FAO Nutrition Meetings
Report Series No. 40A,B,C
TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME
ANTIMICROBIALS, ANTIOXIDANTS, EMULSIFIERS,
STABILIZERS, FLOUR-TREATMENT AGENTS, ACIDS AND BASES
The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met at Rome,
13-20 December, 19651 Geneva, 11-18 October, 19662
1 Ninth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1966 No. 40;
Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1966, 339
2 Tenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1967, in press;
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
World Health Organization
CITRIC ACID AND FATTY ACID ESTERS OF GLYCEROL
Synonyms Citrated mono- and diglycerides; Citric
acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
Definition Citrated mono- and diglycerides are
formed by esterifying the hydroxyl
groups of mono- and diglycerides.
Uses As emulsifier.
In vitro hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase and liver esterase
produced nearly the same yield of citric acid in the same 2-hour
period as spontaneous hydrolysis at pH 7.5-8.5 (Lang, 1964), The
existence of a true citric acid ester bond in this compound has been
questioned (Schade, 1963).
The digestibility of this compound was compared with a physical
mixture of its constituents and with lard in groups of 20 male and
female rats on a calorie-restricted basal diet, for 10 days. The
dietary levels of the ester and mixture were 23.1 and 37.5 per cent.;
and or lard, 16.7 and 35.5 per cent. These were calculated to give
isocaloric diets at 2 levels of caloric supplementation above the
control level. Faecal fat estimation and body fatty acid distribution
showed that the ester was completely digestible, although the
absorption of the ester or its component mixture was about 50 per
cent. that of lard (Huntingdon, 1966).
In 2 groups of 5 male and 5 female weanling rats fed diets
containing 0 and 20 per cent. of ester for 7 days, food intake and
body-weight maintenance were the same in both groups, and the
digestibility of the ester was calculated to be 99 per cent. (Rosner,
No data available.
In the 10-day study quoted above (under Biochemical aspects),
gross and microscopic examination of major organs of the test animals
revealed only dystrophic lower-nephron calcification in animals
receiving the highest levels of the ester or the component mixture. No
effect was seen at the 23.1 per cent levels (Huntingdon, 1966).
No data are available.
This substance is hydrolysed completely in the intestinal tract
into components which are normal constituents of the diet. Evaluation
is based on knowledge of the metabolic fate and lack of toxicity of
the constituent citric acid and fatty acid esters of glycerol.
Estimate of acceptable daily intake for man
See mixed tartaric and acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol
Huntingdon Research Centre (1966) Unpublished report submitted by
Lang, K. (1963) Unpublished report submitted by Emulsion A/S
Lang, K. (1964) Unpublished report submitted by Emulsion A/S
Rosner, L. (1959) Unpublished report by Laboratory of Vitamin
Schade, H. (1963) Unpublished report submitted by Emulsion A/S