International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations


VOL.: 40 (1986) (p. 83)

CAS No.: 149-29-1
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2-c]pyran-2(6H)-one

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure

Patulin is produced by various Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys fungi that can contaminate many common fruits and some vegetables. Human exposure may occur if these contaminated foods are consumed.

5.2 Experimental data

Patulin was tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment in mice and in two experiments in two strains of rats by oral administration. The study in mice and one of the studies in rats involved treatment of pregnant dams and the continued treatment of offspring of the F1 generation. In one study, subcutaneous injection of patulin produced local sarcomas in rats. The studies were considered to be inadequate for evaluation.

No adequate data were available to evaluate the reproductive effects or prenatal toxicity of patulin to experimental animals.

Patulin induced DNA damage in Bacillus subtilis, but not in Escherichia coli. It was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. Patulin induced petite mutants but not mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The compound induced DNA strand breaks in HeLa cells, but not unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured mammalian cells. It induced sister chromatid exchanges in cultured mammalian cells. Patulin induced chromosomal aberrations but not sister chromatid exchanges in the bone-marrow cells of Chinese hamsters treated in vivo. It did not induce dominant lethal mutations in rats or mice.

5.3 Human data

No case report or epidemiological study of the carcinogenicity of patulin was available to the Working Group.

5.4 Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of patulin in experimental animals.

No evaluation could be made of the carcinogenicity of patulin to humans.

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Previous evaluation: Vol. 10 (1976)

Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 69: Group 3)


Last updated: 22 April 1998

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Patulin (WHO Food Additives Series 26)
       Patulin (WHO Food Additives Series 35)
       PATULIN (JECFA Evaluation)
       Patulin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 10, 1976)