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Propanil

1. NAME
   1.1 Substance
   1.2 Group
   1.3 Synonyms
   1.4 Identification numbers
      1.4.1 CAS number
      1.4.2 Other numbers
   1.5 Main brand names, main trade names
   1.6 Main manufacturers, main importers
2. SUMMARY
   2.1 Main risks and target organs
   2.2 Summary of clinical effects
   2.3 Diagnosis
   2.4 First-aid measures and management principles
3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
   3.1 Origin of the substance
   3.2 Chemical structure
   3.3 Physical properties
      3.3.1 Colour
      3.3.2 State/Form
      3.3.3 Description
   3.4 Hazardous characteristics
4. USES
   4.1 Uses
      4.1.1 Uses
      4.1.2 Description
   4.2 High risk circumstance of poisoning
   4.3 Occupationally exposed populations
5. ROUTES OF ENTRY
   5.1 Oral
   5.2 Inhalation
   5.3 Dermal
   5.4 Eye
   5.5 Parenteral
   5.6 Other
6. KINETICS
   6.1 Absorption by route of exposure
   6.2 Distribution by route of exposure
   6.3 Biological half-life by route of exposure
   6.4 Metabolism
   6.5 Elimination and excretion
7. TOXICOLOGY
   7.1 Mode of Action
   7.2 Toxicity
      7.2.1 Human data
         7.2.1.1 Adults
         7.2.1.2 Children
      7.2.2 Relevant animal data
      7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data
      7.2.4 Workplace standards
      7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
   7.3 Carcinogenicity
   7.4 Teratogenicity
   7.5 Mutagenicity
   7.6 Interactions
8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS
   8.1 Material sampling plan
      8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection
         8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
   8.2 Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation
      8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material
         8.2.1.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.1.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.1.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.1.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
      8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens
         8.2.2.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s)
         8.2.2.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)
         8.2.2.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s)
         8.2.2.5 Other Dedicated Method(s)
      8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses
   8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation
      8.3.1 Biochemical analysis
         8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum
         8.3.1.2 Urine
         8.3.1.3 Other fluids
      8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses
      8.3.3 Haematological analyses
      8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations
   8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation
   8.5 Overall Interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations
   8.6 References
9. CLINICAL EFFECTS
   9.1 Acute poisoning
      9.1.1 Ingestion
      9.1.2 Inhalation
      9.1.3 Skin exposure
      9.1.4 Eye contact
      9.1.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.1.6 Other
   9.2 Chronic poisoning
      9.2.1 Ingestion
      9.2.2 Inhalation
      9.2.3 Skin exposure
      9.2.4 Eye contact
      9.2.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.2.6 Other
   9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death
   9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects
      9.4.1 Cardiovascular
      9.4.2 Respiratory
      9.4.3 Neurological
         9.4.3.1 Central Nervous System (CNS)
         9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system
         9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system
         9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle
      9.4.4 Gastrointestinal
      9.4.5 Hepatic
      9.4.6 Urinary
         9.4.6.1 Renal
         9.4.6.2 Others
      9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems
      9.4.8 Dermatological
      9.4.9 Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects
      9.4.10 Haematological
      9.4.11 Immunological
      9.4.12 Metabolic
         9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances
         9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances
         9.4.12.3 Others
      9.4.13 Allergic reactions
      9.4.14 Other clinical effects
      9.4.15 Special risks
   9.5 Others
   9.6 Summary
10. MANAGEMENT
   10.1 General principles
   10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic treatment
   10.3 Decontamination
   10.4 Enhanced elimination
   10.5 Antidote treatment
      10.5.1 Adults
      10.5.2 Children
   10.6 Management discussion
11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES
   11.1 Case reports from literature
12. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
   12.1 Specific preventive measures
   12.2 Other
13. REFERENCES
14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE ADDRESS(ES)
    PROPANIL

    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Poisons Information Monograph 440
    Chemical

    1.  NAME

        1.1  Substance

             Propanil

        1.2  Group

             Acetanilide

        1.3  Synonyms

             3,3,4-Dichloropropionanilide;

        1.4  Identification numbers

             1.4.1  CAS number

                    4709-98-8

             1.4.2  Other numbers

        1.5  Main brand names, main trade names

             Chem Rice; DPA; Rogue; Stam F 34; Stam M-4;  Surcopur;
             3,4-DCPA; FW-734; 3,4-D(1,2,3,4,5,6);  Synpran; DCPA.
    
             To be completed by the centre.

        1.6  Main manufacturers, main importers

             To be completed by the centre.

    2.  SUMMARY

        2.1  Main risks and target organs

             Methaemoglobinaemia is the main risk.
    
             There is no evidence of a specific effect of propanil on a
             target organ.

        2.2  Summary of clinical effects

             Principal effects are gastrointestinal irritation,
             cyanosis, stupor and respiratory depression.

        2.3  Diagnosis

             The diagnosis is made from the history of exposure and
             the presence of features of gastrointestinal irritation and
             the effects of methaemoglobinaemia such as cyanosis,
             respiratory depression, stupor and convulsions.
    
             Measuring the methaemoglobin concentration in blood is
             useful.
    
             Measurement of blood concentrations of propanil is not
             clinically useful other than to confirm exposure.
    
             Collect vomitus or gastric contents and the container along
             with the remaining herbicide for further
             identification.

        2.4  First-aid measures and management principles

             Decontamination followed by supportive care, and
             management of respiratory distress and decreased level of
             consciousness if they occur.  Admit to hospital.  The
             pesticide container should accompany the patient to
             hospital.
    
             Ingestion:  Monitor respiration carefully and ensure adequate
             airway.  Use a cuffed endotracheal tube if respiration is
             impaired.  Carry out appropriate decontamination of the
             gastrointestinal tract immediately.
    
             Skin contact:  Remove contaminated clothing and wash the
             contaminated areas with soap and water.
    
             Eye contact:  Wash the eyes with at least 2 litres of saline
             or clean water for 10 to 15 min.

    3.  PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

        3.1  Origin of the substance

             Propanil is a synthetic chemical for herbicidal use. It
             can be obtained by any of the methods used for the synthesis
             of anilides of carboxylic acids.

        3.2  Chemical structure

             Chemical name: N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) propionamide 
             Molecular weight:   218.09
             Structural formula: C9H9Cl2NO (Hayes, 1982).

        3.3  Physical properties

             3.3.1  Colour

             3.3.2  State/Form

             3.3.3  Description

                    Appearance:  White crystalline solid
                    (formulated preparations are usually liquids)
    
                    Melting point:   91 to 93C
    
                    Vapour pressure: 9  10-5 mm Hg at 60C
    
                    Solubility: water 0.02 g/100 ml ethanol 0.02 g/100ml
                    (25C) 
    
                    Readily soluble in alcohol and chlorobenzene (Ismerov,
                    1984).
    
                    Relative molecular mass: 218.09
    
                    Stability: Stable in emulsion concentrates but is
                    hydrolysed in acid and alkaline media to
                    3,4-dichloroaniline and propionic acid (Hayes and
                    Laws, 1991).

        3.4  Hazardous characteristics

             Propanil is usually formulated with flammable solvents.
    
             Environmental risks: Secondary uptake may follow its
             evaporation from the soil surface.  Once it is in soil the
             chemical is quickly degraded.

    4.  USES

        4.1  Uses

             4.1.1  Uses

             4.1.2  Description

                    Propanil is a highly effective herbicide with a
                    selective mode of action.  It is used to control
                    numerous monocotyledonous (narrow leaf) and
                    dicotyledonous (broad leaf) weeds that occur in rice
                    fields and potato fields.
    

                    It is manufactured as a 30% emulsifiable concentrate
                    and a 50% solution for ultra low volume spraying.  The
                    solvents used are generally highly inflammable liquids
                    such as cyclohexanone, petroleum solvent and OP-7
                    (Izmerov, 1984).

        4.2  High risk circumstance of poisoning

             Occupational exposure to the herbicide or ingestion of
             the herbicide either intentionally or accidentally can cause
             poisoning.

        4.3  Occupationally exposed populations

             Agricultural workers (especially those working with rice
             and potato crops) as well as workers who are involved in
             manufacturing, formulating and packaging the herbicide mixers
             and applicators, are at risk. 

    5.  ROUTES OF ENTRY

        5.1  Oral

             Intentional ingestion in suicide attempts or accidental
             ingestion.

        5.2  Inhalation

             Occupational exposure to the propanil spray mist, or
             vapours from treated soils for several hours after
             application.

        5.3  Dermal

             Accidental or occupational exposure to propanil can occur.

        5.4  Eye

             Occupational exposure to propanil spray can occur.

        5.5  Parenteral

             No data available.

        5.6  Other

             No data available.

    6.  KINETICS

        6.1  Absorption by route of exposure

             No human data available.
    
             In the rat, peak blood levels occurred after 1 h in an acute
             feeding study.  Human data not available.
    
             Single dermal application in rats produces no effects at a
             dose of 2000 mg/kg.  Applications of 100 to 500 mg/kg for 14
             doses produces mild effects.  In the rat, the acute exposure
             threshold by inhalation is 15 mg/kg.

        6.2  Distribution by route of exposure

             No human data available.
    
             Five minutes after oral administration of single doses (1000
             mg/kg, 650 mg/kg) to rats, propanil is detectable in blood
             and all tissues.  Maximum accumulation in lungs, liver,
             kidneys, spleen, adrenals and heart occurs within 1 to 6
             hours of administration.
    
             Repeated inhalation (rat): after exposure to concentrations
             of 5.6 to 0.2 mg/m3, propanil occurs in the blood, heart and
             spleen (Izmerov, 1984).

        6.3  Biological half-life by route of exposure

             No human data available.
    
             In rats given up to 1000 mg/kg orally, blood concentrations
             are maintained for 24 h but undetectable after 48 to 72
             h.

        6.4  Metabolism

             No human data available.
    
             The main metabolite of propanil is the oxyderivative, 3,4
             dichloroanilide of lactic or succinic acids.
    
             This metabolite is formed shortly after administration and is
             detectable for up to 48 h. Aniline derivatives are also
             formed due to disruption of the CO-NH bond of propanil. 
             M-chloroaniline and aniline are subsequently formed,
             consistent with the peak blood methaemoglobin level occurring
             within 1 to 3 days of exposure (Izmerov, 1984).

        6.5  Elimination and excretion

             No human data available.
    
             Irrespective of its route of entry the elimination of
             propanil from the body after single dose exposure takes place
             within 48 to 72 h (Izmerov, 1984).
    
             In the cow, 1.4% of the total dose was recovered in the
             faeces after administration for 4 days but no unchanged
             propanil was detected in the urine or milk (Hayes, 1982). 
             Following repeated dosing in the rat, the parent compound and
             its two metabolites are found in the urine.

    7.  TOXICOLOGY

        7.1  Mode of Action

             Acutely, propanil induces methaemoglobinaemia which
             results in tissue hypoxia.  Haemolytic anaemia has been
             reported in some studies.
    
             Propanil induces monoxygenase enzymes (Izmerov, 1984).

        7.2  Toxicity

             7.2.1  Human data

                    7.2.1.1  Adults

                             No data available.

                    7.2.1.2  Children

                             No data available.

             7.2.2  Relevant animal data

                    Propanil has low toxicity in mammals.
    
                    Acute oral LD50 values for propanil in rats and dogs
                    are 1384 and 1271 mg/kg, respectively (Hayes, 1982).
                    In both  species, death occurred over a 3 day period
                    and were  characterized by central nervous system
                    depression.

             7.2.3  Relevant in vitro data

                    No data available

             7.2.4  Workplace standards

                    No data available

             7.2.5  Acceptable daily intake (ADI)

                    No data available

        7.3  Carcinogenicity

             No data available

        7.4  Teratogenicity

             Propanil is not reported to have embryotoxic and
             gonadotoxic activity.  No evidence of propanil embryotoxicity
             or teratogenicity has been reported in the albino rat
             (Izmerov, 1984).

        7.5  Mutagenicity

             No human data available.
    
             In the mouse, oral propanil 100 mg/kg increased the frequency
             of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. There was no
             effect at 100 mg/kg (Izmerov, 1984).  At 10 mg/kg, no effect
             was seen.

        7.6  Interactions

             No human data available.

    8.  TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

        8.1  Material sampling plan

             8.1.1  Sampling and specimen collection

                    8.1.1.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.1.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.1.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.1.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.1.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.2  Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.2.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.2.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.2.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.2.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.2.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.3  Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.3.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.3.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.3.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.3.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.3.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

        8.2  Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation

             8.2.1  Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

                    8.2.1.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.1.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.1.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.1.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

             8.2.2  Tests for biological specimens

                    8.2.2.1  Simple Qualitative Test(s)

                    8.2.2.2  Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s)

                    8.2.2.3  Simple Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.4  Advanced Quantitative Method(s)

                    8.2.2.5  Other Dedicated Method(s)

             8.2.3  Interpretation of toxicological analyses

        8.3  Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

             8.3.1  Biochemical analysis

                    8.3.1.1  Blood, plasma or serum

                    8.3.1.2  Urine

                    8.3.1.3  Other fluids

             8.3.2  Arterial blood gas analyses

             8.3.3  Haematological analyses

             8.3.4  Interpretation of biomedical investigations

        8.4  Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their 
             interpretation

        8.5  Overall Interpretation of all toxicological analyses and 
             toxicological investigations

             Sample collection
    
             Obtain blood and urine samples for biomedical analysis. 
             Analysis of blood for methaemoglobin must be done within 1 h
             or the assay may be inaccurate.
    
             Biomedical analysis
    
             Urine analysis may show methaemoglobinuria, but this is not
             sensitive.
    
             Measure methaemoglobin concentration in blood.
    
             Arterial blood gases and full blood count should be performed
             if cyanosis is present.
    
             Toxicological analysis
    
             Plasma and urine levels of propanil are not useful
             clinically.
    
             Other investigations
    
             No data available.

        8.6  References

    9.  CLINICAL EFFECTS

        9.1  Acute poisoning

             9.1.1  Ingestion

                    The gastrointestinal effects of propanil are
                    unknown.  However, the formulated product is likely to
                    contain hydrocarbon solvents for field application. 
                    Cyanosis due to methaemoglobinaemia (which occurs at
                    about 30% methaemoglobin) is a common feature.
    

                    When the blood concentration of methaemoglobin reaches
                    60%, stupor and respiratory depression may
                    occur.

             9.1.2  Inhalation

                    No human data available.
    
                    Methaemoglobinaemia has been reported in the rat
                    (Izmerov, 1984).

             9.1.3  Skin exposure

                    Irritation of skin may occur.
    
                    Repeated application has caused methaemoglobinaemia in
                    the rat (Izmerov, 1984).

             9.1.4  Eye contact

                    Irritation of the mucosa of eyes (Izmerov, 1984).

             9.1.5  Parenteral exposure

                    No data available.

             9.1.6  Other

                    No data available.

        9.2  Chronic poisoning

             9.2.1  Ingestion

                    There have been no adverse findings in urinary
                    and liver function tests, although a reduction in body
                    weight has been noted in the dog (Ambrose et al,
                    1972).

             9.2.2  Inhalation

                    No human data available.
    
                    Methaemoglobinaemia has been reported the rat
                    (Izmerov,  1984).

             9.2.3  Skin exposure

                    Chloracne has been reported among workers in a
                    production facility. This was probably due to
                    contaminants in raw materials because chloracne has
                    not been reported in other settings.

             9.2.4  Eye contact

                    No data available.

             9.2.5  Parenteral exposure

                    No data available.

             9.2.6  Other

                    No data available.

        9.3  Course, prognosis, cause of death

             No information available on the clinical course of
             poisoning. Death can occur from respiratory paralysis.

        9.4  Systematic description of clinical effects

             9.4.1  Cardiovascular

                    Tachyvardia due to methaemoglobinaemia occurs
                    initially;  when levels rise over 50% bradycardia may
                    occur.

             9.4.2  Respiratory

                    Cyanosis is observed due to
                    methaemoglobinaemia.  There may be tachypnoea,
                    dyspnoea and respiratory depression at methaemoglobin
                    levels greater than 30%.

             9.4.3  Neurological

                    9.4.3.1  Central Nervous System (CNS)

                             Dizziness may occur.
    
                             When the blood concentration of
                             methaemoglobin reaches about 30%, general
                             symptoms such as fatigue, light-headedness
                             and headache occur in healthy people. At
                             concentrations of 50% to 70%, stupor,
                             respiratory depression and convulsions may
                             occur (Ellenhorn & Barceloux, 1988).
    
                             Impaired coordination of movements, urinary
                             incontinence and slight tremor have been
                             reported in the rat, mouse and cat (Izmerov,
                             1984). 

                    9.4.3.2  Peripheral nervous system

                             No data available.

                    9.4.3.3  Autonomic nervous system

                             No data available.

                    9.4.3.4  Skeletal and smooth muscle

                             No data available.

             9.4.4  Gastrointestinal

                    Propanil products may cause gastrointestinal
                    irritation, due to solvents in the
                    formulation.

             9.4.5  Hepatic

                    Mild liver changes and biliary nephrosis have
                    been found in the rat (Gosselin et al. 1984).

             9.4.6  Urinary

                    9.4.6.1  Renal

                             No data available.

                    9.4.6.2  Others

                             No data available.

             9.4.7  Endocrine and reproductive systems

                    No human data available.
    
                    No effects on fertility, gestation, viability or
                    lactation have been found in the rat (Izmerov,
                    1984).

             9.4.8  Dermatological

                    Propanil may irritate the skin, causing rashes
                    (Izmerov, 1984; Morse & Baker, 1979). 
                    3,4,3,,4-tetrachloroazobenzene, a contaminant in
                    propanil, was believed to be the cause of chloracne in
                    exposed production workers (Morse & Baker,
                    1979).

             9.4.9  Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects

                    Irritation of the mucosa of the eyes may occur
                    (Izmerov, 1984).
    
                    An unpleasant sensation in the throat occurs after
                    prolonged exposure (Izmerov, 1984).

             9.4.10 Haematological

                    Methaemoglobinaemia is the most important
                    feature of propanil poisoning.
    
                    Clinical features are related to the level of
                    methaemoglobinaemia: 
    
                    15 to 20%  clinical cyanosis but patient usually
                               asymptomatic
                    20 to 45%  headache, lethargy, dizziness, syncope,
                               dyspnoea
                    45 to 55%  increasing CNS depression
                    55 to 70%  coma, convulsions, shock
                    > 70% high mortality
    
                    In the rat, administration of propanil 330 ppm in the
                    diet for 13 weeks, marked polychromatophilia indicated
                    haemolytic anaemia (Ambrose et al. 1972).

             9.4.11 Immunological

                    No data available.

             9.4.12 Metabolic

                    9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances

                             Characteristic changes of hypoxia may occur.

                    9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

                    9.4.12.3 Others

             9.4.13 Allergic reactions

                    Propanil does not cause allergic reactions
                    (Izmerov, 1984).

             9.4.14 Other clinical effects

                    No data available.

             9.4.15 Special risks

                    Pregnancy: no data available.
    
                    Breast feeding: in the cow, propanil is excreted in
                    milk (Hayes, 1982).
    
                    Enzyme deficiencies: no data available.

        9.5  Others

             No data available.

        9.6  Summary

    10. MANAGEMENT

        10.1 General principles

             The minimum dose of propanil required to cause
             methaemoglobinaemia in man is unknown.  Methaemoglobinaemia
             occurs after the metabolism of propanil; it may therefore be 
             delayed by the need for uptake and subsequent metabolism of
             propanil.  Therefore, exposed patients should be treated
             symptomatically with close observation for
             methaemoglobinaemia for 24 to 48 h in a hospital with
             facilities for cardiac monitoring. 

        10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic treatment

             Methaemoglobinaemia:
    
             Refer to the Treatment Guide for the management of
             methaemoglobinaemia.

        10.3 Decontamination

             Skin contact: wash the contaminated skin with soap and
             water.
    
             Eye contact: flush the eyes with at least 2 litres of saline
             or water for 15 min.
    
             Ingestion of propanil in solvent vehicle: gastric aspiration
             or lavage may be considered following ingestion of a
             concentrated solution of propanil. A cuffed endotracheal tube
             is essential to prevent aspiration of the solvent into the
             lungs. Administer activated charcoal as a slurry in 0.9%
             saline, and an appropriate cathartic.

        10.4 Enhanced elimination

             No data available.

        10.5 Antidote treatment

             10.5.1 Adults

                    No specific antidote is available.
    
                    Methaemoglobinaemia should be treated with methylene
                    blue. Refer to the treatment protocol.

             10.5.2 Children

                    No specific antidote is available. 
    
                    Methaemoglobinaemia should be treated with methylene
                    blue. Refer to the treatment protocol.

        10.6 Management discussion

             No data available.

    11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

        11.1 Case reports from literature

             No information available.

    12. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

        12.1 Specific preventive measures

             Carefully study and strictly observe the directions for
             safe use of the herbicide.
    
             The following preventive measures should be observed in
             general.  Keep the herbicide out of the reach of children and
             away from food and feed stuffs.  Persons handling propanil at
             work must be provided with adequate equipment to minimize
             exposure and personal protection equipment as needed.
    
             Use appropriate respiratory equipment consistent with the
             exposure level to protect the respiratory tract.
    
             Take appropriate measures to minimize skin contact.
    
             To protect eyes use goggles.
    
             To protect hands use gloves.

        12.2 Other

             No data available.

    13. REFERENCES

        Ambrose AM, Larson PS, Borzellica JF, Hennigar GR (1972). 
        Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 23: 650-659.
    
        Ellenhorn MJ, Barceloux DS (1988)  Eds. Medical Toxicology, New
        York, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 844.
    
        Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC (1984)  Eds. Clinical Toxicology
        of Commercial Products, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins.
    
        Hayes WJ (1982)  Ed. Pesticide Studies in Man, Baltimore, Williams
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        Hayes WJ, Laws ER (1991) Handbook of pesticide toxicology.
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        Morse DL, Baker EL, Kimbrough RD, Wisseman CL (1979). 
        Propanil-Chloracne and Methomyl Toxicity in Workers of a Pesticide
        Manufacturing Plant.  Clinical Toxicology 15(1): 13-21.
    
        Nishiuchi Y, Hashimoto Y (1967).  Toxicity of pesticide
        ingredients to some water organisms.  Botyu-Kagaku, 32: 5-11.
    
        Pesticides - A safety guide (1982).  London, Shell Repographic,
        pp. 85.

    14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE 
        ADDRESS(ES)

        Authors:     Dr Ravindra Fernando and Miss Deepthi Widyaratna
                     National Poisons Information Centre
                     General Hospital
                     Colombo
                     Sri Lanka
    
        Date:        March 1990.
    
        Peer Review: Strasbourg, France,
    
        Date:        April 1990
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Propanil (ICSC)