IPCS INCHEM Home



    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1979


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1979





    Joint meeting of the
    FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment
    and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Geneva, 3-12 December 1979



    FENVALERATE

    IDENTITY*

    Chemical Name

    [S,R]-alpha-cyano-m-phenoxybenzyl
    [S,R]-alpha-isopropyl-p-chlorophenylacetate 
    [S,R]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl
    [S,R]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-1-butyrate
    benzenacetic acid
    [S,R]-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-[S,R]-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl)
    methyl ester
    cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)
    benzenacetate

    The technical product of fenvalerate contains four optically active
    isomers due to two chiral centres present in both alcohol and acid
    moieties of the molecule.

    Synonyms

    Sumicidin(R), Belmark(R), Pydrin(R) S5602, WL43775, SD43775

    Structural formula

    C25H22ClNO3

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

                   

    *  Based on information submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Ltd., Osaka,
    Japan and Shell Chemical Ltd., London

    Other information on identity and properties

    Molecular weight:    419.9
    State:               Yellow oily liquid at 23~C
    Specific gravity:    1.17 g/ml at 23C
    Vapor pressure:      2.1  10-6 mm Hg at 70C
    Solubility:          (g/l at 20C)n-hexane 77, xylene >450,
                         acetone >450, ethanol >450 and methanol >450.
    Solubility in water: ca. 2 g/L
    Stability:           Stable in most solvents except alcohols at
                         ambient temperature.  Unstable in alkaline
                         media.  No significant breakdown after 100 hours
                         at 75C.  Decomposed gradually in the range of
                         150-300C.

    Typical composition of the Technical material      % by weight
                                                                       
    alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-
    3-methyl-1-butyrate                                  90-94
    alpha-cyano-2-phenoxybenzyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-
    3-methyl-1-butyrate                                  1.0-2.5
    [Z and E]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-cyano-3-methyl-
    1-buten-1-yl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-butyrate    0.4-2.0
    alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-
    3-methyl-1-butyrate                                  0.5-1.0
    alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-
    3-methyl-1-butyrate                                  0.5-1.0
    Other related compounds                              <5.0
                                                                       

    EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    Acute Toxicity

    The results of acute toxicity tests with various animal species are
    summarised in Table 1.

    Signs of Poisoning

    Within four hours of dosing, all animals receiving acutely toxic
    levels were restless, developed tremors, piloerection, occasional
    diarrhea and an abnormal gait.  Following oral administration, animals
    recovered rapidly from acute clinical signs of poisoning and were
    asymptomatic within 3-4 days.  Immediately after exposure, rats show
    an abnormal gait which is typical of pyrethroid intoxication.  The
    animals walk, with hindquarters held up and the hind legs more widely
    spaced than normal (splayed).  Histological examination of the sciatic
    nerve and posterior tibular nerve, after poisoning and for nine days
    over the course of recovery, showed axonal breaks, swelling and
    vacuolation accompanied by vacuolation and phagocytosis of myelin. 
    The degree to which myelin was disrupted was dose dependent and was
    closely associated with the acute signs of toxicity (Butterworth and
    Carter, 1976).



        Table 1.  Acute toxicity of fenvalerate administered to various animal species

                                                                                                             
                                                              LD50
    Species      Route           Sex       Vehicle1           mg/kg                 Reference
                                                                                                             

    Rat          Oral                      DMSO               451                   Walker et al., 1975
                 Oral                      PEG: water         >3200                 Swamitt & Albert, 1977a
                 Dermal                                       5000 (24 hr)          Okuno et al., 1976
                 Inhalation      M & F     Water              >101 mg/m3 (3hr)      Kohda et al., 1976b

    Mouse        Oral            M         DMSO               200-300               Walker et al., 1975
                                 F                            100-200
                 Oral                      PEG: water         1202                  Summit & Albert, 1977b

                 Ip              M & F     Corn oil           85-89                 Khoda, et al., 1979
                 Intravenous               Glycerol-formol    65                    Albert & Summitt, 1976
                 Inhalation      M & F     Water              >101 mg/m3 (3hr)      Kohda et al., 1976b

    Chinese      Oral            M         DMSO               98                    Walker, et al., 1975
    hamster                      F                            82

    Syrian
    hamster      Oral                      PEG: water         ca. 760               Hart, 1976a

    Dog          Oral                      PEG: water or      Doses from 100        Hart, 1976b
                                           corn oil           to 1000 mg/kg
                                                              were emetic

    Rabbit       Percutaneous              Undiluted          1000-3200             Hine, 1975

    Hen          Oral                      >1500              >1500                 Milner & Butterworth, 1977
                                                                                                             

    1  PEG = polyethylene glycol;
       DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide.
    


    Biochemical Aspects

    Absorption, Distribution and Excretion

    Fenvalerate, orally administered to rats and mice, was found to be
    rapidly absorbed, distributed to a variety of tissues and organs,
    metabolized and excreted from the body.  The half-life for excretion
    in both rodent species was 0.5-0.6 days.  Elimination of the
    CN-labelled fenvalerate was somewhat slower in both species suggesting
    a different pattern of metabolism.  Total recovery of the administered
    CN-labelled fenvalerate was achieved within 6 days following the acute
    administration.  Tissue residues following acute administration was
    extremely low with the highest concentration being observed in fat,
    adrenal gland, skin, hair and in the intestines.  High concentrations
    of the CN-labelled fenvalerate were noted in the hair and skin which
    may account for the data showing that residues of this label were more
    slowly excreted from the body (Kaneko and Ohkawa, 1979; Ohkawa, et
    al., 1979).

    Rats fed 20 ppm in the diet for 28 days were sacrificed and residues
    in adipose tissue were examined.  Based upon chromatographic and mass
    spectral analysis, the residue in fat was characterized as unchanged
    fenvalerate containing both distereo isomers (Boyer, 1977a).

    Male and female rats fed fenvalerate for 28 days (20 ppm) and placed
    on control diets for additional 28 days were examined for tissue
    residues and their depletion rates.  Maximum residues were reached
    rapidly, within 3 weeks of dietary administration.  Of the tissues
    measured, adipose tissue contained the highest residue.  Trace amounts
    were observed in other tissues including the brain after 28 days of
    treatments.  Dissipation of residues from all tissues following the
    cessation of treatment was rapid, although with adipose tissue, the
    dissipation was slower than with other tissues.  At 28 days after the
    cessation of dietary fenvalerate, residues were still reported in
    adipose tissue, attesting to the slow clearance from this storage
    depot (Potter and Arnold, 1977; Potter, 1976).

    Metabolism

    The metabolic fate of fenvalerate has been examined in rodent species
    following acute and subacute oral and dietary administration.  In all
    cases, the metabolism in both rats and mice and elimination of the
    metabolic components was rapid.  Fenvalerate undergoes several major
    metabolic reactions; cleavage of the ester linkage, hydroxylation in
    the acid and alcohol moieties and conversion of the CN group to SCN
    and CO2.  The resulting metabolite acids and phenols were
    subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid, sulfuric acid or amino
    acids.  The reactions were similar in both rats and mice with
    differences being the nature of the conjugating material and the
    quantitative excretion of certain metabolites.  Taurine was found to
    conjugate with 3-phenoxy-benzoic acid, representing 10-13% of the dose
    in mouse urine.  This conjugating mechanism was not observed with

    rats.  In both species, major hydroxylation reactions were noted to
    occur in the 4' position of the phenoxybenzoic acid.  Hydroxylation
    also has been noted in the 2' and 5' positions.  Several species
    differences in rats and mice were observed with respect to
    hydroxylation on the phenoxybenzoic acid.  Figure 1 gives a schematic
    of the metabolites conjugating mechanisms observed in mammals.
    Hydroxylated fenvalerate was detected in the faeces of both rats and
    mice (Boyer, 1977c; Kaneko and Ohkawa, 1979; Ohkawa, et al., 1979). 
    The liver of rats fed fenvalerate for 28 days was analyzed for
    residues and found to contain 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and the
    corresponding 4'-hydroxylated derivative (Boyer, 1977d).

    Subcellular fractions of rat liver have been shown to degrade
    fenvalerate yielding a wide variety of products, many of which have
    been detected in urine and as conjugated products.  The most widely
    noted were 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and its 4'-hydroxylated derivatives
    as well as the corresponding isovaleric acid (Boyer, 1976a; 1976b).
    The acute toxicity of the hydrolytic metabolites is presented in Table
    2.  All metabolites are less toxic than fenvalerate.

    Photodecomposition

    Photolysis of fenvalerate in solvents by artificial light and as a
    thin film on glass or cotton by sunlight yields products resulting
    from ester cleavage.  The major product in solution was identified as
    a photo-induced decarboxylation yielding an unusual product, not known
    to occur in mammals.

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 2

    Holmstead, et al., 1978)

    Effects on Enzymes and Other Biochemical Parameters

    Fenvalerate, when fed to adult rats for 14 days did not induce hepatic
    microsomal enzyme as measured by the comparative rates of
    de-ethylation of an organophosphate pesticide (chlorofenvinphos)
    (Creedy and Potter, 1976).  Dietary levels of 1000 ppm did not induce
    the oxidative O-dealkylation which has been shown to be reflective
    of microsomal enzyme induction in rat liver.

    Groups of rats (4 to 6 of each sex per group) were administered
    fenvalerate orally at dose levels ranging from 0 to 400 mg/kg for 7
    consecutive days.  Mortality and clinical signs of acute poisoning
    were seen only at the highest dose level.  A significant neurological
    deficit was demonstrated using an inclined plane test (expressed at an
    angle at which the animals cannot maintain their hold on an inclining
    plane). [See Kaplan and Murphy, 1972].  In addition to functional
    deficits, increases in -glucuronidase and -galactosidase activity in
    the posterior tibular nerve and trigeminal ganglia were observed.
    Functional motor deficits appeared to coincide with administration on
    fenvalerate reaching its maximum effects between day 5-7 of treatment.
    Stimulation of lysosomal enzyme activity appears to coincide with
    neurological deficits and with sciatic nerve degeneration noted with
    acute (high level) intoxication (Dewar, et al., 1977).

    Groups of hamsters (5 males and 5 females per group) were administered
    fenvalerate at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for 5
    consecutive days.  In 3 separate experiments, dose related increases
    in -glucuronidase and -galactosidase activity of peripheral nerves
    was observed.  Minimal functional deficits were also noted during the
    treatment period and for two weeks following treatment.  These data
    appear to be consistent and to be associated with axonal degeneration
    in the peripheral nerve (Dewar, et al., 1978).

    METABOLIC PATHWAYS FOR FENVALERATE

    FIGURE 1

    TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Special Studies on Reproduction

    Rat

    Groups of rats (11 male and 22 female rats per group) were fed
    fenvalerate in the diet at dosage levels of 0, 1, 5, 25 and 250 ppm.
    The animals were fed for 9 weeks prior to mating and initiation of a
    standard 3-generation (2 litters per generation) reproduction study.
    Fertility, viability, gestation and lactating indices were calculated
    for each treatment group compared to control values.  Ten male and 10
    female weanlings from the F3b litter were examined histologically at
    the conclusion of the study.

    The mean body weight of the parent of the third generation (F2b
    adults) showed a significant reduction at the 250 ppm level.  Gross
    necropsy revealed kidney changes in these animals which was not
    apparently related to fenvalerate.  No pathological changes were noted
    to account for the weight loss.  No effects on reproductive parameters
    in any of the three generations were observed in the study. 
    Histological examination did not show an adverse effect of
    fenvalerate.  With the exception of weight reduction in the third
    generation parents, there was no effect of fenvalerate on any
    parameter measured in the study (Beliles, et al., 1978; Stein, 1977).

    Teratogenicity

    Mouse

    Groups of pregnant mice (32 to 33 mice per group) were administered
    fenvalerate at dosage levels of O, 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg body weight per
    day on days 6 through 15 of gestation in a standard teratogenicity
    bioassay.  On day 18, groups of 20 mice were sacrificed and fetuses
    were removed and examined for somatic and skeletal abnormalities.  The
    remaining parents were allowed to deliver naturally and the young
    maintained for three weeks to weaning to evaluate postnatal deficits.

    In addition to the teratogenicity study, two male and two female
    weanlings from each dam were maintained for 8 weeks and mated to note
    any effects on their reproductive potential.  Toxic signs of poisoning
    were noted in maternal mice at the high dose level.  There was no
    significant mortality over the course of the study and no effects were
    noted on any of the animals as a result of continuous administration
    of fenvalerate.  In fetal examinations, there were no somatic or
    skeletal changes as noted by internal or external tissue evaluations.

    The animals maintained in an abbreviated reproduction study showed no
    differences from control value in their ability to reproduce.  There
    were no changes in the reproduction indicates evaluated with any
    animals examined.  Under the conditions of this bioassay, fenvalerate
    has been shown to have no teratogenic potential in mice (Kohda, et
    al., 1976a).

    Rabbit

    Groups of pregnant rabbits (group size varied from 20 to 31 rabbits)
    were administered fenvalerate from day 6 to day 18 of gestation.  On
    day 28, the rabbits were sacrificed and standard teratogenicity
    assessments made with respect to early or late fetal death, viability
    and standard somatic and skeletal teratogenic potential.  Reduced body
    weight of pregnant rabbits was observed with the highest dose level.
    There were no significant differences from control values in any of
    the parameters measured in the study.  Under the conditions of the
    study, fenvalerate did not induce a teratogenic event in rabbits (van
    der Pauw, et al., 1975).

    Special Studies on Mutagenicity

    Microorganism

    Fenvalerate was examined for its mutagenic potential using a series of
    Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA 1535, TA 1538, TA 98 and TA 100) at
    dose levels up to 1 mg/ plate.  Two strains of Bacillus subtilis (H17
    and M45) were tested at concentrations up to 10 mg/disc.  The "Ames"
    test was performed in the presence and absence of rat activation
    systems and with positive and negative chemical controls.  The Rec
    assay was not evaluated with a metabolic activation system.  With both
    microbial bioassay systems, fenvalerate was not mutagenic (Suzuki and
    Miyamoto, 1976).

    In additional trials, fenvalerate did not increase the number of
    revertant colonies of S. typhimurim (TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98
    and TA 100) in the presence or absence of a liver subcellular
    activation system prepared from 6 different strains of PCB-treated
    mice, 3 strains of rat, and the Syrian golden hamster.  Fenvalerate,
    tested at dosage levels up to 1 mg/plate, was not mutagenic (Suzuki
    and Miyamoto, 1977; Suzuki, et al., 1979).

    Mouse

    Groups of mice were administered fenvalerate orally at doses of 0, 60
    and 125 mg/kg body weight and injected intraperitoneally with an
    indicator strain of microorganisms in a standard host-mediated assay.
    A positive control, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), was used in this
    study.  Fenvalerate did not induce an increase in mutation frequency
    of the S. typhimurium indicator while the DMNA significantly
    increased the mutation frequency (Suzuki and Miyamoto, 1976).

    Groups of mice were administered fenvalerate orally at dose levels of
    0, 25 or 50 mg/kg.  Immediately after administration, a suspension
    culture of yeast Saccharomyces cerviciae was introduced to the
    peritoneal cavity.  Positive (ethyl methane-sulphonate) and negative
    (DMSO) control animals were also used in this standard host-mediated
    assay.  Five hours after dosing, the yeast cells were recovered and
    examined for mitotic gene conversion.  No mutagenic effects were

    detected in the cells from any of the fenvalerate concentrations
    tested (Brooks, 1976).

    Dominant Lethal Assay

    Mouse

    Groups of male mice (10-11 mice per group) were administered
    fenvalerate orally at dosage levels of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body
    weight.  Each treated male was mated with 3 virgin females for 7 days.
    The procedure was repeated weekly with new females in a standard
    dominant lethal assay.  The females were sacrificed and examined for
    the condition of the fetuses on day 13 of gestation.

    There were no significant differences from control values with respect
    to the effects of fenvalerate on pregnancy.  Foetal implants in
    females mated to males during the second week after treatment showed a
    significant reduction in viable fetuses.  There was also a significant
    increase in early foetal deaths occurring in females mated during the
    fourth week to males dosed at the highest level (Dean, 1975).

    Hamster

    Groups of Chinese hamsters (6 male and 6 females per group) were
    orally administered fenvalerate (in DMSO) at dose levels of 0, 12.5
    and 25 mg/kg on each of two successive days.  Animals were sacrificed
    8 or 24 hours after dosing and chromosomal preparations were made from
    the femoral bone marrow cells.  Similar preparations were made with
    control animals administered methyl methanesulphonate (50 mg/kg). 
    Cells from animals administered methyl methanesulphonate showed
    substantial numbers of chromatid gaps at 8 hours after dosing but not
    at 24 hours.  The administration of fenvalerate did not induce
    demonstrable chromosomal damage at either sampling interval (Dean and
    Senner, 1975).

    Special Studies on Neurotoxicity

    Hen

    Groups of 6 hens were administered fenvalerate orally in dimethyl
    sulphoxide at dosage levels of 0 and 1000 mg/kg daily for 5 days.  A
    positive control of TOCP (0.5 ml/kg) was also included in the study.
    After 3 weeks, the fenvalerate and negative control animals were
    retreated at the same dosage regimen.  At the conclusion of an
    additional 3 week observation period, animals were sacrificed and
    histological examinations were performed on the central and peripheral
    nervous system.  All animals receiving TOCP developed readily defined
    signs of delayed neurotoxicity and histological lesions were seen in
    the sciatic nerve and spinal cord.  Clinical signs and histopathologic
    lesions were not noted in controls or fenvalerate-treated hens (Milner
    and Butterworth, 1977).

    Rat

    A series of studies was performed to evaluate the neurotoxic potential
    (to induce axonal and myelin disruption) of a group of synthetic
    pyrethroid esters and of natural pyrethrum.  Acute oral administration
    of fenvalerate, cypermethrin, resmethrin, permethrin and natural
    pyrethrum to rats at very high dosage levels resulted in severe
    clinical signs of poisoning and mortality within 24 hours.
    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the sciatic nerve with all
    compounds tested.  At lower levels, fenvalerate (200 mg/kg),
    cypermethrin (100 mg/kg), permethrin (200 mg/kg) and pyrethrum (3500
    mg/kg) did not show clinical signs of poisoning or histopathologic
    lesions (Okuno, et al., 1977a; 1977b).

    Groups of 6 male and female rats were fed fenvalerate in the diet at
    concentrations of 0 and 2000 ppm for 8 to 10 days, after which the
    sciatic nerve was examined for histological signs of degeneration. 
    All animals exposed to fenvalerate showed typical signs of acute
    intoxication including ataxia, tremors and hypersensitivity.
    Histological examinations at the end of the feeding interval did not
    reveal any adverse effects of fenvalerate on the sciatic nerve (Hand
    and Butterworth, 1976).

    In a study to evaluate the reversibility of the lesions induced in the
    sciatic nerve, rats were administered fenvalerate in the diet at dose
    levels of 0 and 3000 ppm for 10 days.  Mortality was evident as 60% of
    the animals died within the course of the dietary treatment. 
    Surviving animals were fed normal control diets and examined for 12
    weeks following completion of the feeding study.  Animals were
    sacrificed every 3 weeks and examined histologically for sciatic nerve
    disruption.  Sciatic nerves of rats sacrificed at 3 weeks on control
    diets continued to show swelling and disintegration of axons.  At 6
    weeks there were no histological lesions.  These results were also
    observed at the 9 and 12-week intervals suggesting reversibility of
    the histopathologic lesion observed following high dose treatment with
    fenvalerate (Okuno and Kadota, 1977c).

    Antidotal Studies

    Following acute poisoning phenobarbital, pentobarbital and
    diphenylhydantoin were found to be effective in relieving the acute
    signs of intoxication.  Phenobarbital (50 mg/kg, ip) prevented tremor,
    diphenylhydantoin (100 mg/kg, ip) reduced the toxic reaction and
    pentobarbital (35 mg/kg ip) removed the tremor reaction completely
    within 30 minutes.  Combinations of diphenylhydantoin with either of
    the barbiturates was effective in reducing the onset and severity of
    tremors while a variety of other agents were not active
    (delta-tubocurarine, atropine, meprobamate, diazepam, biperidin and
    trimethadione) (Matsubara, et al., 1977).

    Special studies in pharmacology

    Fenvalerate, administered to dogs in acute dosage rates sufficient to
    induce toxic signs of poisoning, showed no consistent cardiovascular
    effects as measured by EKG.  Respiratory stimulation was noted at high
    levels and was not reduced by anesthetic supplements (Urethane/alpha
    chlorolos or pentobarbital) (Kirkland and Albert, 1977a; 1977b).

    Skin and eye irritancy

    Two formulated products were found to be severe eye and skin irritants
    when examined in the rabbit.  Dermal irritation was evident for 7 days
    after a 24-hour exposure and severe conjunctivitis, corneal opacity
    and iritis were observed within 30 minutes of an application of 0.2 ml
    of the formulation to the conjunctival sac.  Irrigation of the eye
    after treatment reduced the irritation to some degree (Coombs and
    Carter, 1975 and 1976).

    Acute intraperitoneal toxicity of fenvalerate metabolites in mice

    Table 2.

                                                                   
                                             LD50 (mg/kg)
               Compound                    Male       Female
                                                                   

    Fenvalerate                            88.5       85.0
    2-(4-Chlorophenyl)isovaleric acid      351        350
    3-Phenoxybenzyl alcohol                371        424
    3-4'(Hydroxyphenoxyl) benzyl alcohol   750-1000   750-1000
    3-(2'-Hydroxyphenoxyl) benzyl alcohol  876        778
    3-Phenoxybenzoic acid                  154        169
    3-(4'-Hydroxyphenoxy) benzoic acid     783        745
    3-(2'-Hydroxyphenoxy) benzoic acid     859        912
    3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde                  415        416
    NaSCN                                  604        578
                                                                    

    All compounds were dissolved in corn oil, except 3-phenoxybenzoic
    acid, which was dissolved in DMSO (Khoda, et al., 1979).

    The acute intraperitoneal toxicity in mice of the proposed
    decarboxylated photoproduct was reported to be substantially lower
    than that toxicity noted with fenvalerate (Holmstead, et al., 1978).

    Short Term Studies

    Inhalation

    Groups of 4 male and 4 female rats were exposed by inhalation (head
    only) to an aerosolized formulation (77 micron particle size)
    generated from an aqueous suspension containing 3 grams/litre.

    Following a single administration (4 hours) of this non-inhalable
    particulate, acute signs of poisoning were noted for a short period,
    presumably from oral ingestion of the large particle.  There was no
    mortality and all animals appeared normal within 3 days following
    exposure (Blair and Roderick, 1975).

    Groups of rats and mice (10 male and 10 female of each species per
    group) were administered fenvalerate by inhalation exposure 3 hours
    daily for 4 weeks at concentration levels of 0, 2, 7 and 20 mg/m3. 
    Animals were exposed to a small, fully respirable particulate (1 to 2
    microns) during the course of the study.  Mortality was not noted over
    the course of the study, but animals at the high dose level showed
    acute toxic signs of poisoning.  Growth was not affected at any dose
    level; nor were hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters. 
    Gross and microscopic examination of tissues and organs at the
    conclusion of the study showed no changes that were related to the
    administration of fenvalerate (Khoda, et al., 1976c; Ito, 1976b).

    Dermal

    Groups of rabbits (7-8 male rabbits per group) were administered
    fenvalerate dermally at dose levels of 0, 100 and 400 mg/kg daily for
    6 hours (14 exposures were performed over a 22-day period).  Mortality
    was observed at the high dose level accompanied by severe weight loss,
    clinical signs of poisoning and gross dermal effects.  Rabbits
    tolerated the 100 mg/kg dose with minor local dermatologic effects
    (Hine, 1975).

    Groups of rabbits (10 male and 10 female rabbits per group, five of
    each sex had an occluded skin) were administered fenvalerate dermally
    for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks.  The dosage levels
    used were 0, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight.  In addition, a
    formulated product (an emulsifiable concentrate containing 2.4 pounds
    fenvalerate/gallon) was also tested for its dermal toxicity at dosage
    levels of 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg.

    Mortality was observed with both treatments predominantly at the high
    dosage group.  Mortality was preceded by clinical signs of poisoning
    primarily in the group exposed to the formulated product.  At lower
    concentrations, technical fenvalerate was mildly irritating to the
    skin upon repeated dermal exposure.  The formulation of fenvalerate
    and the blank formulation used as a control were severely irritating.
    When severe irritation was noted, there were significant effects on
    body weight.  There were no effects noted on various haematologic,
    clinical chemistry and urinalysis parameters related to the presence
    of fenvalerate.  Gross and microscopic pathologic changes were noted
    only at the site of administration and described as acanthosis and
    hyperkeratosis of the epidermis.  The extent and severity of the
    lesions appeared to be dose-related especially with respect to the
    formulated product.  There were no significant gross or microscopic
    effects noted in tissues and organs over the course of the study
    (Quinn, et al., 1976).

    Dietary

    Rat

    Groups of rats (12 male and 12 female rats per group) were fed
    fenvalerate in the diet at dose levels of 0, 125, 500, 1000 and 2000
    ppm for 90 days.  Mortality was observed at 2000 ppm while growth and
    food consumption were decreased at 1000 ppm and 2000 ppm.  With the
    exception of an increase In BUN concentration at the two highest dose
    levels, hematological and clinical examinations at the conclusion of
    the study were normal.  Gross and microscopic examinations of tissues
    and organs were performed at the conclusion of the study.  Increases
    in liver to body weight and kidney to body weight ratios were observed
    at 500 ppm and above.  These gross changes were not accompanied by
    observable microscopic changes on histopathological examination.
    Sciatic nerves, examined at the conclusion of the study, showed no
    myelin or axonal degeneration (Hend and Butterworth, 1975).

    Dog

    Groups of young adult beagle dogs (4 male and 4 female dogs per group
    were fed fenvalerate in the diet at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 0.25, 1.25
    and 12.5 mg/kg body weight for 90 days.  There were no abnormalities
    over the course of the study.  Growth, food consumption and behaviour
    were normal.  Results of clinical laboratory examinations performed 3
    times during the course of the study, showed no effects of fenvalerate
    in the diet.  At the conclusion of the study, data from gross and
    microscopic examination of a variety of tissues and organs
    substantiated clinical data, again showing no effects of dietary
    fenvalerate.  Daily administration at a level of 12.5 mg/kg body
    weight for a period of 90 days produced no detectable evidence of
    toxicologic effects (Hart and Wosu, 1975).

    Long Term Studies

    Mouse

    Groups of mice (from 35 to 47 male and female, ddY strain, mice/group)
    were administered fenvalerate in the diet for 78 weeks at dosage
    levels of 0, 100, 300, 1000 and 3000 ppm.  An interim (3 months) and a
    final report showed dose-related effects at 300 ppm and above.
    Fenvalerate was not carcinogenic to the ddY strain of mouse (Suzuki
    and Kadota, 1976; Ito, 1976a, 1978; Suzuki et al., 1977b).

    At the early stages of the study, mortality was evident at the highest
    dose level.  Growth was reduced at 1000 ppm and above.  These effects
    were accompanied by excitability, hypersensitivity and other
    behavioural changes in the first month of feeding.  A variety of
    hematological parameters were affected during the first three months
    of study, predominantly at the high dose level.  Several biochemical
    changes were observed including a decrease in alkaline phosphatase, an
    increase in blood urea nitrogen, an increase in leucine aminopeptidase
    activity and a decrease in cholesterol and glucose occurring at 1000

    and 3000 ppm with several of these parameters being affected at 100
    ppm (glucose decrease in females).  Gross examination of tissues and
    organs showed a weight increase in several tissues of both males and
    females exposed to the high dose level.  Microscopic examination
    suggested changes in the liver at the two highest dose levels.
    Multiple small necrotic foci in the liver and changes in the
    epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules were noted,
    apparently related to the presence of fenvalerate in the diet (Suzuki,
    et al., 1976; Ito, 1976a).

    At the conclusion of the 18-month study, animals were sacrificed for
    terminal haematologic and biochemical changes as well as gross and
    microscopic examination of tissues and organs.  Over the 18 month
    study, growth was depressed at 3000 ppm in both males and females.
    Behavioural changes noted as transient hypersensitivity occurred at
    1000 ppm and above.  Increased mortality was also evident at the two
    highest dose levels.  No compound-related changes were noted with
    respect to haematologic parameters, although clinical chemistry
    parameters were in some instances substantially increased (SGPT, SGOT,
    LDH and LAP activities in both sexes were significantly increased,
    predominantly at the two highest dose levels but sporadically at 300
    ppm).  Gross changes were noted in several organ weights and organ to
    body weight ratios primarily in liver, although changes were also
    noted in the kidney, heart, spleen, pituitary and ovary at the highest
    dose level.  These gross changes were not accompanied by
    histopathological events with the exception of granulomatous changes
    in liver and the mesenteric lymph nodes noted at all treatment groups,
    predominantly at the highest two dose levels.  Biochemical changes,
    noted at the three month sacrifice interval, were not seen at the
    conclusion of the study (increased BUN, decreased glucose, etc.).
    There were no indications in this study of increased tumorigenicity or
    carcinogenicity as a result of fenvalerate (Suzuki, et al., 1977b).

    Rat

    Groups of rats (15 male and 15 female Wistar rate per group) were fed
    at concentrations of O, 50, 150, 500 and 1500 ppm for 15 months in the
    diet.  There was no mortality in the study attributable to
    fenvalerate.  Growth, food consumption and behavioural changes were
    significantly affected at the highest dose level.  Hypersensitivity
    was observed at the early stages of the experiment disappearing within
    3 months.  Growth was significantly depressed in both males and
    females at the highest dose level.  Food consumption was unaffected
    over the course of the study.  Clinical examinations, performed at
    either one year (urinalysis) or at the conclusion of the study
    (hematology, blood biochemistry and gross and microscopic pathology),
    showed significant abnormal values in a variety of parameters at the
    1500 ppm dose level.  No opthamologic effects were noted.  Urinalysis
    was normal over the course of the study.  Haemoglobin concentration
    was depressed in males at the highest dose level and the females at
    150 ppm and above.  Blood biochemistry was significantly altered at
    1500 ppm with respect to several parameters (BUN in both males and
    females; protein and cholinesterase in females).  Gross and

    microscopic examination of tissues and organs including specific
    sections of sciatic nerve and trigeminal ganglia and nerve showed no
    dose-related effects.  Generalized inflammatory and degenerative
    changes were seen in both control and treated animals.  Tumor
    incidents were low and not related to the presence of fenvalerate. 
    There was no suggestion of a carcinogenic potential observed in the
    study (Suzuki, et al., 1977a).

    Groups of rats (93 male and 93 female Sprague-Dawley rats/group, 183
    of each sex were used as the control and an additional 22 of each sex
    were used as a separate control and high level group) were fed
    fenvalerate in the diet at dose levels of 0, 1, 5, 25, 250 and 500
    ppm.  There was no mortality associated with the study although growth
    was reduced at the 500 ppm dose level.  The 500 ppm group and a
    separate control group were sacrificed at 26 weeks while the other
    animals were maintained for 2 years.  There were no significant
    effects on food consumption, growth or on behaviour at 250 pm.
    Hematology, clinical chemistry tests and urinalyses, performed at
    various time intervals over the course of the study on at least 10
    animals of each sex at each dose level, showed no dose-related
    effects.  At the conclusion of the study, organ weight and organ to
    body weight ratios were normal.  Gross and microscopic examination of
    tissues and organs did not differ significantly from controls.  Benign
    and malignant lesions occurred at random throughout all groups
    examined at the end of the study and in those animals that died during
    the course of the study.  There were no lesions attributable to
    fenvalerate.  A specific pathology examination of the sciatic nerve of
    animals fed 250 ppm was performed.  The sciatic nerve was not found to
    have been significantly affected by fenvalerate (Gordon and Weir,
    1978; Lambert, 1977).

    Observations in Man

    Fenvalerate was administered dermally to adult men and women to the
    skin of the arm or face at dosage levels of approximately 20-40 mg.
    Control applications were carried out on the same individuals and
    subjective evaluations were performed with respect to dermal
    irritation.  There was no erythema or other visible skin effects and
    an evaluation of the subjective responses suggested no significant
    differences between fenvalerate-treated and the control portions of
    the body (Hine, 1976).

    A double-blind study utilizing 29 male volunteers was performed to
    test the skin reaction of formulated fenvalerate.  The emulsifiable
    concentrated formulation was diluted with water and administered to
    one side of the face, on the cheek, with a control formulation applied
    to the opposite cheek.

    There were no signs of dermatitis noted at 24 hours following
    administration.  Subjective analyses of irritation or skin sensation
    were performed with each individual.  Under the conditions of the
    study, the formulation of fenvalerate did not produce abnormal skin
    sensations.  There were no indications that any of the symptoms noted

    (which included tingling, burning, stinging, itching, swelling,
    numbness or heat) was associated with fenvalerate (Brown and Slomka,
    1979).

    COMMENTS

    Fenvalerate, an ester related to the pyrethroids, currently being
    developed for use as an agricultural insecticide, is rapidly absorbed
    in mammals, widely distributed, and metabolized.  Tissue residues of
    fenvalerate and its ester metabolites appear to concentrate to some
    degree in adipose tissue.  Fenvalerate undergoes several major
    metabolic reactions: cleavage of the ester linkage, hydroxylation of
    the acid and alcohol moieties, and conversion of the CN group to SCN
    and CO2.  The metabolic fate in all animals studied appears to be
    similar.  Photolytic degradation has been shown to produce a
    decarboxylated product not known to occur in mammals.  Fenvalerate is
    moderately toxic when administered by the oral route.  The metabolic
    and photolysis products are less toxic than the parent ester.

    Studies on the mutagenicity and reproductive/teratogenic potential
    were negative.  Studies on neurotoxicity have shown that, following
    high level exposure, rats showed reversible clinical signs of ataxia.
    Microscopic examination of the sciatic nerve showed axonal swelling
    and myelin disruption.  Biochemical studies revealed an increase in
    lysosomal enzyme activity (-glucuronidase and -galactosidase) in
    peripheral nerve (see Report Section 3.5).  Fenvalerate, when
    administered to hens at high levels, did not induce signs of
    peripheral neuropathy.  No data were available to assess the
    susceptibility of humans to this neuropathy.

    Short-term and long-term studies have been performed in a variety of
    test animals.  Fenvalerate is not a carcinogen and in short-term
    studies in dogs and in long-term studies in rats and mice dietary
    no-effect levels have been observed.  A temporary acceptable daily
    intake for man was allocated.  The concerns of the Meeting over the
    potential for bioaccumulation, the neuropathy observed in rodents and
    the limited information of the susceptibility to such an effect in man
    were the basis for the temporary evaluation and for the request for
    further observations in occupationally exposed humans and for
    pharmacokinetic data.  Further information is desired with respect to
    an additional dominant lethal assay to provide verification of
    existing data.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    Level causing no toxicological effects

    Mouse:   100 ppm in the diet equivalent to 11.9 mg/kg body weight
    Rat:     250 ppm in the diet equivalent to 12.5 mg/kg body weight
    Dog:     12.5 mg/kg body weight

    ESTIMATE OF TEMPORARY ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE FOR MAN

    0-0.06 mg/kg body weight

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    USE PATTERN

    Fenvalerate is a highly active broad spectrum insecticide.  It is
    particularly effective as a contact and stomach poison against
    lepidopterous larvae and also has high activity against Orthoptera, 
    Hemiptera and Diptera.  This activity, together with adequate
    stability on foliage, and relatively low toxicity to mammals is likely
    to lead to increasing use against pests of agriculture.

    The substance can be combined with most other insecticides and
    fungicides, but not those with alkaline properties.  It is mostly
    marketed as 20% and 30% concentrates for aqueous dilution; but
    granules, ULV concentrates and powers are also available.

    Pre-harvest treatments

    Fenvalerate is registered and/or approved in many countries in Europe,
    Asia, South and Central America, and Australia.  It is used against a
    wide range of pests, including tobacco bud worm, bollworms, cut worms,
    armyworms, leafrollers, weevils, aphids, thrips, beetles, leaf miners,
    moths, bugs, psyllas etc and on a wide range of crops including
    fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals, cotton and tobacco.  For these
    purposes it is applied at from 25 to 300 g/ha depending on the crop.

    Other uses

    It is registered in Argentina for forestry use against Oiketicus. 
    It is also being developed for control of insect pests of stored grain
    and against insects of importance in public health, animal health and
    industry.

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

    Pre-harvest uses

    Many trials have been carried out on a wide variety of fruits,
    vegetables, cereals and oilseeds.  Most of the data were generated
    under American conditions, supplementary data are available from
    several other countries.  Table 3 contains the summarised data,
    representing several thousand separate analytical data provided by the
    principal manufacturers.

    Since fenvalerate is not systemic in plants, residues usually are very
    low in commodities such as root crops, corn kernels and peas which are
    protected from direct contact with the insecticide.  Residue levels on
    plants normally decline with a half-life of about one to two weeks.

    Oilseeds

    Following multiple applications at rates up to 0.45 kg/ha, and in over
    30 supervised trials in various countries (i.e. higher than the
    recommended dosage of up to 0.3. kg/ha).  Residues in cottonseed were
    generally below 0.1.mg/kg, regardless of the interval between last
    treatment and harvest.  A residue of 0.21 mg/kg was found in a
    Colombian trial 1 day after treatment at the rate of 0.3 kg/ha, and
    one trial in U.S.A. showed the residues of 0.12 mg/kg (at a rate of
    0.22 kg/ha) and 0.19 mg/kg (0.45 kg/ha) 48 days after treatment.  When
    the seed cases were separated from kernels, the residues of
    fenvalerate almost entirely remained on the seed cases and levels in
    the oil products were very low.

    All trials on peanuts have been made in U.S.A.  When fenvalerate was
    applied at rates of up to 0.22 kg/ha the residues in whole nuts did
    not exceed 0.1 mg/kg.  At the higher rate of 0.45 kg/ha however,
    residues of 0.20-0.32 mg/kg were detected 14-21 days after
    application.  It was shown that residues in the meat and oil did not
    exceed the detection limit (0.01 mg/kg) and that the shells carried
    almost all the residues found in whole nuts.  Even when the peanuts
    were harvested 73 days after the treatment at 5 and 10 times higher
    rates than the recommended dosage (up to 0.22 kg/ha) the residues in
    whole nuts were 0.04 mg/kg and 0.09 mg/kg, respectively.  In other
    trials at rates up to 0.45 kg/ha the residues in hay, foliage and
    vines ranged from 0.01 to 31 mg/kg.

    Leafy and stem vegetables

    Trials have been carried out in U.S.A. and several countries on
    lettuce, celery and brassica vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels
    sprouts, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, kale and Chinese kale.
    The residues were generally less than 1 mg/kg 5-10 days after
    treatment at rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.45 kg/ha.  Residues of 1.2
    mg/kg were found in cabbage and kale 7 days after treatment.  In
    celery the maximum residue 7 days after treatment was 1.2 mg/kg where
    the application rates were within recommended dosage of 0.22 kg/ha.
    When lettuce was treated at rates of up to 0.45 kg/ha and harvested 7
    days after treatment, the maximum residue was 1.6 mg/ha at application
    rate of 0.10 kg/ha except one trial in France in which 5.5 mg/kg was
    found 7 days following application at 0.10 kg/ha.

    Fruiting vegetables

    Residue data for cucumbers are available from U.S.A.  The maximum
    residue was 0.47 mg/kg 3 days or later after treatment at rates within
    the recommended dosage (up to 0.22 kg/ha).

    In trials carried out in various countries, 1 to 9 successive
    applications were made to tomatoes at rates up to 0.45 kg/ha.  The
    tomatoes were harvested at intervals ranging up to 40 days after the
    last treatment, and the residues were below 0.5 mg/kg in all samples
    taken 7 days or more after the treatment.

    Root and tuber vegetables

    Trials on sugar beets have been carried out in U.S.A., France, Denmark
    and U.K.  The maximum residue of 0.03 mg/kg was found in roots 9 days
    after a single treatment at a rate of 0.15 kg/ha in the Danish trial.
    In other trials the residues were not detectable at the limit of 0.01
    mg/kg.  In beet tops the maximum residue observed was 5.9 mg/kg, 21
    days after treatment of 0.45 kg/ha.

    Numerous trials have been carried out on potatoes in U.S.A., Canada,
    France and Italy.  No residues above the detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg
    were found in potatoes harvested at 0-84 days following up to 9
    applications at rates of 0.015-0.45 kg/ha.

    Alfalfa

    Residue data on alfalfa were obtained from the trials in U.S.A. where
    single or repeat treatments were made at rates up to 0.45 kg/ha.  When
    alfalfa was harvested 21 days or later after treatments, the maximum
    residue of 5.8 mg/kg was found at an application rate of 0.45 kg/ha.
    The residues on dry alfalfa with water content of around 10% were
    about 3 times higher than those on green alfalfa.

    Legume vegetables

    Residue data are available from several countries on legume vegetables
    including green beans, dry beans, navy beans, snapbeans, pinto beans,
    blackeyed peas, peas and soybeans.  Residues in soybeans were
    generally not detectable when analyzed more than 15 days after
    treatment rates up to 0.45 kg/ha.  The maximum residue of 0.06 mg/kg
    was found 21 days after treatment at 0.08 kg/ha and 0.20 kg/ha. When
    the treatment was made within the recommended dosage (0.22 kg/ha) and
    the harvest was made 21 days or later after the treatment, the
    residues in soybean plants, hay, straw and trash were below 5 mg/kg
    except that one residue of 7.3 mg/kg was found after treatment at 0.20
    kg/ha in the Australian trial.

    Pome and stone fruits

    Trials have been carried out on apples, pears and peaches in U.S.A.,
    Canada, Australia, Japan and several European countries.  In apples,
    at application rates up to 0.72 kg/ha, the residues were less than 2.0
    mg/kg 21 days or later after treatment except in a trial in U.S.A.
    where 2.9 mg/kg was found 21 days after 7 treatments at 0.22 kg/ha. 
    In two trials in Japan, where 3 or 6 applications were made at a rate
    of 1.4 kg/ha, the residues ranged from 0.92 to 3.5 mg/kg.

    In pears the residues generally did not exceed 1 mg/kg following up to
    7 applications at rates up to 0.67 kg/ha even when the last treatment
    was made close to harvest.  In one trial where 3 treatments were made
    at a rate of 0.67 kg/ha the residue of 1.3 mg/kg was found 13 days
    after the last treatment.  In the same trial pears were treated with

    fenvalerate at a rate of 1.34 kg/ha, and the residue was 1.9 mg/kg 13
    days after 3 treatments.

    Peaches were treated at rates of 0.1-0.8 kg/ha.  The residues reached
    2.3 mg/kg after 3 treatments at a concentration of 0.04% ai.  Residues
    of 2.2 mg/kg were found after 3 treatments at a rate of 0.8 kg/ha and
    after a single treatment at a rate of 0.72 kg/ha.

    Small fruits and berries

    Trials on grapes have been carried out in U.S.A., Canada, Australia,
    France and Italy.  Residues did not exceed 0.80 mg/kg 14 days after
    treatment at rates up to 0.22 kg/ha except two trials in France and
    Italy.  In Italian trials a residue of 1.3 mg/kg was found 30 days
    after treatment at a rate of 0.2 kg/ha.  In U.S.A., trials where
    grapes were harvested 21 days after treatment at a rate of 0.11 kg/ha,
    the residue of 1.6 mg/kg was reported, although in this trial the
    residues 1 day and 14 days after treatment were 0.71 mg/kg and 0.51
    mg/kg respectively.

    In raspberries and strawberries the residues were less than 0.5 mg/kg
    when the crops were harvested 7-23 days after treatment at rates up to
    0.225 kg/ha.

    Cereal grains, pre-harvest

    Trials have been carried out in U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Brazil
    on sweet corn, field corn, sorghum and wheat.

    In sweet corn the maximum residue in kernels was 0.03 mg/kg, even
    though 18 treatments were made with the intervals of 2-7 days and the
    crops were harvested 2 days after treatment.  The residues in stover
    and ensilage ranged from 5.5 to 25 mg/kg.  In field corn, the interval
    between treatment and sampling was more than 72 days, and fenvalerate
    was detected only in stover at a level of 0.07 mg/kg 140 days after
    the treatment at a rate of 0.22 mg/kg.  In wheat, the maximum residue
    was 0.29 mg/kg in grain 13 days after treatment at a rate of 0.14
    mg/ha and 15.0 mg/kg in straw 21 days after treatment at a rate of
    0.30 kg/ha.

    Cereal grains, post-harvest

    Fenvalerate has undergone laboratory and silo-scale field trials as a
    stored-grain protectant in Australia.  Studies for this purpose have
    been made on wheat, principally, (Bengston, 1979), barley
    (Desmachelier, 1978) and sorghum (Bengston et al, 1979).  All the
    residue data indicate that fenvalerate is persistent under the
    temperature and humidity conditions prevailing in Australian storages.

    Large-scale trials have been made on stored wheat and sorghum
    (Bengston, 1979 and Bengston et al., 1979a).  Because of the strategy
    of proposed usage fenvalerate has been applied at 1 mg/kg grain in
    conjunction with its synergist, piperonyl butoxide (at 8 mg/kg grain)

    and a complementary insecticide, fenitrothion (at l2 mg/kg grain).
    Under these conditions of storage the fenvalerate residue declines
    slowly: after 9-10 months about 75% of the applied amount remains
    (Table 8).  Expected residues in whole grain cereals would be less
    than 1 mg/kg after storage.

    Residues in processed products

    Some of the cottonseed, peanuts and soybeans obtained from supervised
    trials in U.S.A. and Colombia were subjected to processing to produce
    oil products.  The occurrence of residues in processed products are
    summarized in Table 4.

    In U.S.A. trials, the residues in various cottonseed oil products
    after processing were less than 0.1 mg/kg.  In the Colombian
    experiment where a single treatment of 0.3 kg/ha was made one day
    before harvest, the residue was 0.16 mg/kg, 0.23 mg/kg, 0.22 mg/kg and
    0.18 mg/kg in crude, neutral, bleached and deodorised oil,
    respectively, in accordance with a residue of 0.14 mg/kg in the
    unprocessed cottonseed.  These cottonseeds were separated into kernels
    and hulls by a mechanical (simulated commercial) process.  Such a
    procedure might contribute to the higher residues, since the
    mechanical processing might have caused contamination of kernels with
    hulls, because when these seeds were separated by hand at the
    laboratory, residues in kernels and hulls were 0.02 mg/kg and 0.40
    mg/kg, respectively.  Cottonseeds which were obtained from American
    trials were separated by hand, and processed to oil products and no
    residues were detected in extracted kernels.

    Peanuts and soybeans which were harvested after treatment at rates of
    0.11-0.45 kg/ha were processed to oil products and no residues were
    detected in either crude or refined oil, or in extracted meal.

    Wine made from grapes which contained up to 0.12 mg/kg of fenvalerate
    71-74 days after treatment at rates of 0.075 and 0.15 kg/ha (France)
    contained non-detectable residues.

    Following post-harvest treatment and storage, fenvalerate residue in
    wheat is found principally (68-69%) in the bran which comprises about
    15% of the whole grain (Table 9).  White flour constitutes about 72%
    of the whole grain and contains about 8-9% of its fenvalerate residue.
    The remaining residue is in the pollard.  Residues in flour are
    carried over into bread baked from that flour (Table 7b); there is no
    reduction in residue level on a commodity-weight basis.  White bread
    prepared from treated grain would have about the same residue level of
    fenvalerate as white flour, that is about 0.06-0.1 mg/kg on present
    usage.  The corresponding level for wholemeal bread or flour would be
    about 0.5-0.8 mg/kg.



        Table 3. Summary of Residues Following Field Trials (1976 to 1979)

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha           %           0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Cottonseed         Various
                       countries        up to 13   0.0115          20 and       Figures covering over 30 supervised trials reach 0.1
                                                   0.6               30         mg/kg only in isolated instances.

    Peanuts (whole)    U.S.A.            5         0.11              30         <0.01                                      <0.01
                                                   0.22              "          <0.01                                      <0.01
                                         5         0.22              "          <0.01       <0.01               <0.01      <0.01
                                         2         0.45              "           0.04        0.12      0.20      0.29
                                         2         0.45              "           0.06        0.18      0.11      0.11
                                         2         0.22              "                                           0.03
                                         2         0.45              "                                           0.32

    Peanuts (Vines)                      5         0.11              "           0.69        0.01                0.02       0.1
                                         5         0.22              "           1.6         0.02                0.04       0.04
                                         2         0.11              "                                 6.4
                                         2         0.22              "                                 3.2
                                         2         0.11              "                       0.51
                                         2         0.22              "                       0.42

    Sunflower          Australia         1         0.08              "                                 0.07                 0.03

    Brussels sprouts   U.S.A.            8         0.045             "                       0.13
                                         8         0.09              "                       0.04

                       Canada            3         0.15              "           0.85        0.60      0.45

                       Netherlands       1         0.045             "                       0.04
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Cabbage            U.S.A.            4         0.11              "                       0.03
                                         4         0.22              "                       0.01
                                         8         0.055             "                       0.37
                                         8         0.11              "                       0.46
                                         3         0.11              "           1.2         0.82      0.28      0.76
                                         3         0.22              "           2.4         1.2       0.37      0.45

                       Canada            3         0.15              "           0.25        0.14
                                         3         0.16              "           0.30        0.02     <0.01

                       Australia         4         0.073             7.3         0.13        0.15      0.05

                       New Zealand       6         0.15              10          1.2         0.5       0.9
                                         5         0.15              10          1.3         0.6       0.9

                       Thailand          1         0.07              20         <0.01       <0.01

                       Japan             3         0.3               20                      0.14      0.011    <0.005
                                         6         0.3               20                      0.17      0.028    <0.005

    Chinese cabbage    Netherlands       1         0.05              30                      0.52      0.25

                       Japan             3         0.15              20                      0.25      0.13      0.091
                                         5         0.15              20                      0.33      0.084     0.061

    Kale               U.K.              2         0.075             30          1.5         0.88      0.62      0.26
                                         2         0.225             30          1.8         1.2       0.93      0.53

                       Thailand          1         0.06              20          1.3         0.13

    Cauliflower        U.S.A.            4         0.11              20          1.5         0.35      0.15
                                         4         0.22              20          1.8         0.61      0.32
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Cauliflower        Canada            3         0.16              20          0.28        0.02     <0.01
    (cont'd)
                       Thailand          1         0.07              20          0.17        0.1

    Broccoli           U.S.A.            2         0.11              20                      0.77
                                         2         0.22              20                      0.69

                       Canada            3         0.16              20          0.29        0.09      0.06

                       New Zealand       5         0.15              10         15.3         5.1       2.2

    Celery             U.S.A.           15         0.22              10          1.5         0.46
                                        15         0.45              10          3.6         1.9
                                        15         0.055             10          0.11        0.20
                                        15         0.11              10          0.37        0.52
                                        15         0.22              10          1.0         1.2
                                        15         0.45              10          2.0         2.6

    Lettuce            U.S.A.            7         0.11              10          0.21        0.30      0.07

                       France            1         0.05              10          2.0         0.35      0.11
                                         1         0.10              10          4.0         1.2       0.47
                                         1         0.10              10          6.9         5.5       2.2
                                         1         0.10              10          2.3         0.45      0.30
                                         1         0.10              10          6.2         1.6       0.06

                       Netherlands       1         0.075             30          2.25        0.67
                                         1         0.075             30          0.25        0.16

    Aubergine          France            1         0.11              30                      0.08      0.01
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Cucumbers          U.S.A.            5         0.11              30          0.09        0.04      0.03
                                         5         0.22              30          0.48        0.08      0.03
                                         5         0.45              30          0.54        0.07      0.08

    Watermelon         U.S.A.            4         0.11              30                      0.02
                                         4         0.22              30                     <0.01

    Bell peppers       U.S.A.            3         0.11              30                      0.06
                                                   0.22              30                      0.11
                                                   0.45              30                      0.39
                                         7         0.22              30                                          0.19
                                                   0.45              30                                          0.34

    Green peppers      U.S.A.            2         0.45              30                      0.02

    Squash             U.S.A.            5         0.11              30          0.10        0.02      0.01

    Tomato             U.S.A.            3         0.11              30                      0.02     <0.01
                                                   0.22              30                      0.07     <0.01
                                                   0.45              30                      0.08      0.01
                                         2         0.11              30                      0.1
                                                   0.22              30                      0.29
                                                   0.45              30                      0.33

                       France            1         0.11              30          0.11        0.47      0.13

                       Netherlands       1         0.22              30                      0.31

                       Spain             2         0.2               30                                0.15      0.10       0.15
                                         3         0.2               30                      0.35      0.25      0.15
                                         2         0.3               30                                0.2       0.1        0.15
                                         3         0.3               30                      0.25      0.10      0.15
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Tomato             Australia         9         0.01              20          0.16        0.15      0.19
    (cont'd)                                       0.15              20          0.17        0.12      0.29
                                                   0.02              20          0.42        0.38      0.28

                       Mexico            2         0.15              20          0.04        0.03      0.02      0.03
                                         1         0.01                         <0.05       <0.05

                       South Africa      4         0.02                         <0.05       <0.05
                                                   0.03                          0.07       <0.05
                                                   0.04                          0.06       <0.05

                       Mexico            1         0.15              30          0.08        0.05      0.03      0.03       0.01
                                         1         0.3               30          0.13        0.13      0.08      0.05       0.02
                                         3         0.3               30          0.31        0.16      0.19

                       Canary Islands    2         0.15              30                                0.25                 0.20       0.07
                                         3         0.15              30                      0.40      0.30      0.20       0.08       0.01(71)

    Sugar Beets        Demnark           1         0.15              20         Roots        0.03
                                                                                Tops         1.2                                       0.59

                       U.S.A.            2         0.45              30         Roots                           <0.01                  1.15(71)
                                                                                Tops                             5.9
                                                                                            (Similar findings in France and U.K)

    Potatoes           U.S.A.,Canada,
    (20 trials)        France           1-9        0.07-0.45         30         <0.01       <0.01     <0.01     <0.01      <0.01
                                                                                    No detectable residue found in any samples

    Alfalfa            U.S.A.            1         0.11              30          6.1         3.2       2.6       1.0
    (green)                                        0.22              30         15          11         8.8       1.9
                                                   0.45              30         32          24        18         5.8
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Green beans        France            1         0.16              30                                0.31
                                                   0.21              30          0.67        0.48
                                                   0.32                                                0.43
                                                   0.43              30          1.7         0.58

    Dry Beans          U.S.A.            4         0.11              30                                          0.21
                                                   0.22              30                                          0.13

    Navy Beans         U.S.A.            4         0.11              30                                                    <0.01
                                                   0.22              30                                                     0.01

                       Australia         1         0.1               20                                          0.03                  0.03
                                                   0.2               20                                          0.06                  0.03

    Snap beans         U.S.A.            3         0.11              30                      0.17      0.03
                                         3         0.22              30                      0.26      0.05
                                         3         0.45              30                      0.67                                     <0.01

    Pinto beans        U.S.A.            1         0.11              30                                                               <0.01
                                                   0.22              30

    Blackeyed peas     U.S.A.            2         0.055             30                                         <0.01
                                                   0.11              30                                         <0.01

    Peas               U.S.A.            1         0.11              30                               <0.01
                                         1         0.22              30                               <0.01
                                         1         0.45              30                               <0.01

    Soybeans           U.S.A.            1         0.11              30          0.06        0.01     <0.01     <0.01      <0.01
                                         1         0.22              30          0.05        0.03      0.02     <0.01      <0.01

                       Brazil            2         0.12              30                               <0.01                           <0.01
                                         2         0.24              30                               <0.01                           <0.01
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Soybeans           Colombia          4         0.075             30                                                    <0.01
    (cont'd)                             4         0.30              30                                                    <0.01

                       Australia         1         0.08              20                                          0.06
                                         1         0.2               20                                          0.06

    Asparagus bean     Thailand          1         0.14              20          0.14        0.04
    (A01-0603)

    Apples             France            1         0.15              30                      0.26      0.37      0.40       0.19

                       Australia         3         0.02%             30                                0.80                 0.60       0.35
                                         3         0.04%             30                                0.90                 0.35       0.35

                       Germany           6         0.0225            30          1.7         2.0       1.0
                                         6         0.045             30          2.8         2.3       2.0       1.9        1.8
                                         6         0.0225            30          0.96        0.84      0.87      0.56       0.61
                                         6         0.045             30          2.4         2.6       1.8       1.5        1.0
                                         6         0.225             30          2.8         2.4       2.1       1.9        1.6
                                         6         0.045             30          4.8         5.8       3.6       1.3        1.3

                       Japan             3         1.4               20                                1.91      1.76       1.88
                                         6         1.4               20                                3.21      3.5        2.88
                                         3         0.72              20                                0.6       0.26       0.44
                                         3         0.70              20                                0.54      0.42       0.40

                       New Zealand      12         0.008             10          1.0         0.57      0.57      0.37       0.52

                       South Africa      6         0.024%            20          0.14        0.07      0.05                <0.05
                                                   0.03%             20          0.14        0.08      0.09                 0.05
                                                   0.048%            20          0.36        0.24      0.16                 0.1
                                                   0.06              20          0.31        0.24      0.18                 0.1
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Pears              U.S.A.            7         0.11              30          0.11        0.08      0.05
                                         7         0.22              30          0.16        0.14      0.08
                                         3         0.67              30                                1.3                  0.48       0.60
                                                                                                                                       0.24(62)
                                         3         1.34              30                                1.9                  1.0        0.47
                                                                                                                                       0.28(62)
                                         2         0.67              30          0.54        0.39      0.30                 0.15

                       France            2         0.1               30                      0.32      0.23      0.19       0.15
                                         2         0.13              30                      0.40      0.30      0.22       0.14

                       Australia         3         0.02%             30                                0.39                 0.46       0.31
                                                   0.04%             30                                0.56                 0.60       0.30

                       South Africa      6         0.024%            30          0.22        0.08      0.06                 0.05
                                                   0.03%             30          0.26        0.12      0.12                 0.05
                                                   0.045%            30          0.35        0.24      0.19                 0.12

    Apricots           U.S.A.            2         0.28              30                                                                0.39
                                                   0.56              30                                                                0.78

    Cherries           U.S.A.            3         0.055             30                                1.0       0.66
                                                   0.11              30                                0.93      2.3
                                                   0.22              30                                2.9       2.6

    Peaches            U.S.A.            6         0.11              30          0.30        0.27      0.11
                                                   0.22              30          0.26        0.23      0.10

                       Japan             3         0.8               30                      0.084     0.045     0.014
                                         6         0.8               30                      0.061     0.026     0.016
                                         3         0.6               30                      0.054     0.014     0.020
                                         6         0.6               30                      0.046     0.017     0.057
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

                       Australia         3         0.02              30                                0.52      0.52
                                                   0.04              30                                1.3       2.3

    Plums              U.S.A.            2         0.22              30                                                                1.3
                                                   0.45              30                                                                1.1

    Grapes             U.S.A.            5         0.22              30          1.2         1.1       0.80
                                         4         0.11              30          0.31                  0.39      0.45
                                                   0.22              30          0.71                  0.51      1.6

                       Canada            1         0.078             30                                0.25      0.20

                       France            1         0.075             30                      0.30      0.30      0.55       0.40
                                         2         0.075             30                      0.65      0.67
                                         1         0.075             30                      0.43      0.09      0.06       0.03

    Raspberries        Canada            1         0.225             30                                0.26
                                         3         0.135             30                                0.40

    Strawberries       U.S.A.            1         0.11              30                     <0.01      0.11
                                         1         0.22              30                      0.38      0.21

                       Canada            2         0.172             30                                          0.07
                                         2         0.12              30                                          0.45

    Citrus fruit       Japan             3         0.67              30                                0.78      0.89
    (whole)                              6         0.67              30                                1.56      1.25
                                         3         0.67              30                                1.69      0.91
                                         6         0.67              30                                3.63      1.44
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

                       Spain             2         0.15              30                      1.1       1.2       0.85                  0.75*
                                                                                             1.9       1.2       1.5                   0.9
                                                                                                                                      *Juice
                                                                                                                                      <0.01

    Kiwi fruit         New Zealand       6         0.46              10          3.4         3.2       2.5       2.1
                                                   0.92              10          4.1         3.8       3.6       2.2

    Sweet corn         U.S.A.           18         0.22              30          0.01
    (ears)                              18         0.28              30          0.02
                                         4         0.11              30                      0.02
                                         4         0.22              30                      0.02                                     <0.01(140)
                                                                                                                                      <0.01(164)

    Field corn         U.S.A.            1         0.22              4 Gran                                                           <0.01(164)
    (ears)                               1         0.11              30                                                               <0.01(136)
                                         1         0.22              30
                                         1         0.45              30

    Sorghum            U.S.A.            2         0.11              30                                                     0.17
                                                   0.22              30                                                     0.32
                                                   0.45              30                                                     0.58

                       Australia         1         0.075             30                                4.0                  1.09
                                                   0.15              30                                4.9                  1.70

                       South Africa      1         0.020             20          0.1         0.1      <0.1      <0.1       <0.1
                                                   0.030             20          0.2         0.2       0.1       0.1       <0.1
                                                   0.040             20          0.2         0.2       0.1       0.1        0.1
                                                   0.050             20          0.5         0.3       0.2       0.2        0.1
                                                   0.060             20          0.6         0.3       0.3       0.2        0.1
                                                                                                                                           

    Table 3.  Continued...

                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Applications                 Residues in mg/kg, at intervals (days) after application
    Crop               Country          no.         rate      EC formulation
                                                 kg a.i./ha          %            0           7        14        21          28        56
                                                                                                                                           

    Wheat              Argentina         1         0.10                                                          0.08
                                                   0.15                                                          0.05
                                                   0.20                                                          0.05
                                                   0.30                                                          0.10

                       Canada            1         0.14                                                0.29      0.12       0.05

                       Brazil            1         0.09                                                0.01                 0.02       0.01

    Almonds            U.S.A.            1         0.22                                                                               <0.01

    Coffee beans       Brazil            1         0.10                                                                               <0.06
                                                                                                                                           
    


    Table 4.  Distribution of Residues in Processed Products of Oilseeds
    (Crop treated with 30% E.C. fenvalerate in U.S.A. during 1975-1976)

    Cottonseed

                                                                       
    Rate (kg/ha)             0.11      0.22      0.45      0.22     0.45
    No. of applications      14        8         8         8        8
    Pre-harvest intervals    30        6         6         48       48
    (days)
    Residues in....

    Ginned cottonseed        0.05      0.01      0.02      0.12     0.19
    Delinted cottonseed      -                   -         0.02     0.01
    Hulls                    0.01      0.02      0.01      0.01     0.01
    Solvent extracted meal   -         0.01      0.01      0.01     0.01
    Crude oil                0.04      0.01      0,01      0.03     0.05
    Refined oil              0.05      0.01      0.01      0.04     0.06
    Soapstock                0.01      0.01      0.01      0.01     0.01
                                                                       

    Peanuts

                                                             
    Rate  (kg/ha)                0.11     0.22    0.45
    No. of application           2        2       2
    Pre-harvest interval (days)  14       14      14

    Residues in....
    Whole nuts                   0.01     0.02    0.02
    Nut meats                    0.01     0.01    0.01
    Shells                       0.03     0.04    0.02
    Solvent extracted meal       0.01     0.01    0.01
    Crude oil                    0.01     0.01    0.01
    Refined bleached oil         0.01     0.01    0.01
    Refined bleached
    Hydrogenated oil             0.01     0.01    0.01
                                                             

    Soybeans
                                                                  

    Rate  (kg/ha)              0.11    0.22   0.45     0.22
    No. of application         1       1      1        4
    Pre-harvest interval(days) 66      66     66       48

    Residues in....
    Soybeans                   0.01    0.01   0.01     0.02
    Hulls                      0.01    0.01   0.02     0.06
    Solvent extracted meal     0.01    0.01   0.01     0.01
    Crude oil                  0.01    0.01   0.01     0.01
    Soapstock                  0.01    0.01   0.01     -
                                                                  

    FATE OF RESIDUES

    Cows

    Three lactating cows were fed daily doses of C-14-fenvalerate
    (chlorophenyl ring label) at a level equivalent to 0.11 ppm in the
    total diet for 21 days and sacrificed 12 hours after receiving the
    last dose.  Recovery of radiocarbon was about 65% of the administered
    dose of which 29% was recovered in the urine, 36% in the faeces and
    less than 1% in the milk.  The radiocarbon in the milk ranged from
    <0.0006 to 0.0019 g equivalents/L and reached a plateau after one
    week on the treated feed.

    Nearly all of the radiocarbon in the milk was present as unchanged
    fenvalerate.  No detectable radiocarbon was found in the brain, fat,
    kidney, liver, lung and muscle.  The limit of determination in this
    study was 0.02 ppm for fat and 0.01 ppm for other tissues (Potter,
    1976a).

    In a separate study, three lactating cows were fed 10.9 ppm
    C-14-fenvalerate (benzyl ring label) in their total ration for 28
    days.  The C-14 residues in the milk collected during the last 24 days
    of treatment ranged from 0.04 to 0.13 ppm equivalents.  The
    fenvalerate content of the whole milk ranged from 0.037 to 0.082 mg/kg
    during the last 20 days of the test.  The cows were sacrificed 12
    hours after receiving the last dose.  The highest tissue residues were
    found in the mesenteric fat 0.74-0.79 mg/kg equivalent.  The
    gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle contained up to 0.06 mg/kg
    equivalents.  A total of 92% of the C-14 administered to the cows was
    recovered in the excreta and tissues (Potter and Arnold, 1977;
    DeVries, 1976a).

    Three lactating Guernsey cows were fed daily doses of C-14-fenvalerate
    at 0.15 ppm in their total ration for 21 days.  The cows were
    sacrificed 12 hours after receiving the last dose.  The C-14 in the
    milk ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0018 mg/kg equivalents.  The C-14
    residues in the milk reached a plateau after one week on the treated
    feed.  Within the experimental error of the measurements all of the
    C-14 in the milk was present as fenvalerate.  No C-14 was found in
    bone, brain, kidney, lung or muscle (limit of detection = 0.004 to
    0.007 mg/kg equivalents).  Traces of C-14 were found in mesenteric fat
    and subcutaneous fat from two cows and in the liver from one cow
    (Potter, 1976b).

    Lactating cows were fed an equivalent of 0.15 ppm C-14 fenvalerate in
    their daily ration for 21 days.  Residues of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg of
    fenvalerate were found in the cream by TLC and liquid scintillation
    counting.  These residues were confirmed as fenvalerate by GLC-EC
    (Potter, 1976e),

    Three dairy cows were each sprayed weekly for three successive weeks
    at the estimated rate of 540 mg active material per square metre. 
    This spraying regime was proposed for ectoparasite control.  Samples

    of whole milk taken during the treatment period and up to one week
    after the last application contained less than 0.01 mg/kg of
    fenvalerate.  No detectable residue was found in the brain, muscle,
    liver and kidney.  The fat contained up to 0.2 mg/kg fenvalerate
    (DeVries, 1976b).

    In a further study (DeVries, 1976c), the same spraying regime was
    applied to 10 cows.  Residues in cream reached a maximum level of 0.2
    mg/kg three days after the last application.  The elimination of these
    residues followed first order kinetics with a half-life of 4.5 days.
    Residues in body fat reached a maximum of 0.4 mg/kg several days after
    the last application, and declined thereafter according to first order
    kinetics with a half-life of 10.5 days.  All other tissues tested were
    free of detectable residues.

    Fenvalerate was also applied as a spray at a rate of 0.2, 0.4 or 2.0
    g/cow.  The residues in muscle did not exceed 0.01 mg/kg.  The maximum
    residue in subcutaneous fat was 0.22 mg/kg 7 days after 3 treatments
    at a rate of 2.0 g/cow.  The maximum residue in milk was 0.02 mg/kg.
    The residues in milk fat reached maximum a few days after treatment
    (Noble, 1976a; DeVries, 1976d, 1976e, 1976f, 1976g).

    A trial was conducted in Queensland, Australia, to determine the level
    and fate of fenvalerate in cows following spray treatment with 0.1%
    and 0.2% of fenvalerate at 200 ml per animal.  Twenty-seven Hereford
    heifers were used in the trial.  Twelve animals were drafted to each
    treatment group with three being kept as untreated controls.  Three
    animals in each treatment group were re-treated 7 days after the first
    treatment.  These animals were then slaughtered and sampled 7 days
    following the second treatment to ascertain whether there was any
    accumulation.  Tissue samples were taken from omental fat, liver,
    perirenal fat# kidney and muscle.  The residues found in the samples
    are indicated in Table 5 (limit of determination 0.01 mg/kg).  Only
    representative samples of non-fat tissues were analysed when
    preliminary results indicated no detectable residues in liver, kidney
    and muscle. (Shell Chem. Australia, 1978).

    Six dairy cows were selected and randomly divided into two treatment
    groups of three animals.  Milk samples were collected prior to
    treatment.  Treatment at the rate of 200 ml/animal was made along the
    dorsal midline.  One group received spray of approved strength (0.1%
    fenvalerate) and the other at double strength (0.2%).  One litre
    aliquots of milk were collected from each cow at each milking on days
    1, 3, 7, and 10 post-treatment.  These samples were separated and the
    cream and skim milk portions were analysed separately.  The results
    are given in Table 7.  The residues were confined to the butter fat.

    A commercial dairy herd was treated with fenvalerate emulsion (0.1%
    fenvalerate) at the rate of 200 ml/cow.  Samples of the bulked milk
    were taken prior to treatment and on days 1, 3, 7 and 10
    post-treatment.  These samples were separated and the cream and skim
    milk analysed for fenvalerate residues.  The results are given in
    Table 6.  The residues were confined to the butter fat.

    Table 5.  Residues in tissues of 27 Cows following Spray Treatments
    (Queensland, Australia)

                                                                     
                                           Residue mg/kg
    Treatment of    Day        Omental    Perirenal    Liver, kidney
    each cow                   fat        fat          muscle
                                                                     

    untreated       0          <0.02      <0.02        All Samples
    untreated       0          <0.02      <0.02        <0.01
    untreated       0          <0.02      <0.02

    0.2% a.m.       1           0.04       0.06
    0.1%            1           0.05       0.03
    0.1%            1          <0.02       0.03

    0.2%            1           0.06       0.08
    0.2%            1           0.08       0.04
    0.2%            1           0.04       0.06

    0.1%            3           0.02       0.02
    0.1%            3           0.04       0.05
    0.1%            3           0.02       0.03

    0.2%            3           0.03       0.03
    0.2%            3           0.04       0.03
    0.2%            3          <0.04      <0.02

    0.1%            7           0.04       0.04
    0.1%            7           0.04       0.03
    0.1%            7           0.05       0.10

    0.2%            7           0.05       0.06
    0.2%            7           0.07       0.05
    0.2%            7           0.05       0.08

    0.1%            14          0.05       0.06
    0.1%            14          0.08       0.07
    0 1%            14          0.10       0.08

    0.2%            14          0.06       0.07
    0.2%            14          0.13       0.07
    0.2%            14          0.17       0.08
                                                                     

    Table 6.  Residues found in Butterfat of Bulked Milk of Commercial
    Herds (Each cow treated once with fenvalerate emulsina).

                                    
    Days after
    treatment       ppm fenvalerate
                                    

        0               <0.005
        1                0.015
        3                0.066
        7                0.046
       10                0.030
                                    

    Skim milk contained <0.002 ppm fenvalerate.



        Table 7. Residues in Milk From Each of Six Cows Treated Once with Fenvalerate Emulsion

                                                                                                     
                              Animals sprayed at 1%                    Animals sprayed at 2%
    Days after
    treatment          1         2          3       Mean        4         5         6        Mean
                                                                                                     

                             Residues of fenvalerate in mg/kg of moisture-free butter fat

    (Pre-treat)
     0 (AM)         <0.005    <0.005     <0.005       -         -          -         -         -
     0 (PM)          0.016     0.041      0.006     0.02      0.011      0.008     0.011     0.019
     1 (AM)          0.022     0.032      0.026     0.027     0.012      0.034     0.027     0.024
     1 (PM)          0.023     0.044      0.025     0.031     0.036      0.029     0.034     0.050
     3 (AM)          0.046     0.047      0.030     0.042     0.133      0.059     0.047     0.080
     3 (PM)          0.031     0.037      0.019     0.029     0.094      0.050     0.046     0.063
     7 (AM)          0.012     0.043      0.022     0.026     0.043      0.025     0.040     0.036
    10 (AM)          0.016     0.029      0.022     0.022     0.019      0.029     0.046     0.031
                                                                                                     

    Skim milk (residue after butter fat removal) contained less than 0.002 ppm.


    Table 8.  Fenvalerate Residues in Treated Wheat and Sorghum Stored in Concrete Silos

                                                                                                                                             
         Grain                                Amount of                                    Residues (mg/kg)
                                             fenvalerate
                                                                                                                                             
         Kind      moisture   Temperature   applied calc'd                              Storage period (months)
                       %          C            (mg/kg)
                                                             0.25        1.5         3           4.5         6.5         8           10
                                                                                                                                             

    (a)  Wheat1

         range         10       31-25*         0.9-1.1       0.85-1.16   0.45-0.87   0.76-1.02   0.66-0.82   0.79-0.93   0.74-0.85   0.71-0.76
         mean                                    1.01        1.01        0.7         0.9         0.76        0.86        0.8         0.74

    (b) Sorghum2

         range                  26-24*                       0.42-0.55               0.64-0.72   0.53-0.54   0.64-0.69
         mean         11.8                                   0.53                    0.68        0.54        0.67
                                                                                                                                             

    *  1st figures are initial temperatures; 2nd are those 6-9 months later.
       Wheat data are from two trial sites, one in each of two Australian States.
    1  Bengston, 1979
    2  Bengston et al., 1979
    

    Table 9.  Distribution of Fenvalerate Residues in Whole Wheat
    Fractions and Residue Levels in Bread Baked from the Flour (B.W.
    Simpson, 1979)

    (a) Distribution of residue between whole grain fractions

                                                               
    Fraction                          fenvalerate residue

                     % whole       mg/kg      % distribution
                     grain
                                                               

    flour (white)    74.6          0.08            8.5
    pollard          14.6          3.3            68.5
    bran             10.8          1.5            23
                                                               

    Grain sample: 1.5 kg.  It had a residue level of 0.6 mg
    fenvalerate/kg.


    (b) Residue in bread baked from the ground flour from (a)

                                                    
    Commodity        fenvalerate residue (mg/kg)

    White flour                    0.08-0.09
    White bread                    0.06-0.1
    Wholemeal flour*               0.7-0.8
    Wholemeal bread                0.49-0.73
                                                    

    *  reconstituted from the fractions (in (a) ) in the original whole
    grain proportions.

    The processing operations simulated those used in commercial practice.



        Table 10.  Residues of Fenvalerate Degradation Products in Field-Treated Crops in Canada

                                                                                                                                            
                                                                        S-Phenoxy     Fenvalerate    Isovaleric   "Reverse   Decarboxylated
                                                                       Benzoic Acid     Amide           Acid       Ester"      Fenvalerate
    Crop          Country    Dose Rate ()       PHI     Fenvalerate    WL 44607*     WL 47117+      WL 10944*    SD53036       SD 54597
                                                                                                                                            

    Apples        Canada      70 g/ha (1)    12 weeks      <0.01        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05
                                              16 weeks      <0.01        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05
                             150 g/ha (8)     6 weeks       0.29        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05
                                               6 weeks       0.57        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05

    Pears         Canada      30 g/ha (3)     5 weeks      <0.01        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05
                              70 g/ha (2)    12 weeks      <0.01        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05

    Peaches       Canada        0.006%         0 weeks       0.4         <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                                               1 week        0.25        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                                               2 weeks       0.10        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -

    Grapes        Canada        0.006%         0 week        0.45        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                                               1 week        0.38        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -

    Cabbage       Canada      70 g/ha (7)     2 weeks       0.06        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05       <0.01         <0.05

    Cauliflower               70 g/ha          1 day         0.20        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                                              14 days        0.02        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -

    B. sprouts    Canada      70 g/ha (6)    14 days        0.10        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                              70 g/ha (7)     1 day         0.14        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
    Lettuce       Canada      70 g/ha          7 days       <0.01        <0.05          <0.05         <0.05         -             -

    Tomatoes      Canada     150 g/ha (2)     2 days        0.80        <0.05          <0.05          <0.05         -             -
                                                                                                                                            

    * Includes both free and conjugated forms
    + No conjugates formed
    

    Hens

    Mature laying hens were fed 0.03 ppm of C-14-fenvalerate (chlorophenyl
    ring label) in their total ration for periods up to 32 days.  No
    detectable C-14 residues were found in the fat, heart, gizzard, liver,
    meat, skin, egg whites and egg yolks (Potter, 1976c).

    In a separate study, mature laying hens were fed 0.03 ppm of
    C-14-fenvalerate (phenoxyphenyl ring label) in their total ration for
    periods up to 32 days.  No C-14 residues were detected in the light
    meat, dark meat, skin, gizzard, blood or plasma.  The residues in egg
    yolks ranged from <0.002 to 0.003 mg/kg, fat samples <0.002 to 0.003
    mg/kg (Potter and Sauls, 1978).

    Laying hens were sprayed twice with a 0.5% emulsible concentrate of
    fenvalerate.  Fenvalerate residues in the eggs reached maximum levels
    of 0.04 mg/kg 6 days after the first application and of 0.14 mg/kg 8
    days after the second application.  The residue levels in the eggs
    decreased by one half in about 22 days.  The major tissue depots for
    fenvalerate were found to be the skin and fat (DeVries, 1976d).

    Plants

    Leaves of cotton were treated either once with a formulation of
    C-14-fenvalerate (chlorophenyl ring label) at a rate of 240 ug per
    leaf, or twice at a rate of 120 ug per leaf per treatment.
    Determination of C-14 in extracts showed that the rate of C-14
    disappearance from leaves was practically identical between single and
    repeated applications, and a disappearance rate of about 50% was 35
    days.  Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of extracts from the cotton
    leaves showed that fenvalerate represents about 50% of the C-14
    recovered 101 days after single treatment and 80% of the C-14
    recovered 46 days after the last of double treatments (Loeffler, 1976a
    and 1976b).

    In a separate study, cotton squares were also treated either once with
    a formulation of C-14-fenvalerate (chlorophenyl ring label) at a rate
    of 240 g per square or three times at a rate of 120 g per square per
    treatment.  Whole seeds isolated two to three months after the first
    treatment contained less than 0.05 mg/kg equivalents of fenvalerate.
    Single leaves of cotton, located either on the lower or the upper part
    of the plants, were treated with an average of 49.7 g per leaf to
    determine the transport of C-14-fenvalerate from the treated to
    untreated leaves.  After 15 days, no C-14 was found in any of the
    untreated leaves both above and below the treated leaves,
    demonstrating the inability of fenvalerate or any possible C-14
    metabolites to move out of a treated leaf either in the xylem or in
    the phloem (Loeffler, 1976 c and d).

    When C-14-fenvalerate labelled in either benzyl or chlorophenyl ring
    was applied to lettuce grown in boxes (twice at a rate of 10.8 mg/box)
    about 70-80% of the C-14 in the mature plants was present as unchanged
    fenvalerate 12 days after the second treatment.  Fenvalerate

    hydrolysed slowly at the ester linkage to give 3-phenoxybenzoic acid
    and 2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid which then rapidly conjugated
    with plant materials (Hitchings, 1977).  When the same compounds were
    applied to the fruit and leaves of apple trees twice or three times,
    the leaves and apples harvested 3 to 4 weeks following the last
    treatment were found to contain mainly unchanged fenvalerate (75 -85%
    of the total C-14 in leaves and 86-93% of the total C-14 in apples).
    After peeling the apples, less than 2% of the C-14 in the apples
    remained in the peeled fruit.  The major metabolite fraction (11-19%
    of the total C-14) in leaves was a mixture of polar compounds which by
    hydrolysis produced 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde,
    3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and 2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid.  Other
    minor metabolites identified in leaves and/or apples were des-cyano-,
    amide- and 4'-OH-fenvalerate which accounted in total for less than 2%
    of the total C-14. (Standen, 1977).

    Fenvalerate and the (S)-acid isomer similarly disappeared from
    cabbages and bean plants with half-lives of approximately 9 days and
    14 days respectively, after foliar application of three C-14-labelled
    preparations (Co, Ca and CN) at rates of 17-19 g (cabbage) and 10 g
    (bean plant) per leaf.  On and/or in plants, both compounds underwent
    decarboxylation, ester cleavage, hydrolysis of the CN group to CONH2
    and COOH groups, hydroxylation at the 2'-and 4'-phenoxy positions,
    cleavage of diphenyl ether, conversion of a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl
    alcohol to the corresponding benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid, and
    conjugation of the resulting carboxylic acids and alcohols with sugar.
    Very little of the C-14 was transferred to other parts of cabbages and
    bean plants.  Beans were planted in Kodaira light clay and Katano
    sandy loam soils after treatment with 1.0 mg/kg of the CN- and
    Ca-labelled preparations.  After 30 days, pods and seeds, shoots and
    roots were harvested and analyzed for C-14.  Although small amounts of
    radioactivity were found in roots, traces were present in pods, seeds
    and shoots.  No parent compound was detected in shoots (Ohkawa et al.,
    1979a).

    Search for degradation products on field grown crops

    A series of trials were conducted in Canada (Shell 1979) to determine
    whether and to what extent degradation products occur as free and
    conjugated residues in crops grown under typical outdoor conditions.
    As indicated in Table 8, none of the known degradation products could
    be detected by methods sensitive to 0.05 mg/kg in any of 9 varieties
    of fruits and vegetables treated in accordance with label directions.
    Fenvalerate itself occurred in most of the samples at levels
    consistent with those found in other trials.

    Distribution of residues on the plant

    From the examination of many plants treated under practical
    conditions, it is evident that residues are almost exclusively
    confined to those parts of the crop that are directly exposed to the
    spray application.  As examples, cottonseed kernels and peanut meats
    have not contained detectable levels even when quite high amounts were

    measured on the whole seeds or nuts (Shell Res. 1974, 1975 a and b,
    1976 a and b, Shell Dev. 1976 a and b, 1977a, 1978b).

    Trials on cabbage in Australia gave residues at 7.5 mg/kg for outer
    discarded leaves and only at 0.05 mg/kg for cabbage hearts 5 days
    after treatment at 0.118 kg ai/ha (Microchem., 1977).  In another
    trial, when tops of sugar beets contained up to 5.9 mg/kg, only trace
    residues (0.03 mg/kg or less) were detected in roots (Statens, 1977;
    Shell Develop., 1977b).  Trials on Japanese radish in Japan showed
    residues up to 1.97 mg/kg for leaves and only 0.005-0.04 mg/kg for
    roots (Fujita et al., 1978a).

    Similarly, in trials with peas, beans, citrus fruit, almonds, sweet
    corn and wheat, the main part of the residues occurred on peel, skins,
    pods and other exposed parts.  Residues in edible portions rarely
    exceeded detectable levels. (Shell Dev. 1976, 1977; Fujita et al.,
    1978; Japan Food Res. 1977).

    Photochemical degradation

    When exposed to sunlight on silica gel, glass, soil and in water,
    fenvalerate degraded in all these media.  After 28 days of exposure to
    sunlight about 25% was recovered from silica gel, 48% from soil or
    from water, less than 1.3% from glass (FAN 1976).

    When a 0.2 M solution of fenvalerate was exposed for 10 hours at 300
    nm in quartz SD54597 (Benzenepropanenitrile,
    4-chloro-beta-(1-methylethyl)-alpha-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-I was the major
    product.  Other amounts to less than 1% of the total.  At 254 nm
    SD53036 (Benzoic acid, 2-phenoxy-, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methylpropyl
    ester) was also formed equivalent to about 3% of SD54597 present and
    other products were less than 1% of the total (Ehmann, 1978a and b).

    In various solutions (hexane, methanol, and acetonitrile-water; 6/4)
    by artificial light (>290 nm) and as a thin film on grass or on
    cotton by exposure to sunlight, the major products in solution were
    formed via photoinduced decarboxylation.  Other products resulted from
    cleavage of the ester linkage, probably by a mechanism involving
    free-radical intermediates.  These were 3-phenoxybenzoyl cyanide,
    3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde from the alcohol
    moiety, and 2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid and the dimer of the
    acid fragment from the acid moiety.  Decarboxylated fenvalerate,
    2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid, 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and
    3-phenoxybenzaldehyde were also found on cotton. (Holmstead, et al.,
    1977, 1978).

    Another photodecomposition study reveals that on exposure to sunlight
    fenvalerate was rapidly decomposed in distilled water, 2% aqueous
    acetone, river and sea water to almost the same extent.
    Photodegradation half-life in each aqueous suspension ranged from ca.
    4 days in summer to 13-15 days in winter, due to seasonal variation of
    sunlight intensity.  On soil surfaces, exposed to sunlight, the rate
    of photodegradation was dependent upon the soils used, with half-lives

    of about 2, 6 and 18 days in Kodaira light clay, Azuchi sandy clay
    loam and Katano sandy loam soils, respectively.  Thus photodegradation
    rate and pathways were dependent on the environmental conditions.  The
    predominant reactions were decarboxylation and cleavage of ester
    linkage in water, while hydration at CN group was dominant on the soil
    surface. (Mikami et al., 1979).

    Soil

    When C14-fenvalerate (chlorophenyl ring label) was applied to steam
    sterilized and live sandy loam soil at a concentration of 2.5 ppm, the
    amount of solvent extractable C-14 decreased slowly in aerobic and
    anaerobic soils and stayed practically constant in sterile soils.  The
    proportion of intact fenvalerate in the extracts from aerobic and
    anaerobic soils decreased to 90% over a three-month period.  The
    remaining 10% was present in the form of two to three products more
    polar than fenvalerate (Loeffler, 1976a).  Degradation of the same
    labelled compound was examined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
    using three different soils and a steady decrease of recovery in the
    organic solvent-extractable fraction were observed both under aerobic
    and anaerobic conditions (Lee, 1978).  Several of the breakdown
    products of fenvalerate formed during the course of disappearance of
    the parent compound were identified (Fan 1977).  The effects of soil
    micro-organisms were investigated and it was demonstrated that
    sterilization of soil greatly retards degradation (Ohkawa et al.,
    1978; Williams and Brown 1979; Noble, 1976).

    The leaching behaviour of fenvalerate from soil was also investigated
    (Ohkawa et al., 1978a; Jackson and Roberts, 1976; Kerritt, 1977).

    Fish

    In tests in which Channel catfish and rainbow trout were exposed to
    dilutions of C-14 fenvalerate in water, rates of uptake and
    distribution in the bodies of fish were followed and some metabolites
    were identified (Potter 1975, 1976; Ohkawa, et al., 1978, 1979).  The
    results gave no evidence to suggest that problems may arise from the
    concentration of residues in the bodies of fish that are used as human
    food.

    METHODS OF RESIDUE ANALYSIS

    GLC equipped with electron-capture detector (ECD) has been used almost
    exclusively for detection and quantitation.  The ECD exhibits high
    sensitivity to fenvalerate, responding to as little as 0.05 ng or even
    less (Chapman et al., 1977), which afforded minimum detectability of
    0.005-0.02 ppm (Takimoto et al., 1977; Talekar 1977; Shell Dev.
    1976a). As a radioactive source, nickel-63 appears more advantageous
    than tritium due to the relatively high temperature applied.  Although
    the alkali flame ionization detector (AFID) was also utilized for
    confirmation of residue identity, the response of fenvalerate to
    GLC-AFID was found to be about 100 times less than GLC-ECD.  The
    confirmation can be made by combined gas-liquid chromatography/mass

    spectrometry (GLC/MS) using selective ion detection mode at mass peaks
    such as 225 amu and 419 amu (Parent ion) (Shell Dev. 1976a).

    Since fenvalerate comprises 4 optical isomers due to 2 chiral centres,
    its GLC gives either single or resolved peaks depending upon the
    column length, the column-packing materials, etc.  A single peak
    response was obtained by using 45-60 cm-long glass or stainless steel
    column packed with 3% OV-101 on Gas-chrom Q (Shell Dev. 1976b), 3%
    OV-101/3% Apiezon Grease L on Gas-chrom Q (Takimoto et al., 1977;
    Talekar 1977), 5% OV-17 on Chromosorb W AW DMCS (Kato 1979), and 3%
    SF-96/3% Apiezon Grease M on Diatomite CLQ (Woodhouse et al., 1979).
    On the other hand Lee et al., (1978) observed two completely resolved
    peaks for fenvalerate on 1.8 m-long glass column packed with 4%
    SE-30/6% QF-1 on Chromosorb W (80/100 mesh) where the RR and SS
    isomers with identical chromatographic properties were eluted after
    the RS and SR pair.  A complete resolution for fenvalerate was also
    achieved on 3 m glass column packed with 3% OV-101 on Chromosorb W AW
    DMCS (100/120 mesh) (Kato et al., 1978).

    When exposed to a relatively high temperature in the GLC system (e.g.
    more than 250C at injection port), fenvalerate may undergo partial
    degradation and/or isomerization depending upon the column material,
    the glass wool packed into the injection port, and the column-aging
    history (Barber 1976a).  Therefore, care must be taken in the
    simultaneous analysis of the diastereomers.  The effects caused by
    degradation are reproducible and can be minimized to insignificant
    levels for quantitation.

    The high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), which permitted less
    than 3 ppm of detection limit in one study (McKinney 1975), has been
    applied to the residue analysis of fenvalerate.  It has been used
    successfully to determine residues in cereal whole grains and
    commodities from the grains, such as flour and bread (Simpson 1978).
    The problems with indeterminate differentiation of fenvalerate
    diastereoisomers and breakdown on GLC columns were not found with HPLC
    separation.  The post-harvest residue data on treated cereals, flour
    and bread reported in this monograph have been obtained by HPLC
    determination.  It was found that the limit of determination was in
    the region of 0.02 mg/kg.

    The solvent or solvent combinations selected for extraction of
    fenvalerate vary according to the nature of substrates.  From the
    substrates with high moisture contents like fruits, leafy vegetables
    and root crops fenvalerate was successfully extracted by chopping and
    blending them either with polar solvents, e.g. acetonitrile (Lee et
    al., 1978) and methanol-acetonitrile (Takimoto et al., 1977), acetone
    (Chapman and Harris, 1978), or with nonpolar-polar solvent mixtures,
    e.g. n-hexane-isopropanol (Shell Develop. 1976b) and petroleum
    spirit-acetone (Shell Res. 1976).  Talekar (1977) adopted a 12-hour
    Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane-acetone for chopped cabbage.  Dry and
    low-moisture products are first fractured or ground to powder, under
    freezing if necessary, prior to extraction with either polar, nonpolar
    or dual solvent system (Shell Res. 1975).  After mixing with anhydrous

    sodium sulphate, cottonseeds were fractured, separated from the hull,
    and blended with n-hexane (Shell Develop. 1976c), whereas coffee beans
    were pulverized and macerated overnight with methanol (Kato 1979). 
    The blending/extraction with nonpolar solvents like n-hexane resulted
    in excellent recoveries of fenvalerate with satisfactory separation
    from fatty materials in the case of mammalian tissues, dairy products
    and eggs (Shell Develop. 1976a).

    Cleanup procedures include partition between immiscible polar and
    nonpolar solvents, e.g. acetonitrile and n-hexane, for most extracts
    from oily and dehydrated crops as well as from fatty products prior to
    further Florisil column chromatography.  Chapman and Harris (1978)
    partitioned the aqeous acetone extract from a range of vegetables into
    n-hexane before proceeding to cleanup on silica or alumina absorbents.
    The combined solvent partition-Florisil column chromatography
    procedure provided recoveries of 81-95% for eggs, chicken and cow
    tissues, milk, and cream spiked at 0.01-0.1 ppm of fenvalerate (Shell
    Develop. 1976a), along with 90-95% for cottonseed (Shell Develop.
    1975) and 89% for coffee (Kato 1979), both fortified at 0.5 ppm.  For
    non-oily crops cleanup by either Florisil (activated or deactivated
    with water) (Takimoto et al., 1977; Talekar 1977; Lee et al., 1978;
    Shell Res. 1976), or silica gel (Lee et al., 1978; Kato et al., 1978)
    column chromatography was applied.  Over 90% recoveries of fenvalerate
    were accomplished for crops including cabbage (Takimoto et al., 1977;
    Talekar 1977; Lee et al., 1978); lettuce (Lea et al.,1978), potatoes
    (Woodhouse et al., 1979), orange (Fujita et al., 1979), apple,
    tomatoes, green peppers, peas and alfalfa (Shell Develop. 1976b) at
    fortification levels of 0.01-40 ppm.

    For the degradation products and metabolites of fenvalerate, Barber
    (1976b) devised the analytical method for detection limits of
    0.01-0.02 mg/kg for the residues of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and
    4-cloro-a-(1-methylethyl)-benzeneacetic acid (CMBA) in cottonseed.
    (Kato et al., 1979) analyzed CMBA in human urine.  The method
    permitted detection of CMBA at 0.002 ppm as well as 93-100% recoveries
    from the human urine fortified at 0.02-2 mg/kg.  Barber (1978a-e) also
    developed analytical methods for 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methylpropyl
    3-phenoxybenzoate and
    4-chloro-B-(1-methylethyl)-a-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-benzenepropanenitrile
    in soybeans, pears and apples as well as (aminocarbonyl)
    (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 4-chloro-a-(1-methylethyl)-benzeneacetate in
    potatoes and peanut shells with detection limits at 0.01 mg/kg.

    NATIONAL LIMITS

    National MRLs brought to the notice of the Meeting are listed (July
    1979)

                                                                       
    Country        Commodity                MRL         Pre-harvest
                                            (mg/kg)     interval, days
                                                                       

    Brazil         Cotton                   0.1               14
                   Soybeans                 0.1               30

    U.S.A.         Cottonseed               0.2               21
                   Cattle(fat, meat,
                   meat by-products)        0.02
                   Goats (fat, meat,
                   meat by-products)        0.02
                   Hogs (fat, meat,
                   meat by-products)        0.02
                   Horses (fat, meat,
                   meat by-products         0.02
                   Milk (fat)               0.02
                   Sheep (fat, meat,
                   meat by-products)        0.02

                   (temporary)

                   Lettuce (head)           1                  7
                   Cabbage                  2                  7
                   Cauliflower              1                  7
                   Broccoli                 0.5               14
                   Snap beans               0.5                7
                     (green beans)
                   Dry beans and            0.5               21
                     Dry pears
                   Cucumbers                0.05              10
                   Squash                   0.05              10
                   Bell peppers             1                 10
                   Tomato                   1                  7
                   Field corn               0.05              45
                   Grapes                   1                 21
                   Sweet corn (for
                   fresh market only)       0.05               3
                   Soybeans                 0.02              21
                                                                       

    National Limits, Continued...

                                                                        
    Country        Commodity                  Tolerance   Pre-harvest
                                              (mg/kg)     interval, days
                                                                        

    U.S.A.
    (temporary)
                   Peanuts                      0.02           21
                   Potatoes                     0.02           21
                   Pears                        1              28
                   Apples                       2              21
                   Peaches                      2              21

    Australia      Cottonseed, maize,
                   sweet corn                   0.05            7
                   Pome and stone fruit         1              14
                   Milk and milk products
                   (fat basis)                  0.2            -
                   Fat of meat of cattle        0.2            -
                   Soya beans, navy beans,
                   mung beans                   0.2            21
                   Oilseed crops                0.2            14

    Hungary
    (temporary)    Apples                       1              14
                   Cherries                     1              14
                   Peaches                      1              14
                   Alfalfa                      1              14
                   Beets                        1              14
                   Cabbage                      1               7

    South Africa   Apples, pears                0.5            14
                   Tomatoes                     0.1             2
                   Grain sorghum                0.1            28
                   Cottonseed                   0.1            -

    New Zealand    Brassica vegetables          5               7
                   Kiwi fruit                   3              14
                   Apples, pears                1              14
                                                                       

    Appraisal

    Fenvalerate is a new synthetic ester related to the pyrethroids, with
    a wide spectrum of efficacy against many species of pests.  It is only
    slowly degraded in sunlight.  It is registered in a number of
    countries for use on a variety of crops.  The rate of application
    ranges from 50-250 g/ha.

    Supervised trials have been carried out in many countries and on many
    crops.  The rate of decline of residues on growing crops is slow, the
    half-life ranging from 2 to 3 weeks.  On stored cereal grains about
    75% of the applied amount is found at the ninth month after treatment.

    Fenvalerate does not penetrate significantly into plant tissues nor is
    it translocated and there is little or no residue in crop parts not in
    direct contact with the insecticide.  Most of the residue remains on
    the exposed parts of such commodities as cottonseed, peanuts and
    fruits and is removed with shells and peels during processing and
    preparation.  Similarly, after treatment of stored grains some 70% is
    in the bran of wheat, with considerably more in the hulls of oats and
    rice which are normally removed before consumption.

    A wide range of studies have been conducted on the fate of residues in
    plants and animals.  Residues in plants consist substantially of the
    parent compound.  In radiolabelled studies the occurrence of free and
    conjugated metabolites has been demonstrated but these products have
    not been found in field trials at levels above the limit of detection
    (<0.05 mg/kg).

    When administered or applied to livestock, fenvalerate is degraded and
    the degradation products excreted in urine.  A small proportion of the
    applied dose is transferred to fatty tissues from which it may be
    excreted via fat in the milk.

    The process of photodecomposition proceeds by oxidation,
    decarboxylation, hydration at the Cn-group, cleavage of ester and
    diphenyl ether linkages and thence by hydrolysis to produce polar
    derivatives of low molecular weight.  It varies with exposure and is
    fairly slow.

    Fenvalerate is readily biodegraded by soil micro-organisms with a
    residual half life of from 15 days to 3 months depending on soil
    temperature, moisture and organic matter content.  Because residues
    are tightly bound to soil colloids, there is little likelihood of such
    residues being transferred to water of streams through run-off or
    leaching.  Sprays falling directly onto bodies of water are rapidly
    absorbed and inactivated on particulate matter.  There is no evidence
    of residues in soil being taken up by plants.

    Under laboratory conditions it is possible to demonstrate that fish
    can absorb the insecticide from water into various body tissues.  Due
    to the presence of particulate matter, surface absorption and the low
    solubility of fenvalerate in water there appears to be little
    likelihood of significant uptake of residues by fish under practical
    conditions; nor are problems likely to arise from the occurrence of
    residues in fish for human consumption.

    Residues may be determined by GLC using electron capture detectors.
    The ECD exhibits high sensitivity to fenvalerate responding to as
    little as 0.05 ng.  Polar solvents have been effective for extraction
    when used with substrates containing substantial amounts of water.

    Non-polar and petroleum solvents have been used with substrates
    containing little water.  Sweet co-distillation has proved convenient
    and effective with lipid substrates.  The limit of determination is
    0.01 mg/kg.

    Several national governments have established maximum residue limits
    in a range of commodities.  The data available provided a basis for
    the Meeting to recommend the following maximum residue limits.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

    The following maximum residue limits, determined and expressed as
    fenvalerate, are recommended:

                                                                       
                                             Pre-harvest interval
                                             (days) on which
                                  MRL        recommendations are
    Crop                        (mg/kg)      based
                                                                       

    Kiwi fruit                     5                 21
    Alfalfa                       20                 21
    Broccoli                       2                  7
    Brussels Sprouts               2                  7
    Cabbage                        2                  7
    Cauliflower                    2                  7
    Celery                         2                  7
    Lettuce                        2                  7
    Chinese cabbage                1                  7
    Pome fruits                    2                 14
    Peaches                        2                 14
    Cherries                       2                 14
    Citrus fruit                   2                 21
    Tomatoes                       1                  7
    Small fruits and berries       1                  7
    Beans (green)                  1                  7
    Beans (dry)                    0.5                7
    Cottonseed                     0.2                7
    Cottonseed oil                 0.1
    Cucumbers                      0.2                3
    Squash                         0.2                3
    Soybeans                       0.1               21
    Sweet corn                     0.05               7
    Sugar beets                    0.05              21
    Sunflower seed                 0.1               28
    Radishes                       0.05              21
    Potatoes                       0.05               7
    Peanuts                        0.1                7
    Cereal grains                  5
    Wheat bran                     5

                                                                       
                                             Pre-harvest interval
                                             (days) on which
                                  MRL        recommendations are
    Crop                        (mg/kg)      based
                                                                       

    Wheat flour (wholemeal)        2
    Wheat flour (white)            0.2
    Milk                           0.01
    Milk products (fat basis)      0.2
    Fat of meat                    0.2
                                                                       

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Required by 1981:

    1.  Pharmacokinetic data on the potential bioaccumulation of
        fenvalerate and/or metabolites;

    2.  Observations in humans occupationally exposed to high levels of
        fenvalerate to evaluate the potential susceptibility of man to the
        neurological disruption noted in rodents.

    Desired:

    1.  An additional dominant lethal assay to reconfirm previous data;
    2.  Information on the occurrence and fate of photodecomposition
        products;
    3.  Additional data from supervised residue trials on citrus, berry
        fruits, beans and several other crops for which data are limited;
    4.  Results of on-going studies on the level and fate of fenvalerate
        residues in stored products especially raw grain and milling
        products derived therefrom.

    REFERENCES

    Albert, J.R. and Summitt, L.M. Intravenous Toxicity of WL 43775
    (6-1-0-0) in the Mouse. (1976) Unpublished report from Shell
    Development Co., Ltd.,

    Barber, G.F.
    1976a  Separation of SD 43775 isomers for residue analysis.

      1976b  Residue data for SD 44607 in WL 10944 (acid metabolites of
    SD43775 in cottonseed from cotton receiving seven applications of
    SD43775, a California study.  Shell Development Co.

      1978a  Residue data for SD 53036 and SD 54597, possible metabolites
    of SD 43775, in soybeans receiving one aerial application of SD43775,
    a Mississippi study.

      1978b  Residue data for SD53036 and SD54597, possible metabolites of
    SD43775, in whole apples receiving one dormant application of SD43775,
    an Oregon study.

      1978c  Residue data for SD53036 and SD54597, possible metabolites of
    SD43775, in pears receiving one dormant application of SD43775, a
    Michigan study.

      1978d  Residue levels of SD47117, a possible metabolite of SD 43775,
    in potatoes receiving seven ground spray applications of SD43775, a
    Minnesota study.

      1978e  Residue levels of SD47117, a possible metabolite of SD43775,
    in peanut shells from peanuts receiving three aerial applications of
    SD43775, an Oklahoma study.

    Beliles, R.P., Makris, S.L and Weir, R.J.  Three-Generation
    Reproduction Study in Rats. (See Stein, 1977 for histopathology data).
    (1978) Unpublished report from Litton Bionetics, Inc. submitted by
    Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd.,

    Bengston, M. Personal communication from Final Report on Silo Scale
    Experiments 1977-1978 to the Australian Wheat Board Working Party on
    Grain Protectants.  Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

    Bengston, M., Davies, R.A.H., Desmachelier, J.M., Phillips, M., and
    Simpson B.W.  Additional grain protectants for the control of
    malathion-resistant insects in stored sorghum. (in manuscript).

    Blair D., and Roderick, H.  Toxicity studies on the Pyrethroid
    Insecticide WL43775, Emulsifiable Concentrate FX3368.  Acute
    Inhalation Exposure to an Aqueous Spray. (1975) Unpublished report
    from Shell Development Co.

    Boyer, A.C. Unpublished reports from Shell Development Co. submitted
    by Sumitomo Chemical Co.:

      1976a  Metabolism of WL 43775 by Rat Liver Enzymes.

      1976b  Metabolism of WL 43775 by Rat Liver Enzymes - Part 2.

      1977a  Residues in Rat Tissues from Rats Fed C-14-SD 43775.

      1977b  Identification of Metabolites found in the urine of Rats Fed  
    C-14-SD 43775.

      1977c  Identification of Metabolites Found in the Faeces of Rats Fed
    C-14-SD 43775.

      1977d  Identification of Metabolites in the Livers of Rats fed
    C-14-SD43775.

    Brooks, T.M.  Toxicity studies with WL 43775: Mutagenicity Studies
    with WL 43775 in the Host-Mediated Assay.  (1976) Unpublished report
    from Shell Development Co.

    Brown, L.J. and Slomka, M.B.  Skin Reaction Potential of Use Dialation
    (1.33%) PYDRIN(R) EC. (1979) Unpublished report from Shell Development
    Co.

    Butterworth, S.T.G. and Carter, B.I. Toxicity Studies on the
    Insecticide WL 43775: Acute Oral Toxicity and Neuropathological
    Effects in Rats.  (1976) Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Chapman, R.A. and Simmons, H.S.  Gas-liquid chromatography of picogram
    quantities of pyrethroid insecticides. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 60:
    977-978.

    Chapman, R.A. and Harris, C.R. Extraction and liquid/solid
    chromatography for the direct analysis of four pyrethroid insecticides
    in crops by gas liquid chromatography. J. Chromatog. 166, 513-518.

    Coombs, A.D. and Carter, B.I. Toxicity Studies on the Insecticide
    WL43775: Acute Toxicity, Skin Irritancy Potential of the Emulsifiable
    Concentrate FX 3368.  Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Coombs, A.D. and Carter, B.I.  Toxicity Studies on the Insecticide
    WL43775: Toxicity and Skin and Eye Irritancy Potential of the ULV
    Formulation FX 4353. (1976) Unpublished report from Shell Development
    Co.

    Creedy, C.L. and Potter, D.  The Effect of Feeding WL 43775 on the
    Microsomal Mono-Oxygenase System of Rat Liver.  (1976) Unpublished
    report from Shell Development Co.

    Dean, B.J.  Toxicity Studies with WL 43775: Dominant Lethal Assays in
    Male Mice after Single Oral Doses of WL 43775.  (1975) Unpublished
    report from Shell Development Co.

    Dean, B.J. and Senner, R.K.  Toxicity Studies with WL 43775:
    Chromosome Studies on Bone Narrow Cells of Chinese Hamster after Two
    Daily Oral Doses of WL 43775. (1975) Unpublished report from Shell
    Development Co.

    Desmachelier, J.M.  Personal Communication. CSIRO Division of
    Entomology. (1979)

    DeVries, D.M. Shell Development Co.

      1976a  Residues of SD 43775 in Milk from Cows fed Radiolabelled
    SD43775 

      1976b  Residues in Milk, Hair and Tissues of Cows sprayed with an
    Emulsible Concentrate (6-1-3-1ECH)

      1976c  In Milk, Cream, Hair and Tissues of Cows Sprayed with an
    Emulsible Concentrate or Fed 10 ppm in Their Diet

      1976d  In Eggs and Tissues of Hens Sprayed with an Emulsible
    Concentration

      1976e  In Milk, Hair and Tissues of Cows Sprayed with an Emulsible
    Concentration (6-1-3-1ECH)

      1976f  In Meat and Milk of Cattle Treated Dermally with a Water
    Dispersible Liquid Formulation

      1976g  In Meat, Hair, and Milk Fat of Restrained Cows Treated
    Dermally with an Emulsible Concentrated Formation

    Dewar, A.J., Moffett, B.J. and Sitton, M.F.  Toxicity Studies on the
    Insecticide WL 43775: Biochemical and Functional Studies on the
    Neurotoxicity of WL 43775 to Rats. (1975) Unpublished report from
    Shell Development Co.

    Dewar, A.J., Moffett, B.J., Sitton, M.F. and Baker, J.E.  Toxicity
    Studies on the Insecticide WL 43775: Biochemical and Functional
    Studies on the Neurotoxicity of WL 43775 to Chinese Hamsters. (1978)
    Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Hend, R.W. and Butterworth, S.T.G.  Toxicity Studies of the
    Insecticide WL 43775: A Three-Month Feeding Study in Rats. (1975)
    Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Hend, R.W. and Butterworth, S.T.G.  Toxicity Studies of the
    Insecticide WL 43775: A Short-Term Feeding Study in Rats. (1976)
    Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Hine, Inc.  SD-43775 Toxicology: Acute and Repeated (14-Day) Dermal
    Toxicity in the Rabbit.  (1975) Unpublished report from Hine, Inc.,
    submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Hine, Inc.  Human Skin Testing on SD-43775.  (1976) Unpublished report
    from Hine, Inc. submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Hitchings, E.J.  The Metabolism of the Pyrethroid Insecticide WL 43775
    (Belmark) in Lettuce and Soil under Outdoor Conditions. (1977) Shell
    Research Ltd.,

    Holmstead, R.L. and Fullmer, D.G.  Photodecarboxylation of Cyanohydrin
    Esters.  Models for Pyrethroid Photodecomposition.  J. Agric. Food
    Chem., 26, 56

    Holmstead, R.L., Fullmer, D.G. and Ruzo, L.O.  Pyrethroid
    Photodecomposition: Pydrin.  J. Agric. Food Chem., 26, 954

    Holmstead, R.L., Fullmer, D.G. and Ruzo, L.O. Pyrethroid
    Photodecomposition: Pydrin.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 590-95.

    Ito, N.  Histopathological Findings of Mice Treated with S5602 for
    three Months (see Suzuki, 1976). (1976a) Unpublished report from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.,

    Histopathological Findings of Mice and Rats Exposed to Mist of S5602
    for 4 weeks (see Khoda, 1976c).  (1976b) Unpublished report from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.,

    Histopathological Findings in Mice Treated with S5602 (see Suzuki, et
    al., 1977b). (1978) Unpublished report from Nagoya City University
    Medical School submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.,

    Japan Food Research Lab.  Analytical Results of S5602 Residues in
    Wheat Grain and Wheat Straw (1977)

    Kaneko, H., Ohkawa, H. and Miyamoto, J.  Comparative Metabolism of
    Fenvalerate in Rats and Mice.  (1979) Unpublished report from Sumitomo
    Chemical Co. Ltd.,

    Kaplan, M. and Murphy, S.D.  Effect of Acrylamide on Rotor-Rod
    Performance and Sciatic Nerve -Glucoronidase Activity of Rats.
    Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 22: 259-268.

    Kato, S.  Analysis of Sumicidin residues in coffee.  Analysis
    certificate No. 12010695.  (1979) Japan Food Research Laboratories.

    Kato, T. and Miyamoto, J.  Residue Analysis of S-5602 and its optical
    isomers in Chinese Cabbage.  (1978) Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Kato, T., Ohnishi, J. and Miyamoto, J.  The analytical method of
    2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid, a urinary metabolite of
    fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)).  (1979) Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Kirkland, V.L. and Albert, J.R.  (1977a) Unpublished Report from Shell
    Development Co.  Preliminary Pharmacodynamic Investigation of SD 43775
    (6-10-0) Administered Intravenously to the Anesthetized Dog: I.
    Effects on the Cardiovascular System and Respiration. II.
    Electrocardiographic (EKG) Findings.

    Khoda, H., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto, J.  Unpublished reports from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.,:

      1976a  Teratogenic Study on S5602 in Mice.

      1976b  Acute Inhalation Toxicity of S3206 and S5602 in Mice and
    Rats.

      1976c  Subacute Inhalation Toxicity Study of S5602 in Mice and Rats.

    Khoda, H., Kaneko, H., Ohkawa, H., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto, J. (1979)
    Unpublished report from Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.,  Acute
    Intraperitoneal Toxicity of Fenvalerate Metabolites in Mice.

    Lampert, P.W.  (1977) Letter Report on Long-Term Rat Study (Gordon and
    Weir, 1978) from the University of California San Diego School of
    Medicine, Department of Pathology submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Lee, Y.W., Westcott, N.D. and Reichle, R.A.  Gas-liquid
    chromatographic determination of Pydrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, in
    cabbage and lettuce.  J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 61: 869-871

    Loeffler, J.E. From Shell Development Co.:

      1976a  Disappearance of C-14 from Cotton Leaves Treated with
    C-14-(Chlorophenyl)-SD 43775"

      1976b  Thin Layer Chromatography of SD 43775-Treated Cotton Leaves

      1976c  Carbon-14 Content of Cotton Seeds after Single and Multiple
    Treatment of Squares with C-14-(Chlorophenyl)-SD 43775

      1976d  Investigation of the Transport of C-
    14-(Chlorophenyl)-SD-43775 from Treated to Untreated Leaves on Cotton
    Plants

      1976e  Degradation of C-14-(Chlorophenyl)-SD 43775 during Exposure
    to Soil Under Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Sterile Conditions.

    Matsubara, T., Suzuki, T., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto, J.  Antidotes
    Against Poisoning by S5602 in Rats. (1977) Unpublished report from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    McKinney, W.J.  Separation of SD 43775 from hexane extracts of cotton
    by liquid chromatography.  Shell Development Co.

    Microchem Associates:

      Report on Residues of WL 43775 in Cabbages, (1977)

      Report on Residues of WL 43775 in Navy Beans (1978)

    Mikami, N., Takahashi, Hayashi, K. and Miyamoto, J.  Photodegradation
    of Fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)) in Water and on Soil Surface. Sumitomo
    Chemical Company Ltd.,

    Milner, C.K. and Butterworth, S.T.G.  Toxicity of Pyrethroid
    Insecticide.  Investigation of the Neurotoxic Potential of WL 43775.
    (1977) Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Noble, P.J.  AF1117 Residue Data in Animal Tissues, Milk and Cream.
    (1976a) Shell Chemical (Australia) Propriety Ltd.,

    Noble, A.S.  Soil Percolation Studies with WL 43775.  (1976b) Shell
    Research Ltd.,

    Ohkawa, H., Nambu, K., Inui, H. and Miyamoto, J.  Metabolic Fate of
    Fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)) in Soil and by Soil Micro-organisms.  J.
    Pesticide Sci. 3, 129

    Ohkawa, H. and Kikuchi, R.  Metabolic Fate of Fenvalerate
    (Sumicidin(R)) in Rats, Soil, Soil Microorganisms and an Aquatic Model
    Ecosystem.  Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.,

    Ohkawa, H., Nambu, K., Mikami, N., and Miyamoto, J.  Metabolic Fate of
    Fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)) in Bean Plants and Cabbages.  Sumitomo
    Chemical Co. Ltd., (1979a)

    Ohkawa, H., Kikuchi R. and Miyamoto, J.  Bioaccumulation and
    Biodegradation of the (S)-Acid Isomer of Fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)) in
    an Aquatic Model Ecosystem.  Submitted to J. Pesticide Sci. (1979b)

    Ohkawa, H., Kaneko, H., Tsuki, H. and Miyamoto, J.  Metabolism of
    Fenvalerate (Sumicidin(R)) in rats.  J. Pesticide Sci. 4 (2), 143.

    Okuno, Y., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto, J.  Unpublished report from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co.:

      1976a.  Neurotoxic Effects of Some Synthetic Pyrethroids and Natural
    Pyrethrins by Dermal Applications in Rats.

      1976b.  Neurotoxic Effects of Some Synthetic Pyrethroids by
    Short-Term Feeding in Rats.

      1977a.  Neurotox Effects of Some Synthetic Pyrethroids and Natural
    Pyrethrins by Oral Administration in Rats.

      1977b.  Neurotoxic Effects of S5602 and Natural Pyrethrins by Oral
    Administration in Rats.

      1977c.  Recovery of Histopathological Lesions in Rats Caused by
    Short-Term Feeding of S5602.

    Potter, J.C.  (1976) Unpublished reports from Shell Development Co.: 
    a) Tissues of Rats Fed SD 43775-C-14; b) and c) Milk and tissues of
    cows; d) eggs and tissues from laying hens; e) cream from the milk of
    cows fed SD 43775 14-C.

    Potter, J.C. and Arnold, D.L.  Residues of C-14 in Tissues of Rats Fed
    SD 43775-C-14 for 28 days.  (1977) Unpublished report from Shell
    Development Co.

    Potter, J.C. and Sauls.  Residues of 14-C in eggs and Tissues of
    Laying Hens fed 0.03 ppm of SD 43775-14-C (Labelled in Benzene Ring
    Adjacent to CN Group).  (1978) Shell Development Co.

    Quinn R.J., Paa, H., Mastri, C.W., Kinoshita, F.K. and Keplinger, M.L.
    21-Day Subacute Dermal Toxicity Study with Technical SD 43775 and SD
    43775 (2.4 lb/gal EC) in Albino Rabbits.  (1976) Unpublished report
    from Industrial Bio-Test Lab submitted by Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Shell Development Co. and Shell Research Ltd.,  (1975-1978) A numbered
    series of 36 unpublished reports with residue data from field trials
    on specified crops in different countries.

    Simpson, B.W.  (1979) Draft report to be published.  Queensland
    Department of Primary Industries Analytical Chemistry Branch,
    Brisbane, Australia.

    Standen, M.E.  The Metabolism of the Pyrethroid Insecticide WL 43775
    in Apple Fruit and Foliage under Outdoor Conditions.  (1977) Shell
    Research Ltd.,

    Stein, A.A.  Histopathology Evaluation of Animals from 3-Gene ration
    Reproduction Study.  (1977) Unpublished report from Microscopy for
    Biological Research, Ltd., submitted as part of study cited above
    (Beliles et al., 1978) by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.,

    Summit, L.M. and Albert, J.R.

      1977a.  Oral Lethality of WL 43775 (6-1-0-0) in the Rat (Unpublished
    report from Shell Development Co.)

      1977b.  Determination of the Acute Oral Lethality of WL 43775
    (6-1-0-0) in the Male and Female Mouse.

    Suzuki, H. and Miyamoto, J.

      1976.  Unpublished report from Sumitomo Chemical.  Studies on
    Mutagenicity of S5602 with Bacteria Systems.

      1977.  Studies on Mutagenicity of Some Pyrethroids on Salmonella
    Strains in the Presence of Mouse Hepatic S9 Fractions.

    Suzuki, T., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto, J.  One Year Chronic Toxicity
    Study of S5602 in Mice (Three Month Interim Report).  (1976)
    Unpublished report from Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Suzuki, H., Kishida, F. and Miyamoto, J.  Studies on Mutagenicity of
    S5602 in Ames Test in the Presence of Hepatic S9 Fractions from
    Several Laboratory Animal Species.  (1979) Unpublished report from
    Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Suzuki, T., Okuno, Y., Hiromori, T., Ito, S., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto,
    J.  Fifteen-Month Chronic Toxicity Study of S5602 in Rats. (1977a)
    Unpublished report from Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Suzuki, T., Okuno, Y., Hiromori, T., Ito, S., Kadota, T. and Miyamoto,
    J.  Eighteen-Month Chronic Toxicity Study of S5602 in Mice. (1977b)
    Unpublished report from Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Takimoto, Y. and Miyamoto, J.  Method for Residue Analysis of S-5602
    in Cabbage.  (1977) Sumitomo Chemical Co.

    Talekar, N.S.  Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of
    a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl a-isopropyl-4-chlorophenylacetate residues
    in cabbage. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 60: 908-910

    van der Pauw, C.L., Dix, K.M., Blanchard, K. and McCarthy, W.V.
    Toxicity of WL-43775: Teratological Studies in Rabbits Given WL 43775
    Orally.  (1975) Unpublished report from Shell Development. Co.

    Walker, B.J., Hend, R.W. and Linnett, S.  Toxicity Studies on the
    Insecticide WL 43775: Summary of Results of Preliminary Experiments.
    Unpublished report from Shell Development Co.

    Williams, I.H. and Brown, M.J.  Persistence of Permethrin and WL 43775
    in Soil.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 130

    Woodhouse, R.N., Almond, R.H. and Anderson, J.  Determination of
    residues of Sumicidin in potatoes.  (1979) Huntingdon Research Centre.
    SMO 88/7939.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Fenvalerate (EHC 95, 1990)
       Fenvalerate (HSG 34, 1989)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (UKPID)
       Fenvalerate (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)