International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

(Group 2A)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

VOL.: 71 (1999) (p. 905)

CAS No.: 126-72-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol phosphate (3:1)

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

During the 1970s, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate was produced in low volumes, with occupational exposure likely to have occurred in its production and use in the textile industry. It does not appear to have been produced since then. The primary exposure to the general population appears to have been through wearing clothing treated with the chemical.

5.2 Human carcinogenicity data

A small cohort study of workers exposed to tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate was uninformative.

5.3 Animal carcinogenicity data

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate was tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by oral administration. In mice, it produced benign and malignant tumours of the forestomach and lung in animals of each sex, benign and malignant liver tumours in females and benign and malignant tumours of the kidney in males. In rats, it produced benign and malignant tumours of the kidney in males and benign kidney tumours in females. In a study of limited duration in male rats, benign tumours of the colon were reported. After skin application to female mice, it produced tumours of the skin, lung, forestomach and oral cavity.

A metabolite of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, was tested for carcinogenicity in rats by oral administration and another metabolite, 2,3-dibromo-1-propanol, was tested in mice and rats by skin application. They produced a variety of tumours, including skin, forestomach and hepatocellular tumours, in mice and rats and tumours of the oesophagus, intestine, nasal mucosa and Zymbal glands in rats.

5.4 Other relevant data

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate and its metabolites bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)-phosphate and mono(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate are nephrotoxic in rodents.

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate is mutagenic in bacteria and causes genetic damage in cultured mammalian cells, Drosophila melanogaster and mice, probably via metabolism to a number of intermediates of which 2-bromoacrolein may be particularly important.

5.5 Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

Overall evaluation

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A).

In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into consideration that tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate is consistently active in a wide range of mammalian in-vivo and in-vitro test systems.

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Previous evaluations: Vol. 20 (1979); Suppl. 7 (1987)


Last updated: 13 April 1999

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (ICSC)