International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations


VOL.: 39 (1986) (p. 333)

CAS No.: 108-78-1
Chem. Abstr. Name: 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamine

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

Melamine has been available commercially since the late 1930s. Occupational exposure to this compound may occur during its production and use in the manufacture of laminates, surface coatings, moulding compounds and textiles. No measurement of such exposure was available to the Working Group.

5.2 Experimental data

Melamine was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in the diet in one study in mice and in one study in rats, and for initiating activity by skin application in one study in mice. No neoplasm related to treatment was observed after oral administration to mice. Male rats fed diets containing melamine developed transitional-cell tumours of the urinary bladder; with one exception, all tumour-bearing animals had bladder stones probably consisting of melamine. This finding precluded a clear interpretation of the results. In a two-stage mouse-skin assay in which melamine was tested at one dose level, it did not show initiating activity.

The available data were inadequate to evaluate the reproductive effects or prenatal toxicity of melamine to experimental animals.

Melamine was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of an exogenous metabolic system nor was it mutagenic to Drosophila melanogaster.

5.3 Human data

No data were available to evaluate the reproductive effects or prenatal toxicity of melamine to humans.

No case report or epidemiological study was available to evaluate the carcinogenicity of melamine to humans.

5.4 Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of melamine to experimental animals.

No data on humans were available.

In the absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of the carcinogenicity of melamine to humans could be made.

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 65); Vol. 73 (1999)


Last updated: 30 September 1999

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Melamine (ICSC)