International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

(Group 3)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

Supplement 7: (1987) (p. 169)

CAS No.: 532-82-1
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4-(Phenylazo)-1,3-benzenediamine, monohydrochloride

A. Evidence for carcinogenicity to humans (inadequate)

A report of bladder cancer in three amateur anglers with exposure to chrysoidine-dyed maggots [ref: 1] stimulated reports of four further cases [ref: 2,3] and two case-control studies [ref: 4,5]. A study in Yorkshire, UK, used an existing large-scale bladder cancer case-control study (over 900 pairs) and made further enquiries regarding fishing, maggots and dyes used on or in the maggots. The relative risks were 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.2-2.3) based on five exposed cases for the use of bronze (surface-coloured) maggots, and 2.0 (0.6-6.2) based on nine exposed cases for yellow maggots (ready or self-coloured) [ref: 4]. A study in the West Midlands, UK, was smaller (202 pairs) but showed a higher percentage of use of dyed maggots (14% of cases, 8% of controls). A three-fold excess risk was noted for the use of bronze maggots for more than five years [ref: 5]. This study almost certainly included five cases from the previous case reports that stimulated the case-control studies, but this factor is unlikely to remove the statistically significant excess risk.

B. Evidence for carcinogenicity to animals (limited)

Chrysoidine was tested for carcinogenicity in single experiments in mice and rats by oral administration only. In mice, it produced liver-cell adenomas and carcinomas, leukaemia and reticulum-cell sarcomas. The experiment on rats was inadequately reported [ref: 6].

C. Other relevant data

No data were available on the genetic and related effects of chrysoidine in humans. It was mutagenic to bacteria [ref: 7].

Overall evaluation

Chrysoidine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Also see previous evaluation: Vol. 8 (1975)


1. Searle, C.E. & Teale, J. (1982) Chrysoidine-based bait: a possible carcinogenic hazard to anglers? Lancet, i, 564

2. Massey, J.A., Feneley, R.C.L. & Abrams, P.H. (1984) Maggots dyed with chrysoidine. Br. med. J., 289, 1451-1452

3. Sole, G.M. (1984) Maggots dyed with chrysoidine: a possible risk to anglers. Br. med. J., 289, 1043-1044

4. Cartwright, R.A., Robinson, M.R.G., Glashan, R.W., Gray, B.K., Hamilton-Stewart, P., Cartwright, S.C. & Barnham-Hall, D. (1983) Does the use of stained maggots present a risk of bladder cancer to coarse fishermen? Carcinogenesis, 4, 111-113

5. Sole, G. & Sorahan, T. (1985) Coarse fishing and risk of urothelial cancer. Lancet, i, 1477-1479

6. IARC Monographs, 8, 91-96, 1975

7. IARC Monographs, Suppl. 6, 176-177, 1987


Last updated: 9 March 1998

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Chrysoidine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 8, 1975)