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Triazine herbicides

1. NAME
   1.1 Substance
   1.2 Group
   1.3 Synonyms
   1.4 Identification numbers
      1.4.1 CAS number
      1.4.2 Other numbers
   1.5 Main brand names, main trade names
   1.6 Main manufacturers, main importers
2. SUMMARY
   2.1 Main risks and target organs
   2.2 Summary of clinical effects
   2.3 Diagnosis
   2.4 First aid measures and management principles
3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
   3.1 Origin of the substance
   3.2 Chemical structure
   3.3 Physical properties
      3.3.1 Colour
      3.3.2 State/Form
      3.3.3 Description
   3.4 Hazardous characteristics
4. USES
   4.1 Uses
      4.1.1 Uses
      4.1.2 Description
   4.2 High risk circumstance of poisoning
   4.3 Occupationally exposed populations
5. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
   5.1 Oral
   5.2 Inhalation
   5.3 Dermal
   5.4 Eye
   5.5 Parenteral
   5.6 Other
6. KINETICS
   6.1 Absorption by route of exposure
   6.2 Distribution by route of exposure
   6.3 Biological half-life by route of exposure
   6.4 Metabolism
   6.5 Elimination and excretion
7. TOXICOLOGY
   7.1 Mode of action
   7.2 Toxicity
      7.2.1 Human data
         7.2.1.1 Adults
         7.2.1.2 Children
      7.2.2 Relevant animal data
      7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data
      7.2.4 Workplace standards
      7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
   7.3 Carcinogenicity
   7.4 Teratogenicity
   7.5 Mutagenicity
   7.6 Interactions
8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS
   8.1 Material sampling plan
      8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection
         8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
   8.2 Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation
      8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material
         8.2.1.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.1.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.1.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.1.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
      8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens
         8.2.2.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.2.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.2.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.5 Other Dedicated Method(s)
      8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses
   8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation
      8.3.1 Biochemical analysis
         8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum
         8.3.1.2 Urine
         8.3.1.3 Other fluids
      8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses
      8.3.3 Haematological analyses
      8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations
   8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation
   8.5 Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations
   8.6 References
9. CLINICAL EFFECTS
   9.1 Acute poisoning
      9.1.1 Ingestion
      9.1.2 Inhalation
      9.1.3 Skin exposure
      9.1.4 Eye contact
      9.1.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.1.6 Other
   9.2 Chronic poisoning
      9.2.1 Ingestion
      9.2.2 Inhalation
      9.2.3 Skin exposure
      9.2.4 Eye contact
      9.2.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.2.6 Other
   9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death
   9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects
      9.4.1 Cardiovascular
      9.4.2 Respiratory
      9.4.3 Neurological
         9.4.3.1 Central nervous system (CNS)
         9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system
         9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system
         9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle
      9.4.4 Gastrointestinal
      9.4.5 Hepatic
      9.4.6 Urinary
         9.4.6.1 Renal
         9.4.6.2 Other
      9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems
      9.4.8 Dermatological
      9.4.9 Eye, ear, nose, throat: local effects
      9.4.10 Haematological
      9.4.11 Immunological
      9.4.12 Metabolic
         9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances
         9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances
         9.4.12.3 Others
      9.4.13 Allergic reactions
      9.4.14 Other clinical effects
      9.4.15 Special risks
   9.5 Other
   9.6 Summary
10. MANAGEMENT
   10.1 General principles
   10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific treatment
   10.3 Decontamination
   10.4 Enhanced elimination
   10.5 Antidote treatment
      10.5.1 Adults
      10.5.2 Children
   10.6 Management discussion
11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES
   11.1 Case reports from literature
12. Additional information
   12.1 Specific preventive measures
   12.2 Other
13. REFERENCES
14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE ADDRESS(ES)
    Triazine Herbicides

    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Poisons Information Monograph G013 (Group PIM)
    Chemical

    This Monograph has the following sections
    completed: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, & 10.


    1.  NAME

        1.1  Substance

             Triazine herbicides

        1.2  Group

             This group includes amitrole (aminotriazole), atrazine,
             cyanazine, simazine and trietazine.

        1.3  Synonyms

             Amitrole:
             Amerol; Amino triazole weedkiller 90;
             Aminotriazol-spritzpulver;
             Aminotriazole; Amitol;
             Amitril; Amitril T.L.;
             Amitrol; Amitrol 90;
             Amitrol-T; Amizol; Amizol D;
             Amizol DP NAU; Amizol F; 
             AT; AT liquid; AT-90;
             ATA; Azaplant;
             Azaplant kombi; Azolan;
             Azole; Campaprim A 1544;
             Cytrol; Cytrol amitrole-T;
             Cytrole; Diurol;
             Diurol 5030; Domatol;
             Domatol 88; Elmasil; Emisol;
             Emisol 50; Emisol F;
             ENT 25445; Fenamine;
             Fenavar; Herbidal total;
             Herbizole; Kleer-lot;
             Orga-414; Radoxone TL;
             Ramizol;  RCRA waste number U011;
             Simazol; Solution concentree T271;
             Triazolamine; USAF XR-22;
             Vorox; Vorox AA; Vorox AS;
             Weedar ADS; Weedar AT;
             Weedazin; Weedazin arginit;
             Weedazol; Weedazol GP2;
             Weedazol super; Weedazol T;
             Weedazol TL; Weedex granulat;
             Weedoclor;  X-All liquid;

             Atrazine:
             A 361; Aatram 20G; Aatrex;
             Aatrex 4L; Aatrex 80W;
             Aatrex nine-O; Aktikon;
             Aktikon PK; Aktinit A; 

             Aktinit PK; Aneldazin;
             Argezin; Atazinax; Atranex;
             Atrasine; Atratol A;
             Atrazin; Atred; Atrex;
             Candex; Cekuzina-T;
             Chromozin; Crisatrina;
             Crisazine; Cyazin;
             Farmco atrazine; Fenamin;
             Fenamine; Fenatrol; G 30027;
             Geigy 30,027; Gesaprim;
             Gesoprim; Giffex 4L;
             Griffex; Herbatoxol;
             Hungazin; Hungazin PK;
             Inakor; Oleogesaprim;
             Primatol; Primatol A;
             Primaze; Radazin; Radizine;
             Shell atrazine herbicide; Strazine;
             Triazine A 1294; Vectal;
             Vectal SC; Weedex A; Wonuk;
             Zeaphos; Zeapos; Zeazin;
             Zeazine; Zeopos;

             Cyanazine:
             Bladex; Bladex 80WP;
             Blanchol; DW3418; Fortrol;
             Payze; Propanenitrile; SD
             15418; WL 19805;

             Simazine:
             A 2079; Aktinit S; Aquazine;
             Azotop; Batazina; Bitemol;
             Bitemol S 50; CAT; CDT;
             Cekusan; Cekusima;
             Cekuzina-S; CET; Framed;
             G 27692; Geigy 27,692;
             Gesaran; Gesatop;
             Gesatop 50; H 1803;
             Herbatoxol S; Herbazin;
             Herbazin 50; Herbex;
             Herboxy; Hungazin DT;
             Premazine; Primatol S;
             Princep; Printop; Radocon;
             Radokor; Simadex; Simanex;
             Simatsin-neste; Simazin;
             Simazine; Simazine 80W;
             Symazine; Tafazine;
             Tafazine 50-W; Taphazine;
             Triazine A 384; W 6658;
             Weedex; Yrodazin; Zeapur;


             Trietazine:
             Aventox; Bronox; 27901;
             Gesafloc; NC 1667; Remtal;

        1.4  Identification numbers

             1.4.1  CAS number

                    Amitole: 61-82-5
                    Atrazine: 1912-24-9
                    Cyanazine: 21725-46-2
                    Simazine: 122-34-9
                    Trietazine: 1912-26-1

             1.4.2  Other numbers

                    Amitrole    NIOSH/RTECS:    XZ3850000
                    Simazine    NIOSH/RTYECS:   XY5250000
                    Trietazine  NIOSH/RTECS:    XY5425000

        1.5  Main brand names, main trade names

        1.6  Main manufacturers, main importers

    2.  SUMMARY

        2.1  Main risks and target organs

             Triazine herbicides are of low toxicity to humans.

        2.2  Summary of clinical effects

             Ingestion: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain
             and a burning sensation in the mouth.
             However, due to the lack of clinical data serious effects
             cannot be excluded from large dose deliberate ingestions.  In
             the case of products with organic solvents, aspiration can
             develop. Ataxia, anorexia, dyspnoea and muscle spasms have
             all been reported in animal studies but have not been seen in
             humans.
             Inhalation: There may be irritation from fine dust and some
             preparations may contain organic solvents.
             Skin: Although triazine herbicides are thought to be non
             irritant, there are a few reports of contact dermatitis in
             the literature.
             Eye: Triazine herbicides may be slightly irritant to the
             eye.

        2.3  Diagnosis

             History of exposure to triazine herbicides, and
             gastrointestinal (GI) irritation, are sufficient for the
             diagnosis.


        2.4  First aid measures and management principles

             Ingestion: In most cases there is probably no need for
             anything other than oral fluids and reassurance. If a very
             large amount has been ingested then consider:
             adult: gastric lavage (with a cuffed endotracheal tube if an
             organic solvent is involved) followed by 50 g activated
             charcoal,
             child: 1 g/kg activated charcoal. Do not induce vomiting if
             product contains an organic solvent. Observe the patient if a
             large dose has been ingested. Symptomatic and supportive
             care.
             Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Give oxygen if necessary.
             Bronchodilators may be given if indicated. Otherwise treat
             for the particular solvent involved.
             Skin: Wash with copious amounts of water and prevent
             drying/cracking (due to solvent) with an emollient such as
             E45 cream.
             Eye: Irrigate for 15 to 20 minutes with running water or
             saline. Refer to an ophthalmologist.

    3.  PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

        3.1  Origin of the substance

             Synthetic

        3.2  Chemical structure

             Amitrole
             Chemical Name:
             3-Amino-s-triazole;
             1-H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylamine (IUPAC chemical name);
             1H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-Amine (CAS chemical name);
             2-Amino-1,3,4-triazole;
             2-Aminothiazole;
             2-Aminotriazole;
             3,A-T; 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole;
             3-Amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole;
             3-Amino-s-triazole;
             3-Aminotriazole
    
             Molecular formula:       C2H4N4
             Molecular weight:        84.08
    
             Atrazine
             Chemical names:
             1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-Diamine;
             6-Chloro-N-Ethyl-N'-(1-Methylethyl)-;
             1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-diamine;
             6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)- (9CI);
             1-Chloro-3-Ethylamino-5-Isopropylamino-2,4,6-Triazine;

             1-Chloro-3-Ethylamino-5-Isopropylamino-S-Triazine;
             2-Aethylamino-4-chlor-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazin;
             2-Aethylamino-4-Chlor-6-Isopropylamino-1,3,5-Triazin 
             (German);
             2-Aethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-chlor-1,3,5-triazin;
             2-Chloro-4-(2-Propylamino)-6-Ethylamino-S-Triazine;
             2-Chloro-4-ethylamineisopropylamine-s-triazine;
             2-Chloro-4-Ethylamino-6-Isopropylamino-1,3,5-Triazine;
             2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine;
             2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isorpopylamino-s-triazine;
             6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-
             diamin;
    
             Cyanazine:
             Chemical names:
             2-((4-Chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazin-2-yl)amino)-2-
             methylproionitrile
             2-(4-Chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2-ylamino)-2-
             methylprpionitrile
             2-(4-Chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine-2-ylamino)-2-methyl-
             propinitrile
             2-Chloro-4-(1-cyano-1-methylethylamino)-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-
             trazine
             2-((4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)-2-
             methy-s-Triazine
             2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-(1-cyano-1-methyl)ethylamino
    
             Simazine:
             Chemical names:
             1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-diamine, 6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-
             1-Chloro, 3,5-bisethylamino-2,4,6-triazine
             2,4-Bis(aethylamino)-6-chlor-1,3,5-triazin
             2,4-Bis(ethylamino)-6-chloro-s-triazine
             2-Chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine
             2-Chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine
             4,6-Bis(ethylamino)-2-chlorotriazine
             6-Chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
    
             Trietazine
             Chemical names:
             s-Triazine, 2-chloro-4-(diethylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-
             1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-diamine, 6-chloro-N,N,N'-triethyl-
             2-Chloro-4-(diethylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine
             2-Ethylamino-4-diethylamino-6-chloro-s-triazine
             6-Chloro-N(sup 2),N(sup 2),N(sup
             4)-triethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (IUPAC)
             6-Chloro-N,N,N'-triethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine


        3.3  Physical properties

             3.3.1  Colour

                    See section 3.3.3

             3.3.2  State/Form

                    See section 3.3.3

             3.3.3  Description

                    Most are poorly soluble in water and only
                    slightly soluble in organic solvents. They are
                    available as solutions (some in organic solvents),
                    suspensions or as dispersable powders and may be
                    combined with other herbicides (such as
                    phenoxyacetates, sodium chlorate or paraquat) or
                    fungicides.
    
                    Amitrole
                    Pure amitrole is a colourless crystalline powder with
                    a bitter taste.  It is a strong chelating agent with a
                    melting point of 153 to 159C and a specific gravity
                    of 1.138 at 20C.
    
                    Solubility:  300 g/L water at 20C;
                             260 g/kg ethanol at 75C;
                             moderately soluble in methylene chloride,
                             chloroform; insoluble in acetone, diethyl
                             ether and hydrocarbons.
    
                    Stability:  Amitrole is thermally stable.  It is also
                    stable in neutral or alkaline media, but it forms
                    salts. It breaks down in ultraviolet light.  Forms
                    chelates with metals, and is thus corrosive to
                    aluminium, copper and iron.
    
                    (WHO/FAO, 1994)

        3.4  Hazardous characteristics

             Amitrole:
             The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of
             nitrogen oxides. Amitrole is a weak base. It reacts with
             strong acids, strong oxidants, acid chlorides and acid
             anhydrides. It attacks iron, copper and aluminium.


    4.  USES

        4.1  Uses

             4.1.1  Uses

                    Pesticide for use on plants
                    Herbicide

             4.1.2  Description

                    Triazine herbicides are used as selective
                    weedkillers.
                    They act by inhibiting photosynthesis.

        4.2  High risk circumstance of poisoning

        4.3  Occupationally exposed populations

             Manufacturers and packers of the herbicides.
             Those mixing and using the herbicides.

    5.  ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

        5.1  Oral

             Triazine herbicides are available as water soluble powders.

        5.2  Inhalation

             Risk of inhalation ofthe powder.

        5.3  Dermal

             Exposure can occur due to the liquid formulation.

        5.4  Eye

             Exposure can occur due to the liquid formulation.

        5.5  Parenteral

             Not known.

        5.6  Other

             Not known.


    6.  KINETICS

        6.1  Absorption by route of exposure

        6.2  Distribution by route of exposure

        6.3  Biological half-life by route of exposure

        6.4  Metabolism

        6.5  Elimination and excretion

    7.  TOXICOLOGY

        7.1  Mode of action

             Amitrole has been shown to be goitrogenic in a number of 
             animal species. Amitole reduces thyroid uptake of iodine and
             inhibits the  peroxidase activity of the thyroid.  The
             resulting reduction of thyroid hormones induces a
             hypothalamus mediated TSH stimulation on the thyroid itself. 
             This prolonged stimulation is thought to be responsible for
             the induction of thyroid cancers in animals treated with high
             doses of amitrole (WHO/FAO, 1994).

        7.2  Toxicity

             7.2.1  Human data

                    7.2.1.1  Adults

                             There are no reports of fatalities
                             from ingestion of triazines in the
                             literature. One patient developed gastritis
                             after ingesting 400 mL of an unknown
                             concentration of atrazine + aminotriazole
                             (amitrole) (NPIS, 1997).
    
                             A single case report describes the
                             development of a chemical pneumonitis after
                             one exposure to an amitrole spray containing
                             19% aminotriazole, 17% ammonium thiocyanate,
                             less than 1% sodium diethylsulfosuccinate and
                             less than 1% ethylene oxide (WHO/FAO, 1994).
    
                             At an estimated dermal exposure of 340
                             mg/day/man over a 10 day spraying operation
                             no thyroid dysfunctions were detected
                             (WHO/FAO, 1994).
    

                             Prolonged exposure for up to 16 years to
                             unknown levels of amitrole during its
                             production and packaging did not cause
                             thyroid disfunction (WHO/FAO, 1994).
    
                             Observations in occupationally exposed
                             workers:
                             Observations on volunteers:  A single oral
                             dose of 100 mg of amitrole inhibited 131I
                             intake of the thyroid for 24 hours in healthy
                             and hyperthyrotid individuals.  A dose of 10
                             mg produced only slight effects (WHO/FAO,
                             1994).
    
                             Amitrole had no irritant effect in a 4 to 8
                             hour exposure dermal patch test, and had only
                             slight irritancy after 24 hours exposure
                             (WHO/FAO, 1994).

                    7.2.1.2  Children

             7.2.2  Relevant animal data

                    Chronic high dose triazine administration in
                    rats has resulted in growth retardation, slight
                    leucopaenia and modification of liver metabolism.
                    Aminotriazole or amitrole is reported to have
                    antithyroid effects in laboratory animals but this has
                    not been demonstrated in humans.
    
                    Oral LD50
                           Rat       5 000 mg/kg b.w.
                           Rat       25 000 mg/kg b.w.
                           Mouse     11 000 to 14 700 mg/kg b.w.
                           Rabbit    >2 150 mg/kg b.w.
    
                    Intraperitoneal LD50
                           Mouse     >4 000 mg/kg b.w.
    
                    Intravenous LD50
                           Mouse     5 000 mg/kg b.w.
                           Rat       >2 500 mg/kg b.w.
    
                    Dermal LD50 (24h)
                           Rabbit    >10 000 mg/kg b.w.
    
                    Inhalation LC50 (4h)
                           Rat       >439 mg/L
    
                    (WHO/FAO, 1994)


             7.2.3  Relevant in vitro data

             7.2.4  Workplace standards

                    Exposure Limits TLV: ppm: 0.2 mg/m3 (as TWA)
                    (WHO/FAO, 1994)

             7.2.5  Acceptable daily intake (ADI)

        7.3  Carcinogenicity

             High doses of amitrol induce  thyroid cancers in
             experimental animals (WHO/FAO, 1994).

        7.4  Teratogenicity

             No teratogenic effects have been detected in rats given
             up to 1000 mg/kg body weight day on days 6 to 15 gestation
             (WHO/FAO, 1994).

        7.5  Mutagenicity

             Amitrole was not mutagenic to the repair deficient
             strains of Escherichia coli nor to several strains of
             Salmonella typhimurium with or without metabolic
             activation.  Weak mutagenic activity was observed with
             Streptomyces coelicolor . No evidence of chromosomal damage
             was observed following in vitro incubation of human
             leucocytes with 0.2 to 1% (w/v) amitrole.  Concentrations
             over 0.2% were cytotoxic, inhibiting lymphoblast
             transformation.
    
             Male and female Drosophila melanogaster reared on 10 mg
             amitrole/kg media showed no evidence of amitrole induced
             sex-chromosome non-disjunction or sex-linked dominant lethal
             mutations (WHO/FAO, 1994).

        7.6  Interactions

    8.  TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

        8.1  Material sampling plan

             8.1.1  Sampling and specimen collection

                    8.1.1.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.1.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.1.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.1.4  Haematological analyses


                    8.1.1.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.2  Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.2.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.2.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.2.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.2.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.2.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.3  Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.3.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.3.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.3.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.3.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.3.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

        8.2  Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation

             8.2.1  Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

                    8.2.1.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.1.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.1.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.1.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

             8.2.2  Tests for biological specimens

                    8.2.2.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.2.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.2.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.5  Other Dedicated Method(s)


             8.2.3  Interpretation of toxicological analyses

        8.3  Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

             8.3.1  Biochemical analysis

                    8.3.1.1  Blood, plasma or serum
                             "Basic analyses"
                             "Dedicated analyses"
                             "Optional analyses"

                    8.3.1.2  Urine
                             "Basic analyses"
                             "Dedicated analyses"
                             "Optional analyses"

                    8.3.1.3  Other fluids

             8.3.2  Arterial blood gas analyses

             8.3.3  Haematological analyses
                    "Basic analyses"
                    "Dedicated analyses"
                    "Optional analyses"

             8.3.4  Interpretation of biomedical investigations

        8.4  Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their
             interpretation

        8.5  Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and 
             toxicological investigations

        8.6  References

    9.  CLINICAL EFFECTS

        9.1  Acute poisoning

             9.1.1  Ingestion

                    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and
                    a burning sensation in the mouth.
                    However due to the lack of clinical data serious
                    effects cannot be excluded from large dose deliberate
                    ingestions.  In the case of organic solvent containing
                    products, aspiration can develop.   Ataxia, anorexia,
                    dyspnoea and muscle spasms have all been reported in
                    animal studies but have not been seen in humans.


             9.1.2  Inhalation

                    There may be irritation from fine dust in some
                    preparations. Some preparations may contain organic
                    solvents.

             9.1.3  Skin exposure

                    Although triazine herbicides are thought to be
                    non irritant, there are a few reports of contact
                    dermatitis in the literature (Schlicher & Beat, 1972).

             9.1.4  Eye contact

                    Triazine herbicides may be slightly irritant to
                    the eye.

             9.1.5  Parenteral exposure

                    Not known.

             9.1.6  Other

                    Not known.

        9.2  Chronic poisoning

             9.2.1  Ingestion

             9.2.2  Inhalation

             9.2.3  Skin exposure

             9.2.4  Eye contact

             9.2.5  Parenteral exposure

             9.2.6  Other

        9.3  Course, prognosis, cause of death

        9.4  Systematic description of clinical effects

             9.4.1  Cardiovascular

             9.4.2  Respiratory

             9.4.3  Neurological

                    9.4.3.1  Central nervous system (CNS)


                    9.4.3.2  Peripheral nervous system

                    9.4.3.3  Autonomic nervous system

                    9.4.3.4  Skeletal and smooth muscle

             9.4.4  Gastrointestinal

             9.4.5  Hepatic

             9.4.6  Urinary

                    9.4.6.1  Renal

                    9.4.6.2  Other

             9.4.7  Endocrine and reproductive systems

             9.4.8  Dermatological

             9.4.9  Eye, ear, nose, throat: local effects

             9.4.10 Haematological

             9.4.11 Immunological

             9.4.12 Metabolic

                    9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances

                    9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

                    9.4.12.3 Others

             9.4.13 Allergic reactions

             9.4.14 Other clinical effects

             9.4.15 Special risks

        9.5  Other

        9.6  Summary

    10. MANAGEMENT

        10.1 General principles

             Ingestion: In most cases there is probably no need
             for anything other than oral fluids and reassurance. If a
             very large amount has been ingested then consider for:
             adult: gastric lavage (with a cuffed endotracheal tube if an
             organic solvent is involved) followed by 50 g activated
             charcoal.

             child: 1 g/kg activated charcoal. Do not induce vomiting if
             product contains an organic solvent. Observe the patient if a
             large dose has been taken. Symptomatic and supportive
             care.
             Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Give oxygen if necessary.
             Bronchodilators may be given if indicated. Otherwise treat
             for the particular solvent involved.
             Skin: Wash with copious amounts of water and prevent
             drying/cracking (due to solvent) with an emollient such as
             E45 cream.
             Eye: Irrigate for 15-20 min with running water or saline.
             Refer to an ophthalmologist.

        10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific treatment

             See section 10.1

        10.3 Decontamination

             If a very large amount has been ingested then consider
             for:
             adult: gastric lavage (with a cuffed endotracheal tube if an
             organic solvent is involved) followed by 50 g activated
             charcoal.
             child: 1 g/kg activated charcoal. Do not induce vomiting if
             product contains an organic solvent. Observe the patient if a
             large dose has been taken. Symptomatic and supportive
             care.

        10.4 Enhanced elimination

             See section 10.1

        10.5 Antidote treatment

             10.5.1 Adults

                    No antidote available.

             10.5.2 Children

                    No antidote available.

        10.6 Management discussion

             See section 10.1

    11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

        11.1 Case reports from literature


    12. Additional information

        12.1 Specific preventive measures

        12.2 Other

    13. REFERENCES

        NPIS (1997) National Poisons Information Service, London, UK.
    
        Schlicher J.E. & Beat V.B. (1972) Dermatitis resulting from
        herbicide use - a case study. J. Iowa Med. Soc. 62(8): 419-420
    
        WHO/FAO (1994) Amitrole Data Sheet on Pesticides No.79. World
        Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE 
        ADDRESS(ES)

        Author:     Medical Toxicology Unit,
                    Guys and St Thomas Trust
                    Avonley Road, London SE14 5ER, UK
    
        Date:       March, 1997
    
        Review:     As for author. 1997
    
        Peer review:         INTOX meeting, March 1998, London, UK
                             (Members of group: Drs G. Allridge, L.
                             Lubomovir, R. Turk, C. Alonso, S. de Ben, K.
                             Hartigan-Go, N. Bates)
    
        Editor:     Dr M.Ruse (September, 1998)
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations