IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
Health and Safety Guide No. 67
HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991
This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 127:
Published by the World Health Organization for the International
Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
and the World Health Organization)
This report contains the collective views of an international group of
experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization
WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Acrolein : health and safety guide.
(Health and safety guide ; no. 67)
1.Acrolein - adverse effects
2.Acrolein - standards
3.Acrolein - toxicity
4.Environmental exposure I.Series
ISBN 92 4 151067 6 (NLM Classification: QD 305.A6)
(c) World Health Organization 1991
Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
Universal Copyright Convention. For rights of reproduction or
translation of WHO publications, in part or in toto, application
should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization
welcomes such applications.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
1.2. Physical and chemical properties
1.5. Production and uses
2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
2.1. Exposure to acrolein
2.2. Fate of acrolein
2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
2.5. Effects on animals
2.6. Effects on human beings
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
4.2. Advice to physicians
4.3. Health surveillance advice
4.4. Explosion and fire hazards and their prevention
4.4.1. Explosion and fire hazards
4.4.3. Fire-extinguishing agents
4.7. Spillage and disposal
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
7.1. Exposure limit values
7.2. Specific restrictions
7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
7.4. Waste disposal
The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
agents. They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.
The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.
Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
emergency. Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical. The
section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
(IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.
The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
this topic. An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
familiar to the intended user. However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
contain some technical terms. A bibliography has been included for
readers who require further background information.
Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology.
Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
very helpful and should be addressed to:
International Programme on Chemical Safety
Division of Environmental Health
World Health Organization
1211 Geneva 27
THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
Common name: acrolein
Chemical formula: C3H4O
H C = O
C = C
Common synonyms: acraldehyde; acrylaldehyde; acrylic aldehyde;
allylaldehyde; propenal; 2-propenal;
Common trade names: Acquinite; Aqualin; Aqualine; Biocide;
Magnicide-H; NSC 8819; Slimicide
CAS registry number: 107-02-8
RTECS registry number: AS 1050000
UN number: UN 1092
Conversion factor: 1 ppm = 2.29 mg/m3 air;
1 mg/m3 air = 0.44 ppm:
at 25°C and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg)
1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties
Acrolein is a volatile, colourless, highly flammable liquid at
ordinary temperature and pressure. Its odour is pungent, choking, and
disagreeable. The compound is fairly soluble in water and in organic
solvents, such as ethanol and diethylether. It is extremely reactive
and, in the absence of an inhibitor, highly exothermic polymerization
occurs at room temperature, catalysed by light and air. Highly
exothermic polymerization also occurs in the presence of traces of
acids or strong bases. Inhibited acrolein shows dimerization at
temperatures exceeding 150°C.
Some physical and chemical data on acrolein are presented in the
Summary of Chemical Safety Information (section 6).
Commercial acrolein contains 95.5% or more of the compound, the main
impurities being water (< 3.0% by weight) and other carbonyl
compounds (< 1.5% by weight), mainly propanal and acetone.
Hydroquinone is added as an inhibitor of polymerization
(0.1-0.25% by weight).
Acrolein in ambient air, exhaust gas, and tobacco smoke can be
determined colorimetrically following absorption in an ethanolic
solution of 4-hexylresorcinol, mercuric chloride, and trichloroacetic
acid. The detection limit is 20 µg/m3, with a sample volume of
50 litres of ambient air. A sample volume of 1 or 2 litres is
sufficient for exhaust gas. There is slight interference from dienes
and alpha,ß-unsaturated aldehydes. The method can be adapted for the
analysis of liquid samples.
An alternative analytical method requires adsorption of the acrolein
on to a 2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-coated XAD-2 resin column,
elution with toluene, followed by gas-phase chromatography.
1.5 Production and Uses
The world production of isolated acrolein was estimated to be
59 kilotonnes in 1975. However, a large amount is also produced as an
intermediate in the synthesis of acrylic acid and its esters. The
compound is a product of the incomplete combustion, or chemical
degradation by heat, of organic materials, such as fuels, synthetic
polymers, food, and tobacco. Acrolein is of rare natural occurrence.
The substance is primarily used as an intermediate in chemical
synthesis and as an aquatic biocide.
2.1 Exposure to Acrolein
The general population will normally be exposed to acrolein through
the air, particularly through exposure to smoke. Only persons who are
present when acrolein is being applied as a biocide, or who are near
an accident during the transport of acrolein, are likely to have
contact with the liquid or its solution in water. Some alcoholic
drinks contain a little acrolein, and it is also produced during the
heating of foodstuffs.
Average levels of up to approximately 15 µg/m3 and maximum levels of
up to 32 µg/m3 were measured in urban air, away from industrial
Acrolein is principally produced by fire, especially during the
partial burning of organic material. Thus, atmospheric levels ten or
one hundred times higher than those mentioned above may be found near
exhaust pipes, near hot smoking oil, or in the smoke of wood or
In indoor air, smoking one cigarette per m3 room in 10-13 min was
found to lead to acrolein vapour concentrations of 450-840 µg/m3.
Thus, humans may be exposed in the home through cigarette smoking or
through the smoke from cooking; they may also be exposed in a street
polluted by exhaust gases, or near a fire. In the workplace, exposure
may occur through the heating of organic material during the welding,
cutting, or sealing of plastic sheeting, or near hot smoking oil in
oil-seed mills, where levels as high as 10 000 µg/m3 have been
2.2 Fate of Acrolein
Acrolein is degraded in the atmosphere. In natural water, it
dissipates fairly rapidly, though the toxicity of the compound for
microorganisms may limit biodegradation. Bioaccumulation of acrolein
is not expected, and it is not likely to persist in the environment.
2.3 Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion
Acrolein is a very reactive substance and reacts with substances
present in the tissue at the site of contact. As a result, irritation
and damage occur at these contact sites and transport through the body
is only slight. Thus, metabolism is expected to occur only on a minor
2.4 Effects on Organisms in the Environment
Acrolein is very toxic for aquatic organisms and kills many bacteria,
algae, crustacea, and fish at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to
2.5 mg/litre. The concentration that did not affect fish was
0.01 mg/litre. This toxic property is used in the control of aquatic
weeds, for which dosages of between 4 and 26 mg/litre.h are
recommended; concentrations raging from 0.4 to 0.6 mg/litre are
adequate for the control of slime in industrial waters.
Acrolein-treated water, when used for irrigation, caused damage to
crops when the concentration was 15 mg/litre.
2.5 Effects on Animals
Liquid acrolein is corrosive, and the vapour is highly toxic for
experimental animals. Irritation to the eyes, nose, and respiratory
tract, and effects on breathing occur at, or above, a level in air of
0.5 mg/m3. With increasing concentration or long-term exposure,
inflammation and degeneration of the tissues are observed, mortality
occurring at concentrations exceeding 9 mg/m3.
Acrolein has been shown to affect the animal fetus only at
concentrations that are toxic for the mother. In some animal studies,
acrolein has been shown to decrease the ability of the lungs to cope
Weak effects of acrolein were seen in some tests designed to
investigate the interaction of chemicals with genetic material. The
ability of acrolein to produce cancer in animals is not known, because
of the inadequacy of the studies carried out to date.
2.6 Effects on Human Beings
Some human health effects are summarized in Table 1.
Acrolein is toxic for humans. It can be detected through its odour by
sensitive persons at 0.07 mg/m3, and the eyes begin to become
irritated at 0.13 mg/m3. Irritation is marked and the respiratory
tract is affected at, or above, 1 mg/m3. At higher levels, oedema
of the trachea and bronchi occurs and may result in breathing
The effects of long-term atmospheric exposure of humans to acrolein at
tolerable levels are not known, but the concentrations likely to be
found in the environment or workplace should not affect human
In the liquid state, acrolein is highly corrosive. In solution in
ethanol, for example, it causes swelling and blistering of the skin at
a concentration of 1%. It is not known whether acrolein causes
Table 1. Thresholds for the acute effects of acrolein in human beings
Concentration Time Effect
0.07 - odour perception
0.1-0.2 5 eye irritation
0.3 10 nasal irritation
30 increased eye blinking
0.7 40 decreased respiratory rate
1.0 5 lacrimation
2.0 0.3 extreme irritation of mucosal
3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The general population is affected by acrolein through the respiration
of air that is contaminated by the fumes of partly burned organic
material. The vapour is irritating to the eyes, nose, and the
respiratory system at levels exceeding 0.13 mg/m3. The liquid is
corrosive to the skin and, in solution in ethanol, acrolein causes
swelling and blistering at a concentration of 1%. Because of its
reactivity, it mainly combines with components of the tissues near the
point of contact; thus transport through the body is reduced.
The urban ambient air levels observed, which have rarely exceeded
0.03 mg/m3, would not be expected to cause annoyance to, or adverse
effects on, humans. Evidence from animal studies indicates possible
effects on the resistance to lung infection. Available
carcinogenicity studies are inadequate to make a final evaluation of
the carcinogenicity of acrolein for humans.
Acrolein is very toxic for aquatic organisms and is used as an aquatic
herbicide and slimicide. Its discharge into surface waters presents a
risk for aquatic life. It is, however, quite rapidly destroyed both
in surface water and in the atmosphere, and is not expected to
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1 Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid
The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
acrolein, together with preventive and protective measures and
first-aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of Chemical
Safety Information (section 6).
4.2 Advice to Physicians
Although no specific antidote is known, it is probable that sulfhydryl
compounds, such as N-acetylcysteine or mercaptoethanesulfonic acid
sodium salt, would be of benefit.
Treatment of the irritative effects of acrolein should be symptomatic
and supportive. Following inhalation of acrolein, signs of
respiratory dysfunction should be sought and hypoxia corrected.
Specific treatment for bronchospasm and non-cardiogenic pulmonary
oedema may be necessary. Hypoxia may also occur following the
ingestion of acrolein if there is pulmonary aspiration and/or
laryngeal oedema. The extent and severity of the corrosive effects on
the upper gastrointestinal mucosa should be determined, for example,
by endoscopy, and advice should be sought regarding the need for
4.3 Health Surveillance Advice
Workers who are frequently potentially exposed to acrolein should be
examined for irritant and respiratory effects.
4.4 Explosion and Fire Hazards and Their Prevention
4.4.1 Explosion and fire hazards
Acrolein is a highly flammable liquid. Mixtures with air containing
2.8-31% by volume of acrolein are explosive, and at, or above, -26°C
acrolein can be ignited by sources of heat or ignition. The
autoignition temperature is 234°C. The substance is not sensitive to
shock. The vapour is heavier than air, and may travel along the
ground and be ignited from a distance. The compound reacts with
alkalis, acids, amines, sulfur dioxide, thiourea, metal salts, and
oxidants. Highly exothermic polymerization of the uninhibited
compound is catalysed by heat, light, and air, and can begin at room
Highly exothermic polymerization of the inhibited compound can also
occur in the presence of traces of strong acids, alkalis, or amines
(see section 4.5).
Use closed apparatus, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical
equipment and lighting, and reduced-sparking hand tools. Do not use
acrolein near sources of ignition. Do not smoke. Do not use
compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling. Do not allow
the compound to come into contact with strong oxidants (see section
In case of fire, keep containers cool by spraying with water.
Fire-fighters should use self-contained breathing apparatus.
4.4.3 Fire-extinguishing agents
Use dry chemical powder, alcohol-resistant foam, copious amounts of
water, or carbon dioxide.
Acrolein should be stored under an inert gas, with the addition of an
inhibitor (hydroquinone: 0.1-0.25% by weight), away from foodstuffs
and incompatible materials (see section 4.4.1) in a cool, dark,
fire-proof container. The pH should be adjusted to 5-6 by the
addition of acetic acid, and an emergency supply of buffer solution
containing glacial acetic acid (84%), photo-grade hydroquinone (8%),
and sodium acetate (8%) must be available, in case a temperature rise
occurs. Water must not be added to stored acrolein.
In case of an accident, stop the engine. Remove all sources of
ignition. Keep bystanders at a distance and mark the roads. Keep
upwind. In case of spillage or fire, use the methods advised in
sections 4.7 and 4.4, respectively. Notify the police and the fire
brigade immediately. In case of poisoning, follow the advice in
4.7 Spillage and Disposal
Ensure personal protection. Remove all ignition sources. Evacuate
the area. Ventilate the area. If practicable, collect leaking liquid
in a sealable container. Absorb spilt liquid in earth or suitable
absorbent and remove to a safe place. Flush the area with plenty of
water. For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite
(Na2HSO3), add a small amount of water, and mix. Then, after one
hour, flush with large amounts of water. Avoid entry of liquid
acrolein into sewers or other confined places, as the vapour may
create an explosive atmosphere.
Aqueous wastes containing low concentrations of acrolein are usually
neutralized with sodium hydroxide and fed to a sewage treatment plant
for biological treatment. Concentrated wastes are reprocessed,
whenever possible, or burnt in special waste incinerators.
Acrolein may be subject to explosive self-polymerization. Handle with
care. Discharge carefully into water, add excess 10% sodium bisulfite
(Na2HSO3) solution. Dilute product with a lot of water and
discharge into an oxidation pond, or transport without dilution to an
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
In view of the high toxicity of acrolein for aquatic organisms, the
substance presents a risk to aquatic life at, or near, sites of
industrial discharges or spills, and during biocidal use.
Contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere can be avoided by the
use of proper methods of storage, transport, and waste disposal. In
case of spillage, apply the methods recommended in section 4.7.1. Use
closed systems, where feasible.
6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION
This summary should be easily available to all health workers
concerned with, and users of, acrolein. It should be displayed at, or
near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
acrolein, and on processing equipment and containers. The summary
should be translated into the appropriate language(s). All persons
potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
in the summary clearly explained.
Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
Poison Control Centre, and local trade names.
(2-propenal, acrylaldehyde, allylaldehyde)
CH2 = CHCHO
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Relative molecular mass 56.06 Volatile, colourless liquid with pungent, choking, and
Melting point (°C) -87 disagreeable odour; extremely reactive substance;
Boiling point (°C) 52.5 highly exothermic polymerization occurs, in presence of
Water solubility (g/litre, 20°C) 206 traces of acids or strong bases even when an inhibitor is
Specific density (20°C) 0.8427 present; the vapour is heavier than air, and may travel
Relative vapour density 1.94 along the ground and be ignited from a distance;
Vapour pressure (kPa) (20°C) 29.3 the compound is destructive to mucous membranes, and may
Ignition temperature (°C) 235 be fatal, if inhaled or swallowed
Flash point (closed cup) (°C) -26
Flammability (explosive) limits (vol %) 2.8-31.0
HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS PREVENTION AND PROTECTION FIRST AID
SKIN: corrosive, burns, redness, Wear clean, impervious clothing, Remove contaminated clothing and
pain gloves, and shoes shoes instantly; wash with plenty of
water and soap for at least 15-20 minutes;
obtain medical attention immediately
EYES: corrosive, redness, pain, Wear safety goggles or face-shield Rinse with plenty of water for at
lacrimation least 15 minutes; obtain medical
INHALATION: severe irritation of Apply ventilation, local exhaust, or Remove victim to fresh air and keep
all exposed mucosae; painful breathing protection by a positive quiet and warm; if breathing has
sensation in nose and throat; at pressure respirator stopped, apply artificial respiration;
higher exposures, inflammation and obtain medical attention immediately
damage to the respiratory tract
and breathing difficulties
INGESTION: severe irritation or Do not eat, drink, chew, or smoke Rinse mouth; immediately give large
corrosion of mouth, throat, and during work; do not keep food in quantities of water or milk to
gastrointestinal tract areas with potential exposure; keep drink; do NOT induce vomiting;
out of reach of children obtain medical attention immediately
ENVIRONMENT: presents a Contamination of water, soil,
severe risk for aquatic organisms and atmosphere can be avoided by
proper methods of storage, transport,
and waste disposal
SPILLAGE STORAGE FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Ensure personal protection; Store with addition of an inhibitor, Acrolein is highly flammable;
remove ignition sources; evacuate away from foodstuffs and separately air-vapour mixtures may be explosive;
and ventilate the area; collect from other chemicals in a cool, keep away sources of ignition; use
leaking liquid in container; absorb dark, fire-proof, and well-labelled closed apparatus, and explosion-proof
spilt liquid in earth or inert area with ventilation across the equipment; apply ventilation;
absorbent, flush area with plenty of floor; containers must be labelled, in case of fire, keep containers cool
water; for large quantities cover tightly closed, and kept in a good by water spraying; extinguish fires
with sodium bisulfite, add water, condition; for large quantities, an with dry chemical powder, alcohol
and mix, flush with water after acetic acid-sodium acetate-hydroquinone foam, much water, carbon dioxide
1 h; do not allow run-off into buffer must be available
Neutralize aqueous waste with National occupational exposure UN 1092
sodium hydroxide and treat limit:
biologically; reprocess or
incinerate concentrates National Poison Control Centre:
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
The information given in this section has been extracted from the
International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
file. A full reference to the original national document from which
the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC. When no
effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).
The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
framework of the legislation of that country. Furthermore, the
regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and
should always be verified with appropriate regulatory authorities
7.1 Exposure Limit Values
Exposure limit values are listed in the table on page 22.
7.2 Specific restrictions
In the USA, the substance may be used in the manufacture of the food
additive "modified food starch" in an amount not to exceed that which
is reasonably required to accomplish the intended effect, or to exceed
4% when added alone, or 0.6% when added with vinyl acetate (effective
date: 1983 (r)).
The substance may be used as a slimicide in the manufacture of paper
and paperboard that come into contact with food (effective date: 1983
Pesticide products containing the substance are normally limited to
use by, or under the direct supervision of, a certified applicator,
and must be so labelled together with the words "restricted use
pesticide" and a summary of the terms of the restricitions (effective
Exposure limit values
Medium Specification Country/ Exposure limit description Value Effective
AIR Occupational Australia Threshold limit value (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1989 (r)
Belgium Threshold limit value (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1985 (r)
Germany, Federal Maximum worksite concentration (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1986 (r)
Republic of Short-term exposure limit (5-min) 0.50 mg/m3b 1986 (r)
Hungary Maximum allowable concentration (TWA) 0.7 mg/m3 1985 (r)
Short-term exposure limit (20-min) 1.4 mg/m3 1985 (r)
Japan Maximum allowable concentration (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1982 (r)
Sweden Highest limit value (TWA) 0.2 mg/m3 1989
Short-term exposure limit (15-min TWA) 0.7 mg/m3 1989
USA (OSHA) Permissible exposure level (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1974
USA (ACGIH) Threshold limit value (TWA) 0.25 mg/m3 1989 (r)
Short-term exposure limit (TWA) 0.8 mg/m3 1989 (r)
USSR Ceiling value 0.2 mg/m3 1977
AIR Ambient USSR Maximum allowable concentration
average per day 0.03 mg/m3 1984
once per day 0.03 mg/m3 1984
a TWA = time-weighted-average over one working day (usually 8 h).
b Ceiling value, 8 times per shift, local irritant.
7.3 Labelling, Packaging, and Transport
The European Economic Community legislation requires labelling as a
highly flammable and toxic substance using the symbols:
The label must read:
Toxic by inhalation; irritating to eyes, respiratory system and
skin; do not empty into drains; take precautionary measures
against static discharges; if you feel unwell, seek medical
advice (show the label where possible).
If the substance is not stabilized, this must be stated on the label
by adding the words "non-stabilized" after the name of the substance
(effective date: 1982 (r)).
The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods and the International Maritime Organisation classify
acrolein as a flammable liquid (Class 3 and 3.1, respectively) with
subsidiary risk as a poisonous substance. Acrolein is also classified
as a very dangerous substance for packing purposes (Packing Group I).
Packing methods and labels are recommended (effective dates: 1982
(r)). The recommended labels are:
In Japan, acrolein is designated as deleterious by law (effective
date: 1983 (r)), and must be labelled in red letters on a white
background "NOT FOR MEDICATION".
7.4 Waste Disposal
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the air emissions of organic
compounds in Class I, which includes acrolein, must not exceed (as the
sum of all compounds in this class) a mass concentration of 20 mg/m3
at a mass flow of more than 0.1 kg/h. If compounds of different
classes are present, the mass concentration must not exceed 30 mg/m3
(effective date: 1982 (r)).
In the USA, any solid waste (except domestic) that contains acrolein
must be listed as hazardous waste, subject to handling, transport,
treatment, storage, and disposal requirements, unless it is found that
the waste cannot pose a threat to human health or the environment when
improperly managed (effective date: 1980). If acrolein is a
commercial chemical product, it is identified as "acute hazardous
waste", subject to handling, transport, treatment, storage, and
disposal regulations and permit and notification requirements
(effective date: 1980). An owner or operator of a hazardous waste
incinerator must achieve 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency for
the substance, if it is designated as a principal organic hazardous
constituent in its EPA permit (effective date: 1981).
In the USA, the substance, including any isomers, hydrates, and
solutions and mixtures containing the substance, is designated as a
hazardous substance for the purposes of discharge under the water
pollution control act (effective date: 1983 (r)). Permits are
required for the discharge of acrolein from any point source into US
waters (effective date: 1980). The US EPA is required to set, or has
set, effluent limitations and pretreatment standards for 21 major
industries regarding acrolein (effective date: 1983 (r)).
Information regarding effluent guidelines and standards for acrolein
can be found in 40 CFR 122,a 40 CFR 125, 40 CFR 413, 40 CFR 423 and
40 CFR 433. Currently, landfilling of acrolein at the US EPA-approved
site is an acceptable method of disposal; however, land disposal
restrictions are being considered by the US EPA.
a USA: Code for Federal Regulations.
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Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
ACGIH (1989) Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices
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CRANE, C.R., SANDERS, D.C., ENDECOTT, B.R., & ABBOTT, J.K. (1968)
Inhalation toxicology. VII. Times to incapacitation and death for
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