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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1982


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1982





    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 23 November - 2 December 1982

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1983


    PARAQUAT

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    Explanation

         Paraquat was evaluated by the Joint Meeting of 1970, 1972 and
    1976 (FAO/WHO 1971b, 1973b and 1976).1 An ADI was established
    (FAO/WHO 1973b) on the basis of long-term studies conducted by
    Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT), for which no replacement
    studies, validations or additional data have been submitted to the
    JMPR. Accordingly, the ADI for paraquat was re-evaluated.

    EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    COMMENTS

         A substantial amount of the toxicological data serving as the
    basis for the ADI for paraquat are essentially IBT in origin (Baran
    and Calanoba 1965; Cervenka  et al 1964; Kohn  et al 1964; Palazzolo
     et al 1964 and 1965). Several replacement studies are in progress.
    The data developed by Fletcher  et al (1972a, b) and McElligott
    (1966) provide information on the reproductive/teratogenic response in
    rats/rabbits, respectively, and on the oncogenic response in mice. No
    independently obtained validations, replacement studies or other
    additional data have been submitted to the JMPR concerning these data.
    Considering the evidence available, which demonstrates that paraquat
    accumulates in the lung following ingestion, resulting in rapid
    progressive fibrosis of the lung, and that renal failure may also
    occur, as evidenced by kidney hydropic degeneration, it is recommended
    that the present ADI be retained as a temporary ADI, pending receipt
    of data validation and/or additional data.

              

    1  See Annex 2 for WHO and FAO documentation.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    Level Causing no Toxicological Effect

         Rat : 30 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 1.5 mg/kg bw.

    Estimate of Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake for Man

         0 - 0.001 mg/kg bw as paraquat dichloride (0-0.0007 mg/kg bw
    expressed as paraquat ion).

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Required (by 1985)

    1.  A chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study in the rat.

    2.  A 12-month oral study in the dog.

    3.  A multigeneration study in the rat.

    Desirable

    1.  Further observations in humans.

    REFERENCES

    Baran, J. and Calandra, J.C. Two-year chronic oral toxicity of
    1965      paraquat-beagle dogs. Report from Industrial Bio-Test
              Laboratories (August 1964) submitted to the World Health
              Organization from ICI through Chevron Chemical Co.
              (Unpublished)

    Cervenka, H., Kay, J.H. and Calandra, J.C. Chronic oral toxicity of
    1964      paraquat-beagle dogs. Report from Industrial Bio-Test
              Laboratories (August 1964) submitted to the World Health
              Organization from ICI through Chevron Chemical Co.
              (Unpublished)

    Fletcher, K., Herring, C.M. and Robinson, V.M. Paraquat three
    1972a     generation reproduction study in rats. Report from ICI
              Industrial Hygiene Research Laboratories, submitted to the
              World Health Organization from ICI Industrial Hygiene
              Research Laboratories. (Unpublished)

    Fletcher, K., Flegg, R. and Kinch, D.A. Paraquat: carcinogenic study
    1972b     in the mouse. Report from ICI Industrial Hygiene Research
              Laboratories, submitted to the World Health Organization
              from ICI, Industrial Hygiene Research Laboratories.
              (Unpublished)

    Kohn, F.E., Kay, J.H. and Calandra, J.C. Two-year chronic oral
    1964      toxicity of paraquat-albino rats. Report from Industrial
              Bio-Test Laboratories (July 1964) submitted to the World
              Health Organization from ICI through Chevron Chemical Co.
              (Unpublished)

    Palazzolo, R.J., Kay, J.H. and Calandra, J.C. Acute aerosol inhalation
    1964      toxicity of paraquat dichloride. Report from Industrial
              Bio-Test Laboratories Inc. submitted to the World Health
              Organization from ICI (15 April 1964) through Chevron
              Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    1965      Sub-acute aerosol inhalation toxicity of paraquat
              dichloride. Report from Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories
              (January 1965) submitted to the World Health Organization
              from ICI Ltd. through Chevron Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    McElligott, T.F. Reproduction in paraquat-treated rabbits. Report from
    1966      ICI Industrial Hygiene Research Laboratories, submitted to
              the World Health Organization from ICI Industrial Hygiene
              Research Laboratories. (Unpublished)


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Paraquat (HSG 51, 1991)
       Paraquat (PDS)
       Paraquat (PIM 399)
       Paraquat (JMPR Evaluations 2003 Part II Toxicological)
       Paraquat (AGP:1970/M/12/1)
       Paraquat (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2)
       Paraquat (Pesticide residues in food: 1976 evaluations)
       Paraquat (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Paraquat (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Paraquat (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)