term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50 of >

    6250 ppm fenarimol, would therefore be > 37.2. If the total daily
    food of a greylag goose were contaminated grass, it would take in
    151 mg of fenarimol, or 50.3 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the
    acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 39.7. Both
    of these TERs are lower than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100, which
    requires that the risk be assessed further. As application is done
    mainly in autumn and winter, the initial residues are unlikely to
    remain for long before being washed off or diluted by rainfall. In
    addition, the values for toxicity used in the risk assessment are
    'greater than' values, and the actual TERs may well be significantly
    higher than those currently reported. Furthermore, although the United
    Kingdom has the highest application rate to turf within the European
    Union, no incidents of bird poisoning involving fenarimol have been
    reported in the UK Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme. The risk to
    grazing birds from the use of fenarimol on turf would therefore appear
    to be low.

         The expected residue of fenarimol in soil after application of
    6 kg/ha, in four applications of 1.5 kg/ha per year with no signi-
    ficant degradation in soil (DT50 in field soil, 14-130 days; see
    section 5.1.3), is 8.58 mg/kg of soil, assuming a soil depth of 5 cm
    and bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3. As at an application rate equivalent
    to 7 kg/ha (10 mg/kg of soil) earthworms did not accumulate residues
    at concentrations greater than those in the surrounding soil, the
    maximal concentration of fenarimol in the earthworms would be
    8.58 mg/kg. The short-term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day
    LC50 of > 6250 ppm fenarimol, would therefore be > 728. If the
    total daily food of a song thrush were contaminated earthworms, it
    would take in 0.19 mg of fenarimol, or 2.12 mg/kg bw. The acute oral
    TER based on the acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore
    be > 943. Both of these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993)
    threshold of 100, indicating that the acute risk for earthworm-eating
    birds on turf treated with fenarimol should be low.

         In other agricultural and horticultural uses of fenarimol, birds
    are likely to be exposed by consuming either oversprayed insects or
    treated produce (e.g. strawberries) contaminated with fenarimol
    residues. The initial residues expected on insects oversprayed at
    0.084 kg/ha is 2.44 mg/kg of small insects (EPPO, 1993). The short-
    term dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50 > 6250 ppm
    fenarimol, would therefore be > 2561. If the total daily food of a
    blue tit were contaminated insects, it would take in 0.02 mg of
    fenarimol, or 1.83 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute
    oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 1093. Both of
    these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100,
    indicating that the acute risk for insectivorous birds in other arable
    and horticultural uses of fenarimol should be low.

         The initial residues expected on strawberries oversprayed at
    0.084 kg/ha is 0.12 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO, 1993). The short-term
    dietary TER, based on a dietary eight-day LC50 > 6250 ppm
    fenarimol, would therefore be > 52 083. If the total daily food of a
    starling were contaminated insects, it would take in 0.007 mg of
    fenarimol, or 0.09 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute
    oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw would therefore be > 22 222. Both of
    these TERs are greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100; however,
    residues in strawberries before harvesting have been reported to be as
    high as 0.14 mg/kg of fruit. As this residue is within one order of
    magnitude of the predicted initial residues used to calculate the
    TERs, those based on residues at harvesting will still be far higher
    than the threshold value, and the acute risk for these birds from the
    use of fenarimol should be low.

         NOEC values of 125 and 300 ppm fenarimol have been reported for
    reproductive toxicity in bobwhite quail in two studies (see section
    5.1.3); an NOEC of 250 ppm was reported tor mallard ducks but was
    revised to 50 ppm. The last value was used in the risk assessment for
    the most sensitive species tested. The main risk for reproducing birds
    is during multiple applications throughout a season. The 'worst case'
    of > 14 applications of a wettable powder tormulation of fenarimol
    on apples and pears in orchards at 0.076 kg/ha in any one season was
    investigated. In orchards, breeding birds are likely to be exposed 
    by eating oversprayed insects or treated fruit (e.g. cherries)
    contaminated with fenarimol residues.

         The expected initial residue on small :insects oversprayed with
    fenarimol at 0.076 kg/ha is 2.2 mg/kg (EPPO, 1993). The TER for
    reproductive toxicity, based on the NOEC of 50 ppm, would therefore be
    22.7. This value is greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 10,
    indicating a low risk to insectivorous birds in orchards treated with
    fenarimol.

         The expected initial residues on cherries oversprayed with
    fenarimol at 0.06 kg/ha is 0.078 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO, 1993). The TER
    for reproductive toxicity, based on the NOEC of 50 ppm, would
    therefore be 642; however, residues in cherries before harvesting have
    been reported to be as high as 0.89 mg/kg. Use of this residue value
    would reduce the TER to 56. Both of these values are greater than the
    EPPO (1993) threshold of 10, indicating that the risk for reproductive
    toxicity to fruit-eating birds in orchards treated with fenarimol
    should be low.

          Mammals: An oral LD50 for fenarimol of 2500 mg/kg bw was
    reported in rats, the most sensitive species tested, and this value
    was used in the risk assessment.

         The examples used were:

    -    a small earthworm-eating mammal, an 18-g common shrew
          (Sorex araneus), with a total daily food consumption of 18 g
         (Churchfield, 1986);

    -    a small fruit-eating mammal, an 18-g wood mouse  (Apodemus
         sylvaticus), with a total daily food consumption of 7.5 g
         food/day, based on 3 g dry weight of food per day (Corbet &
         Harris, 1991); and

    -    a grazing mammal, a 1200-g rabbit  (Oryctolagus cuniculus), with
         a total daily food consumption of 500 g (Ross, personal
         communication).

         In orchards, mammals are likely to be exposed only by eating
    earthworms contaminated with fenarimol residues. The expected residues
    in soil treated with fenarimol at 1.1 kg/ha in 14 applications of
    0.076 kg/ha and with no significant degradation in soil (DT50 in
    field soil, 14-130 days) is 1.57 mg/kg of soil, assuming a soil depth
    of 5 cm and bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3. At application rates
    equivalent to 7 kg/ha (10 mg/kg of soil), earthworms did not
    accumulate residues at levels greater than the concentration of
    fenarimol in the surrounding soil, so that the maximal concentration
    in the earthworms would be 1.57 mg/kg. If the total daily food
    consumption of a common shrew were contaminated earthworms, it would
    consume 0.03 mg of fenarimol, or 1.57 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER,
    based on an acute oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw, would therefore be
    1592, which is greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100,
    indicating that the acute risk to earthworm-eating mammals of use of
    fenarimol in orchards should be low.

         In hop gardens and vineyards, mammals are thought to be exposed
    by eating oversprayed insects or treated fruit (e.g. grapes) contam-
    inated with fenarimol residues. The initial residues expected on
    insects oversprayed at the maximal application rate of 0.06 kg/ha is
    1.74 mg/kg of small insects (EPPO, 1993). If the total daily food of a
    common shrew were contaminated insects, it would take in 0.03 mg of
    fenarimol, or 1.74 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute
    oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw would therefore be 1437. This value is
    greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100, indicating that the
    acute risk for insectivorous mammals in hop gardens and vineyards
    treated with fenarimol should be low.

         The initial residues expected on grapes oversprayed at 0.06 kg/ha
    is 0.078 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO, 1993). If the total daily food of a
    wood mouse were contaminated grapes, it would take in 0.006 mg of
    fenarimol, or 10.33 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute
    oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw would therefore be 7500. This value is

    greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100. Residues in grapes
    before harvesting have been reported to be as high as 0.04 mg/kg of
    fruit, a value below the predicted initial residues used to calculate
    the TER, indicating that the risk to mammals eating grapes around
    harvest time is less than that for mammals eating grapes immediately
    after application. The TER therefore indicates that the acute risk for
    fruit-eating mammals in vineyards and hop gardens from the use of
    fenarimol should be low.

         When fenarimol is used to treat turf, mammals are exposed by
    grazing treated grass or eating earthworms contaminated with fenarimol
    residues. The initial residues expected on short grass oversprayed at
    1.5 kg/ha is 168 mg/kg of grass (EPPO, 1993). If the total daily food
    of a rabbit were contaminated grass, it would take in 84 mg of
    fenarimol, or 70 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the acute oral
    LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw would therefore be 35.7. This value is lower
    than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100, which requires that the risk be
    assessed further. As application is done mainly in autumn and winter,
    the initial residues are unlikely to remain for long before being
    washed off or diluted by rainfall. The actual TER may therefore well
    be significantly higher than those currently reported. Furthermore,
    although the United Kingdom has the highest application rate to turf
    within the European Union, no incidents of mammalian poisoning
    involving fenarimol have been reported in the UK Wildlife Incident
    Investigation Scheme. The risk to grazing mammals from the use of
    fenarimol on turf would therefore appear to be low.

         The expected residue of fenarimol in soil after application of
    6 kg/ha, in four applications of 1.5 kg/ha per year with no signi-
    ficant degradation in soil (DT50 in field soil, 14-130 days; see
    section 5.1.3), is 8.57 mg/kg of soil, assuming a soil depth of 5 cm
    and bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3. As at an application rate equivalent
    to 7 kg/ha (10 mg/kg of soil) earthworms did not accumulate residues
    at concentrations greater than those in the surrounding soil, the
    maximal concentration of fenarimol in the earthworms would be 8.57
    mg/kg. If the total daily food of a common shrew were contaminated
    earthworms, it would take in 0.15 mg of fenarimol, or 8.57 mg/kg bw.
    The acute oral TER based on the acute oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw
    would therefore be 291. This value is greater than the EPPO (1993)
    threshold of 100, indicating that the acute risk for earthworm-eating
    mammals on turf treated with fenarimol should be low.

         In other agricultural and horticultural uses of fenarimol,
    mammals are likely to be exposed by consuming either oversprayed
    insects or treated produce (e.g. strawberries) contaminated with
    fenarimol residues. The initial residues expected on insects
    oversprayed at 0.084 kg/ha is 2.44 mg/kg of small insects (EPPO,
    1993). If the total daily food of a common shrew were contaminated
    insects, it would take in 0.04 mg of fenarimol, or 2.44 mg/kg bw. The

    acute oral TER based on the acute oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw would
    therefore be 1025. This value is greater than the EPPO (1993)
    threshold of 100, indicating that the acute risk for insectivorous
    mammals in other arable and horticultural uses of fenarimol should be
    low.

         The initial residues expected on strawberries oversprayed at
    0.084 kg/ha is 0.12 mg/kg of fruit (EPPO, 1993). If the total daily
    food of a wood mouse were contaminated insects, it would take in 0.001
    mg of fenarimol, or 0.05 mg/kg bw. The acute oral TER based on the
    acute oral LD50 of 2500 mg/kg bw would therefore be 50 000. This
    value is greater than the EPPO (1993) threshold of 100; however,
    residues in strawberries before harvesting have been reported to be as
    high as 0.14 mg/kg of fruit. As this residue is within one order of
    magnitude of the predicted initial residues used to calculate the
    TERs, those based on residues at harvesting will still be far higher
    than the threshold value, and the acute risk for these birds from the
    use of fenarimol should be low.

    6.  Evaluation of effects on the environment

         Fenarimol is a systemic fungicide used on a wide range of fruit,
    vegetables, hops, and wheat. It is registered in a large number of
    countries. It is rapidly adsorbed onto soil and sediments; in a series
    of laboratory experiments it showed no tendency to leach and stayed in
    the top few centimetres of soil. A persistence of several months in
    soil was confirmed in the field. Photolysis has been shown to occur,
    but because of factors including the type of use and its ready
    adsorption on soil and sediments photolysis is not considered to be a
    significant mechanism for degradation. Fenarimol was not biodegradable
    in studies in the field or the laboratory under either aerobic or
    anaerobic conditions. Hydrolysis has been shown to occur only at
    extreme pH. The compound is therefore highly persistent and not
    mobile.

         It bioaccumulates to a very limited degree, and depuration of
    contaminated tissues takes place within a few days in both aquatic and
    terrestrial organisms (fish and earthworms). It had no effect on soil
    respiration or nitrification processes at concentrations much higher
    than the normal application rates; similar results were obtained in
    sewage sludges.

         The LC50 and EC50 values for fenarimol were 0.82 mg/litre for
    the most sensitive fish, 0.1.8 mg/litre for the most sensitive aquatic
    invertebrate, and 0.76 mg/litre for the most sensitive alga. In
    long-term experiments, the NOEC values were 0.43 mg/litre for fish and
    0.113 mg/litre for aquatic invertebrates. Fenarimol had low acute
    toxicity for honey bees, with an acute oral LD50 of > 10 and a
    contact LD50 of >100 mg per bee. Little toxicity was seen in
    earthworms, with an acute LC50 of 200-300 mg/kg and an NOEC for
    reproductive effects of 1.89 kg/ha. It was also of little toxicity to
    birds, with an acute oral LD50 of > 2000 mg/kg bw and an NOEL of
    2000 mg/kg bw; however, reduced body weight was observed, with an NOEC
    of 250 mg/kg of food. Several studies of reproductive toxicity gave
    NOEC values of 50-300 mg/kg of food for different birds. No data were
    available on the toxicity of fenarimol to wild mammals, but the LD50
    for laboratory mammals was 2500 mg/kg bw.

    Risk assessment

         At application rates equivalent to 28 times the maximal
    recommended rate for fenarimol (4  1.5 kg/ha on turf), there was no
    significant effect on soil respiration or microbial processes. The
    risk to aquatic organisms was assessed on the basis of the 'worst-
    case' examples of contamination by spray drift or overspray during
    tractor-mounted spray-boom application to turf at 4  1.5 kg/ha and
    air-assisted spray application to orchards at 14  0.072 kg/ha (Tables
    4 and 5). Details of the method for calculating the PEC are given in
    the monograph on fenthion. The summaries of acute and long-term TERs

    for aquatic organisms reported above indicate that fenarimol presents
    a small risk to aquatic life, except in multiple applications in
    orchards, which present a medium-high risk to sediment-dwelling
    invertebrates.

        Table 4.  Acute risk to aquatic organisms from spray drift or overspray contamination
              arising from use of fenarimol by boom- or air-assisted spray
                                                                                              

    Organism                LC50/EC50    Application          Acute PECa    Acute TER   Risk
                            (mg/litre)                        (mg/litre)
                                                                                              

    Fish                    0.8          Tractor boom spray   0.025b        32          Low
    Fish                    0.8          Air-assisted spray   0.04c         20          Low
    Aquatic invertebrates   0.18         Tractor boom spray   0.025b        7.2         Presentd
    Aquatic invertebrates   0.18         Air-assisted spray   0.04b         25          Low
    Algae                   0.76         Tractor boom spray   0.025b        30          Low
    Algae                   0.76         Air-assisted spray   0.04c         19          Low
                                                                                              

    PEC, predicted environmental concentration; TER, toxicity:exposure ratio
    a    Based on one application
    b    Spray drift
    c    Overspray
    d    The risk is considered to be low owing to the small-scale, localized nature of turf applications.
    
         The risk for bees was considered to be low, since the hazard
    ratios reported for the highest recommended application rates (1.5
    kg/ha) were < 150 for acute oral exposure and < 15 for acute contact
    exposure. The recommended timing of application is when bees are
    unlikely to be foraging. The limited data on non-target arthropods do
    not allow a full assessment of the risk. On the basis of the high rate
    of application to turf (1.5 kg/ha) and the multiple applications in
    orchards (14  0.072 kg/ha), the 'worst-case' short-term TER for
    earthworms was 23-35 and the long-term TER was 139-208, indicating a
    low risk.

         The risks to insectivorous, grazing, and fruit-eating birds and
    mammals in the 'worst-case' situations of high application rates to
    turf (1.5 kg/ha) and multiple applications in orchards (0.072 kg/ha)
    or on strawberries (0.084 kg/ha) are shown in Tables 6 and 7. The TERs
    shown in these tables indicate a low risk (i.e. > 100), except for
    grazing birds and mammals, after heavy use of fenarimol on turf. No
    poisoning incidents have been associated in wildlife monitoring in the
    United Kingdom with such use, suggesting that the actual risk is low.
    At the same levels of exposure, the TERs for reproductive toxicity
    were 22.7 for insectivorous birds and 56 for fruit-eating birds,
    indicating a low risk to reproducing birds.

        Table 5.  Long-term risk to aquatic organisms from spray drift or overspray contamination
              arising from multiple applications of fenarimol by boom- or air-assisted spray
                                                                                                             

    Organism                   NOEC            Application             PECa            TER      Risk
                               (mg/litre)                              (mg/litre)
                                                                                                             

    Fish                       0.43            Tractor boom spray      0.0125b         34       Low
    Fish                       0.43            Air-assisted spray      0.02c           21       Low
    Aquatic invertebrates      0.113           Tractor boom spray      0.0125b         9        Presentd
    Aquatic invertebrates      0.113           Air-assisted spray      0.006b          18.8     Low
    Sediment invertebrates     0.113e          Tractor boom spray      0.04b           2.8      Presentd
    Sediment invertebrates     0.113e          Air-assisted spray      0.04c           2.8      Present
                                                                                                             

    PEC, predicted environmental concentration; TER, toxicity:exposure ratio
    a    Based on maximal recommended application
    b    Spray drift
    c    Overspray
    d    The risk is considered to be low owing to the small-scale, localized nature of turf applications.
    e    Based on long-term toxicity to Daphnia

    Table 6.  Risks to insectivorous, grazing, and fruit-eating birds from the use of fenarimol on turf and in orchards
                                                                                                                                    

    Organism                           Use        Food type     Food residue    LC50             TER      Risk
                                                                (mg/kg food)    (mg/kg food)
                                                                                                                                    

    Grelag goose (Anser anser)         Turf       Vegetation    168a            > 6250           > 37.2   Low
    Song thrush (Turdus philomelos)    Turf       Earthworms    8.58b           > 6250           > 728    Negligible
    Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)        Orchard    Cherries      0.89b           > 6250           > 7022   Negligible
                                                                                                                                    

    TER, toxicity:exposure ratio
    a    Calculated from the vertebrate risk assessment scheme of the European Plant Protection Organisation/Council of Europe
    b    Based on actual data on residue levels
        7.  Further research

         Studies are required on the long-term toxicity of fenarimol-
    contaminated sediment to sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

        Table 7.  Risks to insectivorous, grazing, and fruit-eating mammals from the use of fenarimol on turf and soft fruit
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism                            Use            Food type       Food residue    Expected daily       LD50     TER          Risk
                                                                       (mg/kg food)    intake (mg/kg bw)
                                                                                                                                              

    Shrew (Sorex araneus)               Turf           Earthworms      8.58a           8.57                 2500     291          Negligible
    Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)      Turf           Grass           168b            70                   2500     35.7         Low
    Wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)    Soft fruit     Strawberries    0.14b           0.06                 2500     > 10 000     Negligible
                                                                                                                                              

    TER, toxicity:exposure ratio
    a    Based on actual data on residue levels
    b    Calculated
        8.  Previous evaluations by international bodies

         A monograph on fenarimol is available from the European
    Commission (91/414/EEC).

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    Smith, S.K. & Saunders, D.G. (1982b) Photolysis of fenarimol on soil.
         DowElanco Company report.

    Sullivan, W.L. & Saunders, D.G. (1976) Laboratory soil leaching with
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    Todt, K., Niemann, I. & Thiele, E. (1988) Effect of pesticides on the
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Fenarimol (Pesticide residues in food: 1995 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)