FAO Nutrition Meetings
Report Series No. 48A
TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME
EXTRACTION SOLVENTS AND CERTAIN
The content of this document is the
result of the deliberations of the Joint
FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
which met in Geneva, 24 June -2 July 19701
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
World Health Organization
1 Fourteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series in press; Wld Hlth
Org. techn. Rep. Ser., in press.
OLEORESINS OF PAPRIKA
Injection of paprika extract or its active ingredient capsaicin
into cats produced either a drop in blood pressure with low doses or a
biphasic response with higher doses (Varady & Katuruya, 1931). I.v.
administration of capsaicin in dogs and cats produced apnoea,
bradycardia and hypotension. Vagotomy abolished the response in dogs
and produced a pressor effect and hyperpnoea in cats (Toh et al.,
1955). This was probably due to simulation of baroreceptors at the
pulmonary bifurcation as well as other central and peripheral factors
(Pórszász at al., 1957). Intragastric administration to cats reduced
body temperature (Högyes, 1878). Crystalline capsaicin raised the acid
secretion of the stomach by local irritation (Toh et al., 1959).
Capsaicin administered parenterally or locally to guinea-pigs, rats
and mice depressed a sensatory excitability (Jancso, 1955).
Animal Route LD100 Reference
Cat i.v. 1.6-4.3 Janesó, 1955
Large oral doses failed to kill dogs but guinea-pigs are very
sensitive. Rabbits, mice and rats die from hypothermia after large
oral or parenteral doses while guinea-pigs die from anaphylactic shock
(Molnar, 1965). Capsaicin is a local skin irritant (Csedö, 1962).
Rat. 10% chill was added to an artificial rat diet containing 10%
ardein (a groundnut protein) which produces in controls fatty liver
and cirrhosis. Out of 26 rats sacrificed after 7 months, 15 had
neoplastic changes in the liver. Hepatomata multiple cystic
cholangiomata, solid adenomata or adenocarcinomata of the bile duct
occurred (Hoch-Ligéti, 1950).
The active principle capsaicin has systemic and local irritant
action. The effect observed in the short-term study in rats on a
grossly subnormal diet is not relevant to an evaluation for human use.
Use as a spice will be self limiting and governed by good
Csedö, K. (1962) Thesis, Tirgn-Mures
Hoch-Ligéti, C. (1950) Res. Comm. V. Congr. Int. Canc., 122
Högyes, A. (1878) Arch exper. Path. Pharm., 9, 117
Jancsó, N. (1955) Speicherung, Virl. Akad. Kiado, Budapest
Molnár, J. (1965) Aroneim. Forsch., 15, 718
Párszász, J., György, L. & Porszasz-Gibiszer, K. (1957) Acta. Phys.
Hung., 12, 189
Ton C. C., Lee, T. S. & Kiang, A. K. (1955) Biol. J. Pharmacol.,
Varady, M. & Koturuya, M. (1931) Thesis, Univ. Sfegedia