International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations


VOL.: 31 (1983) (p. 231)

CAS No.: 2318-18-5
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4,8-Secosenecionan-8,11,16-trione,12-hydroxy-4-methyl-

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Experimental data

Senkirkine was tested for carcinogenicity in male rats by intraperitoneal administration; it significantly increased the incidence of liver-cell adenomas. In rats fed the herb Tussilago farfara L., which has been shown to contain senkirkine as the only pyrrolizidine alkaloid, an increased incidence of liver haemangioendothelial sarcomas was observed.

Senkirkine is mutagenic in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. It also induced chromosomal aberrations and unscheduled DNA synthesis in mammalian cells in vitro. There is sufficient evidence that senkirkine is active in short-term tests.

No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity of this compound to experimental animals.

5.2 Human data

Senkirkine is found in a number of plant species which are used as foods, herbal remedies and toiletries, resulting in limited human exposure.

No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity or chromosomal effects of this compound in humans.

No case report or epidemiological study of the carcinogenicity of senkirkine was available to the Working Group.

5.3 Evaluation

There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of both senkirkine and Tussilago farfara L. in experimental animals. In the absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of the carcinogenicity of senkirkine to humans could be made.

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Previous evaluation: Vol. 10 (1976)

Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 71: Group 3)


Last updated: 16 April 1998

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Senkirkine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 10, 1976)