International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

(Group 2B)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

VOL.: 46 (1989) (p. 277)

CAS No.: 607-57-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: 9H-Fluorene, 2-nitro-

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

2-Nitrofluorene has been detected in particulate emissions from diesel engines, kerosene heaters and gas burners. It has also been found at low concentrations in ambient air.

5.2 Experimental data

2-Nitrofluorene was tested for carcinogenicity in rats by oral administration, producing tumours of the mammary gland, forestomach, liver and ear duct. In a liver initiation-promotion model, it was shown to be an initiator of preneoplastic foci.

5.3 Human data

No data were available to the Working Group.

5.4 Other relevant data

2-Nitrofluorene induced sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamsters in vivo. It induced DNA damage, sister chromatid exchange, mutation and morphological transformation in cultured animal cells. It was recombinogenic but not mutagenic to fungi and induced DNA damage and mutation in bacteria.

2-Aminofluorene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, which are model carcinogens, have been detected as metabolites of 2-nitrofluorene.

5.5 Evaluation

There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity in experimental animals of 2-nitrofluorene.

No data were available from studies in humans on the carcinogenicity of 2-nitrofluorene.

Overall evaluation

2-Nitrofluorene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

Last updated 01/21/98

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