For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.
Vol.: 65 (1996) (p. 369)
Chem. Abstr. Name: 1-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzene
5.1 Exposure data
2-Nitroanisole is produced by the reaction of methanolic sodium hydroxide with 2-chloronitrobenzene. It is mainly used in the production of the dye intermediates ortho-anisidine and ortho-dianisidine. Human exposure may occur during its production and use.
5.2 Human carcinogenicity data
No data on the carcinogenicity of 2-nitroanisole in humans were available to the Working Group.
5.3 Animal carcinogenicity studies
2-Nitroanisole was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in one study in mice and in two studies in rats. In mice, the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was increased in males and females, and that of hepatoblastomas was increased in males. In one study in rats, the incidence of mononuclear-cell leukaemia was increased in males and females. In the second study, which used a shorter duration of treatment but higher doses, increases were seen in the incidences of tumours of the urinary bladder, the large intestine and the kidney.
5.4 Other relevant data
No human data were available on the metabolism of 2-nitroanisole.
In rats, 2-nitroanisole is absorbed after oral administration, and the major route of its rapid elimination is the urine. The predominant metabolic pathway involves the formation of 2-nitrophenol, with its subsequent conjugation with sulfate and glucuronic acid. 2-Nitroanisole causes methaemoglobinaemia following dietary administration of high doses to rats and mice. Pathological lesions observed in rats occurred in the urinary bladder, spleen, kidney and liver. In mice, 2-nitroanisole causes hypertrophy in the liver.
2-Nitroanisole is mutagenic in bacteria. In single studies, it induced mutations, sister chromatid exchange and a low frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured mammalian cells.
There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of 2-nitroanisole.
There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of 2-nitroanisole.
2-Nitroanisole is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations