For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.
VOL.: 84 (2004) (p. 295)
5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation
5.1 Exposure data
Chloramine, formed by the reaction of ammonia with chlorine, is increasingly being used in the disinfection of drinking-water. Monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine are in equilibrium, with monochloramine predominating. Exposure to milligram-per-litre levels occurs through ingestion of chloraminated water. Chloramines are also formed in swimming pools from the reaction of chlorine with nitrogen-containing contaminants, and trichloramine has been measured in swimming-pool air. Chloramine generated in situ is also used as an intermediate in the production of hydrazines, organic amines and other industrial chemicals.
5.2 Human carcinogenicity data
Several studies were identified that analysed risk with respect to one or more measures of exposure to complex mixtures of disinfection by-products that are found in most chlorinated and chloraminated drinking-water. No data specifically on chloramine were available to the Working Group.
5.3 Animal carcinogenicity data
Chloraminated drinking-water (predominantly in the form of monochloramine) was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in female and male mice and rats without demonstrating clear evidence of carcinogenic activity. In carcinogen-initiated rats, chloramine generated by ammonium acetate (in feed) and sodium hypochlorite (in drinking-water) promoted stomach cancer.
5.4 Other relevant data
36Cl-Labelled chloramine is readily absorbed after oral administration to rats. About 25% of the administered radioactivity is excreted in the urine over 120 h.
Nitrogen trichloride (trichloroamine) is volatilized from food-processing water disinfected with chloramine and from swimming-pool waters disinfected with chlorine, and reacts with ammonia in water to form chloramine. Upon inhalation, it produces lung irritation and may be a cause of occupational asthma. Ingestion of monochloramine produced no clinical abnormalities in male volunteers at concentrations as high as 15 mg/L. No reproductive or developmental effects have been associated with monochloramine.
Chloramine induced single-strand breaks and loss of DNA-transforming activity and was a weak mutagen in Bacillus subtilis. It was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. In vitro, chloramine caused double-strand DNA breakage in plasmid pUC18, and DNA fragmentation and DNA double-strand breaks as well as chromatin condensation in rabbit gastric mucosal cells and human stomach cancer cells. Monochloramine did not induce micronuclei, chromosomal aberration, aneuploidy or sperm abnormality in mice in vivo, but induced the formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes of newt larvae in vivo.
There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chloramine.
There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of monochloramine.
Chloramine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Last updated: 29 September 2004
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations