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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1981


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    EVALUATIONS 1981







    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome

    FAO PLANT PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION PAPER 42

    pesticide residues in food:
    1981 evaluations

     the monographs

    data and recommendations
    of the joint meeting
    of the
    FAO panel of experts on pesticide residues
    in food and the environment
    and the
    WHO expert group on pesticide residues

    Geneva, 23 November-2 December 1981

    FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
    Rome 1982

    FENVALERATE

    Explanation

         Fenvalerate was first evaluated in 1979, when a temporary
    acceptable daily intake was established and temporary maximum residue
    limits were recommended for many raw agricultural commodities to cover
    treatments applied both pre-harvest and post-harvest.*

         A request was made for further information on the potential
    bioaccumulation of fenvalerate and/or its metabolites; observations in
    occupationally exposed humans; an additional dominant lethal assay to
    confirm previous data; the occurrence and fate of photo-decomposition
    products; residues in citrus, berry fruits, beans and several other
    crops for which data were limited; studies on the level and fate of
    fenvalerate residues in stored products, especially raw grain and
    products derived therefrom.

         Information on several of these items has become available,
    together with further data from supervised field trials on a number of
    additional crops, provided by Canada and by several manufacturers of
    fenvalerate. These were evaluated by the Meeting.

    DATA FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS

    Absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion

         In the 1979 JMPR concern was expressed over the potential for
    bioaccumulation of fenvalerate in mammals. However, it has already
    been shown (Ohkawa  et al 1979) that 14C-fenvalerate labelled at the
    acid or alcohol moiety, administered singly or consecutively, was
    eliminated substantially completely and fairly rapidly from the animal
    body, with a very limited retention in adipose tissue. The cyano-
    fragment of the molecule was rather persistent in several tissues of
    rats and mice, notably skin and hair, which is not toxicologically
    significant, as this is one of the excretion processes of the cyano-
    group in the body. Also, tissue residues of fenvalerate reached a
    plateau within 3 weeks of dietary administration; the results indicate
    the maximum build-up in the tissues during feeding and no further
    increase of the tissue contents even by subsequent administration of
    the compound. These findings would suggest that there is no
    appreciable bioaccumulation of fenvalerate and/or its metabolites by
    longer administration of the compound (Miyamoto 1981).

              

    *  See Annex II for FAO and WHO documentation.

    Cow

         Fenvalerate was fed to two Holstein cows and its excretion in
    milk and faeces determined (Wszolek  et al 1980). One animal was fed
    pure fenvalerate at the 5 ppm level and the other at the 15 ppm level
    based on a daily ration of 22.7 kg for 4 days. (This amounted to a
    total dose of 0.454 and 1.362 g of the insecticide, respectively.)
    Total excretion of fenvalerate in milk amounted to 0.44% and 0.64% of
    the total dose for the cows fed, respectively 5 and 15 ppm of the
    compound. Substantially more of the fenvalerate was eliminated in the
    faeces, possibly about 25% of the dose. Although metabolites of
    fenvalerate were not sought, it is possible that hydrolysis of the
    carboxy ester linkage may occur, with resultant excretion of the
    corresponding acid and conjugates of the alcohol in urine and faeces.

         Bovine urinary excretion and rumen decomposition of fenvalerate
    and a metabolite have also been studied (Wszolek  et al 1981). Grain
    containing 10 ppm of fenvalerate was fed to a catheterized, lactating
    Holstein cow, one portion per day for four days. (This amounted to a
    total dose of 0.908 g of fenvalerate.) Intact fenvalerate was not
    detected in the urine excreted by the cow during the 10-day feeding
    study.

         A major metabolite, 4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-benzene acetic
    acid, was not unambiguously identified in the urine. About 0.02% or
    less of the administered dose of fenvalerate was excreted in the
    urine, based on the total volume of urine collected during the study
    (about 290 liters). Although 4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-benzene
    acetic acid was not identified in the urine, it was calculated that an
    upper limit of about 20% of the fenvalerate could be accounted for by
    possible excretion of this acid in urine.

         No significant degradation of fenvalerate was detected when
    rumen was incubated with fenvalerate in vitro. Any degradation of the
    insecticide was believed to occur further along in the cows' digestive
    system. Additionally, significant amounts of fenvalerate may
    accumulate in tissues and organs which were not analysed (Wszolek
     et al 1981).

    Rat

         The metabolic fate of fenvalerate and its insecticidally active
    isomer (2S,alpha RS), labelled with 14C in three positions, was
    studied by Okhawa  et al (1979) in male Sprague-Dawley rats following
    a single oral dose or 5 consecutive daily doses. Figure 1 illustrates
    the metabolic pathways for fenvalerate in male rats. This figure
    includes the products obtained from the CO-, C-alpha- and CN-labelled
    fenvalerate, CO-labelled Cl-V acid [(S)-2(4-chlorophenyl)isovaleric
    acid], K14CN and KS14CN. As fenvalerate (a mixture of the four
    optical isomers) and S-fenvalerate(the ester derived from racemic

    alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and C-Cl-V acid) showed similar
    patterns of 14C excretion, tissue residues, and the amount of the
    excreted metabolites, both compounds are likely to be metabolized.

         A small part of the oral dose of fenvalerate was excreted in the
    faeces without metabolism. The metabolism of fenvalerate and the (S)
    acid ester isomer was rapid, and the acid moiety and the aromatic
    portion of the alcohol moiety was almost completely eliminated from
    the body within several days. The CN group of the alcohol moiety was
    rapidly converted, mainly to thiocyanate, which was retained
    relatively longer in selective tissues, including skin and hair.
    Fenvalerate and the (S)-acid isomer yielded two faecal ester
    metabolites, which resulted from hydroxylation at the 4,'- and
    2'-phenoxy positions. Other significant metabolites were
    3-phenoxybenzoic acid and its hydroxy derivatives (free and conjugate)
    from the alcohol-labelled compound, 3-(4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid
    and its hydroxy derivatives (free, lactones and conjugates) from the
    acid-labelled compound, and thiocyanate and CO2 from the CN-labelled
    compounds. There were no apparent differences in the patterns of
    14C-excretion and tissue residues between fenvalerate and the
    (S)-acid isomer.

    TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Acute toxicity

         The acute oral LD50 for rat of fenvalerate dissolved in DMSO is
    451 mg/kg and in aqueous suspension 3 200 mg/kg. The acute dermal
    LD50 for rat and rabbit is >5 000 mg/kg and 2 500 mg/kg,
    respectively.

    Long-term studies

    Rat

         A group of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats was fed a
    dietary concentration of 1 000 ppm fenvalerate (SD-43775 Technical,
    98% purity) for two years. A concurrent group of 50 male and 50 female
    rats received basal diet only. This study was designed to complement
    an earlier Sprague-Dawley rat study with dietary concentrations of 0,
    1, 5, 25 and 250 ppm fenvalerate for two years (Gordon and Weir 1978).
    Body weight gain was reduced in the 1 000 ppm treated group compared
    to control. Six male rats of the treatment group developed transitory
    weakness of the hind limbs during weeks 3 and 4 of the study.
    Mortality and food consumption were not affected by compound
    administration. No compound-related changes were seen in the
    parameters of clinical chemistry, haematology and urinalysis. Organ
    weight of the treated group was similar to control. As body weight
    gain was significantly decreased in the treated rats, the organ/body
    weight ratio was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the treated males

    for brain, liver, heart, spleen and testes, and in the treated females
    for brain, kidneys, liver, spleen and heart, when compared to control
    values. Five of the treated males developed skin lesions, typified by
    localized hair loss and oozing, slowly-healing sores. Although the
    etiology of these lesions is unknown, these were judged unrelated to
    treatment with the test material. Histopathological examination of
    incurrent and terminal kill animals revealed a variety of lesions
    common to this strain of rat. Neoplasms of the pituitary gland
    occurred to the extent of 59% and 67% in both control and treated
    animals, respectively. The majority of mammary neoplasms in the female
    rats were benign fibroepithelial lesions. The total incidence of
    mammary neoplasms (malignant and benign) in the female rats was
    similar between control and treated animals. Statistical analyses did
    not reveal an effect of the test material on mammary glands. Sarcomas
    of a spindle cell type were observed in the subcutis and dermis of 5
    of 51 treated males. These lesions occurred in the cervical region,
    hind limb, thorax, perianal area and right axilla. Although similar
    lesions were not found in these locations of male control rats, one
    control rat had a large mass involving its neck, shoulder and head,
    and an intrathoracic mass. The former was diagnosed as a fibroma, but
    the latter was diagnosed as a spindle cell sarcoma. This spindle cell
    sarcoma was reported separately from other spindle cell sarcomas. The
    pathologist of this study reviewed original tissue sections from
    Sprague-Dawley rats of similar origin housed under similar conditions
    at Litton Bionetics for five other chronic studies, in order to obtain
    appropriate historical control data. In control male rats of two
    studies, sarcomas consistent with this diagnosis of spindle cell
    sarcoma were found; 2 of 102 male control rats of LBI Project 20541
    (previous fenvalerate study, Gordon and Weir 1978) and 1 of 50 male
    control rats of LBI Project No. 20823. A review by Shell of
    unpublished literature revealed that in a 2-year study with Sprague-
    Dawley CD rats, spindle cell sarcomas were found in 3 of 48 male
    control rats (Piccirillo and Voelker 1978). The historical incidence
    of spindle cell sarcomas ranged widely from 0 to 6%, indicating the
    variable spontaneous incidence of this type lesion. The term "spindle
    cell sarcoma" encompasses a number of malignant mesenchymal neoplasms
    that are difficult and sometimes impossible to diagnose definitively
    and includes such entities as fibrosarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma,
    malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, osteosarcoma, etc. The
    above definition of spindle cell sarcoma is too broad, as it may
    include other types of sarcoma that can be properly diagnosed and
    therefore can be separated from among the above spindle cell sarcomas.
    A pathologist carefully examined the slides of the subcutaneous
    sarcomas (Ito 1981). The spindle cell sarcomas found in 5 of 51 males
    were divided into 4 malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, based on the re-
    examination. Therefore, the incidence of each sarcoma was very low
    (one of 51 males or 2 of 51 males). Although the study pathologist
    stated that the carcinogenic effects were equivocal, but not clearly
    negative, with respect to these sarcomas, it was concluded that the
    presence of spindle cell sarcomas in the treated males was not related
    to compound administration (Gordon 1979).

         The incidence of spindle cell sarcomas was analysed statistically
    in the life-time feeding study in rats of SD-43775 technical
    (fenvalerate) by Litton bionetics. Although using the chi-square with
    Yates' correction did not reveal any significance in incidence of the
    spindle cell sarcomas between control and 1 000 ppm groups, slightly
    higher incidence of the tumours was seen in the treated male group.
    The relationships between possible tumourigenicity of fenvalerate and
    occurrence of the sarcoma are discussed (as above) in the following
    comment.

         As noted above, the historical incidence of spindle cell sarcoma
    ranged from 0 to 6%, as described in the study report and the attached
    comment of Shell Development Company. Therefore, the incidence of the
    treated male group (10%) is not so high when compared to the
    historical incidence.

         The spindle cell sarcoma, as also noted above, encompasses a
    number of malignant mesencymal neoplasms that are composed of spindle-
    shaped cells. The sarcomas occur in various types of tissues:
    connective tissue in subcutis and submucosa, periosteum, fascia, blood
    vessels, uterus, etc. The classification method by the above criteria
    of spindle cell sarcoma is not currently being used by most
    pathologists. At present, the tumour is usually diagnosed on the basis
    of the tissue of origin. The histopathological examination of a tumour
    must be conducted by using the latest method of tumour classification.
    In this study different types of tumour might be diagnosed as the same
    type (spindle cell sarcoma) owing to the inappropriate method of
    tumour classification.

         Therefore, the tumours must be properly diagnosed on the basis
    of careful observation. To obtain the proper findings, the slides of
    the subcutaneous sarcomas sent from Litton Bionetics were examined
    histopathologically. The following results were obtained in the
    re-examination:

    Animal No.    Area                      Findings

    7188          Cervical subcutis         Malignant schwannoma or
                  and mammary gland         Leiomyosarcoma

    7213          Left hind limb            Malignant mesencymoma

    7224          Thorax                    Fibrosarcoma

    7227          Right axillary area       Malignant amelanotic melanoma

    823-          Left perianal area        Malignant amelanotic melanoma

         Although it was difficult to evaluate exactly the findings, owing
    to severe cellular atypia, four types of sarcoma were identified and
    the incidence of each sarcoma become very low (1 of 51 males or 2 of
    51 males). These low incidences are comparable to that of the control
    group. From the result of the re-examination, these sarcomas are not
    considered to be related to ingestion of fenvalerate and are naturally
    occurring tumours (Ito 1981).

         Groups of 80 male and 80 female Wistar rats were fed dietary
    concentrations of fenvalerate (Sumitomo 55602 technical, purity 93.4%)
    0, 50, 150, 500 and 1 500 ppm for 104 (males) or 119 (females) weeks.
    Although the apparent dose-related decrease in mortality was observed
    in weeks 64 and 68, owing to respiratory disease that spread more
    rapidly in the control than in the treated rats, final mortality of
    the treated groups was comparable to that of the control group. Body
    weight gains of males from the 500 and 1 500 ppm groups and females
    from the 1 500 ppm group were probably affected, although it was
    difficult to evaluate exactly the male data, owing to higher initial
    body weight of control males. No compound-related or consistent
    adverse effects were observed on clinical signs, blood biochemistry,
    urinalysis and ophthalmology. On histopathological examination, non-
    neoplastic changes due to exposure to fenvalerate were noticed in
    spleen, lymph nodes, liver and adrenals. Giant cell infiltration was
    observed in these organs. In spleen and liver, giant cell infiltration
    was clearly found at 1 500 ppm. The same change in lymph nodes and
    adrenals was observed at 500 and 1 500 ppm. In mesenteric lymph nodes,
    reticuloendothelial cell proliferation was also found to be dose
    related, and the incidence was higher at 500 ppm and 1 500 ppm than at
    the lower doses and in the control groups. Although the incidence of
    testicular tumours appears to be dose-related, their incidence was as
    follows: control 28%, 50 ppm 47%, 150 ppm 35%, 500 ppm 75%, 1,500 ppm
    69%. The incidence of interstitial cell tumours was statistically
    significantly higher at 50, 500 and 1 500 ppm than in the respective
    controls (the procedure used was chi-square with the Yates correction,
    but no p values were furnished). In females, uterine and mammary
    tumours were observed in all groups. However, no significant
    difference was observed between the control and the treated groups.
    Incidences of other tumours of the treated groups were comparable to
    those of the control. Thus, there was no evidence of carcinogenic
    response, and the dietary no-effect level of fenvalerate was found to
    be 150 ppm (equivalent to 6.7 mg/kg/day for males and 7.3 mg/kg/day
    for females) (Arai  et al 1981a).

    Mouse

         Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were fed dietary
    concentrations of 10, 50, 250 and 1 250 ppm fenvalerate (SD-43775,
    purity 98%) for 2 years. Two groups of control mice, 50 per sex per
    group, received basal diet only. Mortality was significantly increased
    and body weight gain was significantly decreased in male and female

    mice in the 1 250 ppm treatment group. Mean body weight of female mice
    in the 250 ppm group was also significantly lower than controls after
    the 60th week of feeding. Serum albumin was decreased and serum
    glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was increased in the 1 250 ppm mice
    examined. No other effects on haematology or clinical chemistry were
    observed in the study. For some organs, mean organ weights and
    organ/body weight ratios were statistically different from controls.
    However, these changes were not consistent in the treatment groups,
    i.e. not dose-related (Johnston 1979). The number and type of
    histologically diagnosed neoplasms in mice fed 10, 50, 250 or 1 250
    ppm fenvalerate in the diet for 2 years was not statistically
    significant when compared to the incidence of neoplasms in mice fed
    the untreated control diet only. Lymphoreticular and lung neoplasms
    were common in both control and treated animals. The only non-
    neoplastic pathology induced by dietary administration of less than
    1 250 ppm fenvalerate was multifocal granulomata. In female mice, this
    lesion was present in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen at
    dosage levels of 250 and 1 250 ppm. In male mice, 1 250 ppm
    fenvalerate induced multifocal granulomata in mesenteric lymph nodes,
    other visceral and peripheral lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Less
    severe granulomatous lesions were present in mesenteric lymph nodes of
    male mice administered 50 and 250 ppm fenvalerate. The dietary no-
    effect level of fenvalerate was found to be 10 ppm for males or 50 ppm
    for females (equivalent to 1.7 mg/kg/day for males and 11.0 mg/kg/day
    for females) (McCullough and Gelatly 1979).

         Groups of 50 male and 50 female ddY mice were fed dietary
    concentrations of 0, 10, 30, 100 and 300 ppm fenvalerate (55602
    technical, purity 91.4%) for 87 (females) and 91 (males) weeks.
    Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female ddY mice were fed the same
    concentrations and were sacrificed at 12th month. This study is
    supplementary to the previous test (Suzuki  et al 1977) and was
    intended to establish a no-effect level. No treatment-related effects
    were detected by clinical observations, including mortality, body
    weight, food consumption, water intake, ophthalmological examination
    and urinalysis. Slight reductions of erythrocyte counts in 100 and
    300 ppm groups of male and slightly lower haemoglobin concentration in
    the 300 ppm female group were observed, and glutamic-pyruvic
    transaminase activity of 300 ppm female group was slightly increased
    at termination. No noteworthy changes were obtained in other
    examination on clinical biochemistry and haematology. No treatment-
    related effects were detected in organ and organ/body weight ratio,
    except that a slightly higher organ/body weight ratio of adrenals was
    obtained in the 300 ppm female group at the 12th month. Gross
    observations did not show any adverse effects. In histopathological
    examinations of the life-span feeding group, dose-related changes were
    noticed in spleen, liver and lymph nodes. In spleen, giant cell
    infiltration was found at 300 ppm. In mandibular lymph node, giant
    cell infiltration and/or large histiocytic cell filled with brown
    pigment were found dose-relatedly, and the incidence was higher at

    100 ppm and 300 ppm than at the lower doses and the control group. In
    mesenteric lymph nodes, giant cell infiltration and/or reticulum cell
    proliferation was found at 100 ppm and 300 ppm, and the incidence of
    reticulum cell proliferation was higher at 300 ppm than at the lower
    doses and controls. In the liver, giant cell infiltration and
    granuloma were dose-relatedly noticed in the 300 ppm group of both
    sexes and in the 100 ppm and 300 ppm groups of females. Large
    histiocytic cells filled with brown pigment were observed in the liver
    of the 100 ppm and 300 ppm male groups with higher incidence. The
    granulomatous changes, which were noticed in the 12 month interim
    groups, were comparable in their severity to the findings of the life-
    span groups, but the incidence was higher in 100 ppm and 300 ppm
    groups than in the life-span groups. This implies that the
    granulomatous changes are not progressive on longer feeding of the
    compound. With regard to neoplastic changes, various types of
    epithelial or non-epithelial cell tumours were found. However, the
    incidence of all these tumours was not different between the control
    and the treated groups. The incidence of single, multiple, benign and
    malignant tumours were not different among the groups and/or not dose-
    related. Thus the compound was not carcinogenic in ddY mouse when
    fed from 5 weeks old to about end of life span, and the dietary
    no-effect level of fenvalerate was found to be 30 ppm (equivalent
    to 3.48 mg/kg/day for males and 4.29 mg/kg/day for females) (Arai
     et al 1981b,c).

         An additional feeding study was conducted to examine
    reversibility of the granulomatous changes in mouse liver, spleen and
    mesenteric lymph node, in which mice of ddY strain were kept on a diet
    containing 0, 1 000 and 3 000 ppm fenvalerate for 6 weeks, followed by
    rearing on the control diet. Histopathological examination was
    conducted periodically. The granulomatous changes in liver, lymph node
    and spleen, which had been observed immediately and/or shortly after
    termination of the administration of fenvalerate, were lower in
    incidence as well as less in severity after 6 months of the recovery
    phase. Although these granulomatous changes were still observed at 12
    months of the recovery phase, the incidence and severity were clearly
    reduced. Therefore, it was concluded that the granulomatous changes
    are not progressive and are reversible in nature (Ito  et al 1980).

    Special studies on mutagenicity

    Dominant lethal assay

         In the dominant lethal assay in male mice mentioned in the 1979
    JMPR evaluation, the weekly mean values for total implants and early
    foetal deaths were analysed by a two-way analysis of variance. The
    value for total implants were analysed untransformed. Since the
    variate for early foetal deaths (EFD) was considered to follow a
    Poisson distribution, the data were transformed to square roots of EFD
    + 0.375 to achieve normality. Based on these statistical analyses,

    female mice mated to males dosed with 100 mg/kg fenvalerate showed a
    statistically significant reduction in foetal implants at week 2
    (p <0.05) and an increase in early foetal deaths at week 4
    (p <0.05). The conclusion was that these appeared to be isolated
    random events, not following any consistent or time-related pattern,
    and were not considered to be of biological significance (Miyamoto
    1981).

         The significant changes of these parameters, even in one specific
    week, might sometimes imply the effects of the compound. The raw data
    were analysed by using another statistical method proposed by the US
    Food and Drug Administration recently (Green  et al 1976). According
    to the method, the t-test was utilized to determine significant
    differences between average number of implantations per pregnant
    female, for each treatment, compared with the control value. Dead
    implantations per total implantations were computed for each female
    and transformed to the Freedman-Tukey arc-sine. The t-test was then
    utilized to compare each treatment value of the proportion of dead
    implantations with the control value. No statistical significances are
    observed in the number of total implantations at any weeks for any
    treatment groups. Also, no significant higher values of transformed
    proportion of early foetal deaths were observed in any treatment
    groups at any intervals. The percentage of early foetal deaths per
    total implantations in this study was further analysed by using the
    Mann-Whitney U-test, which was employed by some investigators (Soats
    and Sheridan 1977; Teramoto  et al 1980). No statistical
    significances are shown in any mean proportions, including the value
    of the 100 mg/kg group at week 4, which was significant in the
    original statistical analyses.

         From these findings, it was concluded that fenvalerate did not
    cause dominant lethals in the mouse study (Miyamoto 1981).

    Special studies on exposure in humans

         To date, no reports are available in which exposure of humans to
    a known level (not necessarily to high levels) of fenvalerate has been
    suggested. During several years of usage of fenvalerate, no incidence
    of human intoxication resulting in any noteworth effects including
    neurological disruption, has been reported (Miyamoto 1981).

         However, note should be made of a Swedish study of the
    occupational exposure to three products containing synthetic
    pyrethroids, which have been used in forestry to protect conifer
    seedlings against the large brown pine weevil  (Hylobuis abietis) 
    (Kolmodin-Hedman  et al 1981). Fenvalerate was used in one product
    and permethrin in two products containing a mixture of trans/cis
    isomers in proportions 60/40 and 75/25, respectively. A high frequency
    of symptoms was reported in connection with the use of fenvalerate

    which led to a withdrawal of the product for use in forestry. Some
    symptoms were also reported in groups exposed to permethrin. For
    example, in interviews carried out with 139 planters, irritative
    symptoms of the skin and upper respiratory tract were reported in 73%
    of users for fenvalerate, 63% for permethrin (trans/cis 75/25) and 33%
    for permethrin (trans/cis 60/40), respectively (Kolmodin-Hedman
     et al 1981).

         Transient facial sensory symptoms following exposure to synthetic
    pyrethroids (e.g. cypermethrin, permethrin, fenvalerate and
    fenpropathrin) in some workers has been reported. Of 23 workers
    exposed to synthetic pyrethroids, 19 had experienced one or more
    episodes of abnormal facial sensation developing between 30 min to 3 h
    after exposure and persisting for 30 min to 8 h. There were no
    abnormal neurological signs and electrophysiological studies of the
    arms and legs were normal. It was concluded that the symptoms are most
    likely to be due to transient lowering of the threshold of sensory
    nerve fibres or sensory nerve endings following exposure of the facial
    skin to pyrethroids, similar to the phenomena that have been described
    following exposure of animal nerves to pyrethroids.

         Skin sensations experienced by those handling cypermethrin or
    other pyrethroids are believed to arise by repetitive firing of
    sensory nerve terminals in the skin. It is said to be a strictly local
    effect that may occur as soon as the pyrethroid concentration on or in
    the skin reaches a certain level and is not considered as a sign of
    general intoxication (provided the pyrethroid does not reach the blood
    in any significant concentration). A possibility exists, however, that
    repeated occurrences of intense repetitive firing can perhaps
    eventually lead to dysfunction of sensory nerve terminals and sense
    organs and finally to degeneration of sensory nerve fibres.

    Special studies on pesticide interactions

         Esterases play a major role in the detoxification of many
    pyrethroid insecticides (Abernathy and Casida 1973; Jao and Casida
    1974a; Soderlund and Casida 1977a). Some inhibitors of "pyrethroid
    esterases" serve as synergists for pyrethroid toxicity to insects and
    mammals (Abernathy  et al 1973; Jao and Casida 1974b; Soderlund and
    Casida 1977b). Currently, the major use of pyrethroids is in cotton
    protection, where the crops may also be treated with esterase
    inhibitors (e.g., organophosphorus and methyl carbamate compounds).

         The evaluation of several insecticides used on cotton for
    possible effects in altering the metabolism, toxicity and persistence
    of pyrethroids has been reported (Gaughan  et al 1980). Profenofos,
    EPN [O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)phenylphosphonothioate] and DEF
    (S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate) administered intraperitoneally to
    mice at 25 mg/kg strongly inhibited the liver microsomal esterase(s)
    that hydrolyse fenvalerate and increased the i.p. toxicity of
    fenvalerate >25 fold.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

         Many residue trials have been conducted since 1979 to provide
    additional data on residues in citrus, berry fruits and beans,
    together with information on new crops including fruits, vegetables,
    cereals and oilseeds. Tables 1 through 12 contain reports submitted to
    the Meeting by Shell (1980a,b). These trials confirm the previous
    data, which indicated that the compound was not systemic and the
    residues declined with a half-life of about one to two weeks.

    Oilseeds

         Trials on peanuts have been carried out in the USA. The residues
    in whole nuts were less than 0.1 mg/kg, when fenvalerate was applied
    at rates of up to 0.45 kg a.i./ha (Table 1). It was shown that
    residues in the meat did not exceed the detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg
    and that the shells carried almost all the residues found in the whole
    nuts. The residues in hay and vines ranged from 1.0 to 17 mg/kg, at
    treatment rates of up to 0.45 kg a.i./ha. These findings confirmed the
    evaluations made in 1979.

    Leafy and stem vegetables

         Trials have been conducted in the USA and Canada on lettuce,
    spinach, celery and brassica vegetables, such as broccoli, Brussel
    sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and rapeseed. The residues were
    generally less than 1 mg/kg 7 days after treatment at rates ranging
    from 0.05 to 0.45 kg/ha (Table 2). In cabbage, the maximum residue
    7 days or more after treatment was 4.3 mg/kg where the application
    rate was 0.45 kg/ha. When lettuce was treated at rates of up to
    0.45 kg/ha and harvested 7 days after treatment, the maximum residue
    was 4.3 mg/kg, and 1.7 mg/kg at an application rate of 0.45 and
    0.22 kg/ha, respectively. These figures are regarded as statistical
    outlines. In spinach, the residues 7 days after 0.056 to 0.11 kg/ha
    treatment exceed 2 mg/kg and the residues decreased to below 1 mg/kg
    after 12 days. The data were insufficient to judge the validity of
    these levels.

    Fruiting vegetables

         Residue trials for fruiting vegetables, such as cucumbers,
    watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, squash, bell peppers, pumpkins
    and tomatoes, were carried out mostly in the USA. The maximum residues
    were generally below 1 mg/kg 3 days or later after treatment at rates
    ranging from 0.05 to 0.45 kg/ha (Table 3). When tomatoes were treated
    at a rate of 0.45 kg/ha and harvested 7 days after treatment, the
    maximum residue of 1.8 mg/kg was found. These data provide a basis for
    estimating maximum residue levels.

        TABLE 1.  Fenvalerate Residues on Peanuts
                                                                                                                                       
                                                    Application                      Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after appl.
                                                                                                                                       
    Crop part      Country/Year        No.       Rate           EC Formulation
                                                 (kg a.i./ha)   (%)               0            7           14         21          28
                                                                                                                                       

    Whole          USA      1976        4           0.11        30                         0.03 (10d)
                                                    0.22                                   0.03 (10d)
                            1979        3           0.22        30                                                  0.02
                                                    0.45                                                            0.03
                            1978        2           0.45                                                           <0.01
                            1979        3           0.22                                                            0.02
                                        3           0.22                         0.09      0.10           0.05      0.02         0.04
                                        3           0.22                                                            0.01
                                                    0.45                                                            0.06
                            1980        3           0.22                                                           <0.01(25d)

    Nut meats               1979        3           0.22                                                           <0.01
                                                    0.45                                                           <0.01
                                        3           0.22                                                           <0.01
                                        3           0.22                        <0.01     <0.01          <0.01     <0.01        <0.01
                                        3           0.22                                                           <0.01
                                                    0.45                                                           <0.01
                            1980        3           0.22                                                           <0.01

    Vines                   1979        3           0.22                                                            5.0
                                                    0.45                                                            5.4
                                        3           0.22                                                            3.7
                                        3           0.22                                                            5.8
                                                    0.45                                                           14
                            1980        3           0.22                                                            0.5
    Hay                     1976        4           0.11                                   2.9(10d)
                                                    0.22                                   1.0(10d)
                                                    0.45                                   6.9(10d)
                            1978        2           0.45                                                            2.6
                                        3           0.22                        17        15              9.9       5.3          6.9
                                                                                                                                       

    TABLE 2.  Fenvalerate Residues on Leafy and Stem Vegetables
                                                                                                                                               

                                               Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
                                                                                                                                               
    Crop         Country      Year                          EC
                                       No.    Rate          Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)  (%)           0            1           3           7         10        14
                                                                                                                                               

    Cabbage      USA          1978      6     0.22          30                                                              0.02(21d)
                                              0.45                                                                         <0.01(21d)
                              1980      8     0.22          30                                     4.3
                                              0.45                                                10.6
                                        8     0.22                                                 0.41
                                              0.45                                                 0.64
                                        8     0.22                        5.6          0.94        1.2         2.4       0.90
                                              0.45                       11.8          1.1         1.4         4.3       0.8
                                        8     0.22                                                 0.18
                                              0.45                                                 0.25

                 Canada       1979      3     0.07          30                         0.33        0.18                            0.04
                                        7     0.07                                                                                 0.06
                                        5     0.07-0.15     30                         0.20        0.21                            0.16
                                        4     0.10                        0.02         0.01        0.01

    Lettuce      USA          1979      7     0.11          30                                                 0.23
                                              0.22                                                             0.49
                                              0.45                                                             0.75
                                        7     0.22                                                             0.85
                                        7     0.22                                                             0.02
                                              0.45                                                             0.05
                                              0.22                                                             1.7
                                              0.45                                                             3.0
                                        7     0.22                        3.9          5.3         1.8         0.59
                                              0.45                        1.4          3.6         0.54        4.3
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 2.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                               

                                               Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
                                                                                                                                               
    Crop         Country      Year                          EC
                                       No.    Rate          Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)  (%)           0            1           3           7         10        14
                                                                                                                                               

                              1980      8     0.22                                     2.2         1.04(2d)
                                        5     0.22                                     0.96        0.54(2d)
                                              0.45                                     3.2         1.4 (2d)
                                        5     0.20                                                                       2.3(15d)
                                        4     0.22                                                                       2.8(18d)
                                        3     0.13-0.21                                                                  1.4(18d)
                                        4     0.1 -0.22                                                                            2.7
                                        4     0.11-0.21                                                                  9.6(21d)

                 Netherlands  1977      1     0.075                              (14d)             (32d)
                                        1     0.075                            (0.25-2.25)       (0.16-0.67)
                                                                                  1.46                0.44

                                                                          0            1           3           7        14         21     28

    Lettuce      Canada       1979      4     0.07          30                        <0.01(2d)   <0.01
                              1978      6     0.07                                                            <0.01

    Cauliflower  USA          1977      6     0.11          30                                                 0.11
                                              0.22                                                             0.33
                                        6     0.05                                                             0.06
                                              0.11                                                             0.10
                              1980      8     0.22                                     0.29        0.29
                                              0.45                                     0.54        0.54
                 Canada       1978      3     0.07                                     0.20        0.25                  0.02
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 2.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                               

                                               Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
                                                                                                                                               
    Crop         Country      Year                          EC
                                       No.    Rate          Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)  (%)           0            1           3           7        14         21     28
                                                                                                                                               

    Celery       USA          1979     15     0.22                                     1.7
                                              0.45                                     3.5
                                       15     0.22                                     2.8
                                              0.45                                     5.1
                                       15     0.22                                     0.41
                              198o     15     0.22          30                         3.5

                 Canada       1978     11     0.07                                                             0.04
                              1979      7     0.07                                                 0.24        0.14

    Broccoli     USA          1978      4     0.22          30            1.37                                 0.54      0.06       0.02  <0.01
                                              0.45                        2.63                                 1.31      0.15      <0.01  <0.01
                              1980      8     0.22                                     0.61
                                              0.45                                     0.66
                                              0.22                                                 0.37
                                              0.45                                                 0.97

                 Canada       1979      2     0.05                                     1.0         0.78                  0.09

    Brussels
    sprouts      Canada       1978      6     0.05          30                                                           0.10
                                        6     0.07                                                                       0.10
                                        7     0.07                                     0.25        0.12

    Spinach      USA          1978      4     0.056         30                                                 3.3
                                              0.11                                                             7.5
                              1979      2     0.084                                                                      0.13(12d)        <0.01
                                              0.11                                                                       0.78(12d)        <0.01
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 2.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                               

                                               Applications               Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
                                                                                                                                               
    Crop         Country      Year                          EC
                                       No.    Rate          Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)  (%)          28           48           53           70          106
                                                                                                                                               

    Rape         Canada       1979      2     0.03          30                                     <0.01
                                        3     0.03          30           <0.01
                                        2     0.03                                                              <0.01
                                        3     0.03                       <0.01
                              1978      1     0.10          30                         0.11(42d)                <0.01
                                        2     0.10                                     0.11<42d)

    Chinese
    cabbage      Netherlands  1977      1     0.050         30           (0.24-0.50)               (0.19-0.24)
                                                                          0.35 (7d)                 0.22 (14d)
                              1977      1     0.045         30                                     (0.02-0.04)
                                                                                                    0.03
                                        1     0.045         30                                                               <0.01
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 3.  Fenvalerate Residues on Fruiting Vegetables
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)         0           1           3           7           10          14
                                                                                                                                                

    Cucumber        USA           1977    2        0.11             30       0.09        0.02        0.01       <0.01                   <0.01
                                                   0.22                      0.26        0.12        0.08       <0.01                   <0.01
                                  1978    4        0.11                     <0.01       <0.01       <0.01
                                                   0.22                      0.03        0.02       <0.01
                                          2        0.45                      0.03        0.01        0.02
                                  1979    5        0.22             30                                                       0.04
                                  1980    5        0.22             30                   0.06
                                          5        0.22                                  o.14
                                                   0.45                                  0.59
                                          5        0.22                                  0.26
                                                   0.45                                  0.69

    Watermelon
    (whole)         USA           1979    5        0.22             30                                                       0.23
                                                   0.45                                                                      0.29
                                          5        0.22                      0.05        0.03        0.01        0.02
                                                   0.45                      0.31        0.20        0.15        0.18
                                  1980    5        0.22             20                              <0.01
                                                   0.45                                              0.02
                                          5        0.22                                              0.06
                                          5        0.22                                              0.08
                                          5        0.22                                              0.15
                                                   0.45                                              0.26
                                          5        0.22                                              0.41
                                                   0.45                                              0.42
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 3.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)         0           1           3           7           10          14
                                                                                                                                                

    Watermelon
    (pulp)                        1979    5        0.22             30                                                       0.03
                                                   0.45                                                                      0.01
                                          5        0.22                     <0.01       <0.01       <0.01       <0.01
                                                   0.45                      0.01       <0.01       <0.01       <0.0l

    Watermelon
    (peel)                        1979    5        0.22             30                                                       0.35
                                                   0.45                                                                      0.37
                                          5        0.22                      0.10        0.04        0.06        0.02
                                                   0.45                      0.47        0.22        0.30        0.18

                                                                               0          3            7          10          14
                                                                                                                                                
    Cantaloupe
    (whole)         USA           1977    2        0.11             30       0.12        0.10        0.11                    0.03
                                                   0.22                      0.25        0.10        0.09                    0.06
                                  1979    5        0.22             30                                           0.13
                                                   0.45                                                          0.14
                                          5        0.22                                              0.10
                                                   0.45                                              0.14
                                          6        0.22                                                          0.07
                                                   0.45                                                          0.18
                                  1980    5        0.22             30                   0.05
                                          5        0.22                                  0.06
                                                   0.45                                  0.17
    Cantaloupe
    (peel)                        1977    2        0.11             30       0.37        0.38        0.37                    0.04
                                                   0.22                      0.37        0.30        0.41                    0.13
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 3.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)          0          3            7          10          14
                                                                                                                                                

    Cantaloupe
    (pulp)                        1977    2        0.11             30      <0.01       <0.01       <0.01                    0.02
                                                   0.22                     <0.01        0.01       <0.01                   <0.01

    Honeydew melon                1980    5        0.22             30                   0.10

    Squash          USA           1980    5        0.22             20                   0.23
                                          5        0.22                                  0.20
                                                   0.45                                  0.27
                                          5        0.22                                  0.04
                                          5        0.22                                  0.03
                                                   0.45                                  0.07
                                          5        0.22                                  0.05
                                                   0.45                                  0.07
                                          5        0.22                                  0.21
                                                   0.45                                  0.42
                                          5        0.22                                  0.03
                                                   0.45                                  0.04
                                          5        0.22                                  0.03
                                                   0.45                                  0.12
                                          5        0.22                                  0.02
                                                   0.45                                  0.02
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 3.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)         0           1           2           3           5
                                                                                                                                                

    Bell pepper     USA           1980    7        0.22             20                               0.05
                                                   0.45                                              0.09
                                          7        0.22                                              0.33
                                                   0.45                                              2.57
                                          7        0.22                                              1.02
                                                   0.45                                              1.03
                                          7        0.22                      0.07        0.05        0.05        0.18        0.07
                                                   0.45                      0.13        0.02        0.10        0.05        0.03
                                          7        0.22                                              0.49
                                          7        0.22                                              1.1
                                                   0.45                                              2.0

    Pumpkin         USA           1980    5        0.22             30                                           0.05
                                                   0.45                                                          0.09

                                                                               0              5          7             13               20
                                                                                                                                                

    Tomato          USA           1977    3        0.05             30       0.03           0.02       0.02           0.02             0.02
                                                   0.11                      0.07           0.04       0.03           0.02             0.01
                                                   0.22                      0.10           0.10       0.07           0.04             0.04
                                          3        0.05                      0.02           0.03       0.03           0.01(14d)        0.02(21d)
                                                   0.11                      0.06           0.05       0.03           0.03(14d)        0.03(21d)
                                                   0.22                      0.08           0.11       0.05           0.05(14d)        0.04(21d)
                                          2        0.11                      0.41           0.19       0.11           0.10(14d)        0.04(21d)
                                                   0.22                      0.12           1.35       0.59           0.24(14d)       <0.01(21d)
                                  1978    5        0.22                      0.10                      0.03           0.02(14d)
                                                   0.45                      0.14                      0.03           0.02(14d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 3.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)          0              5          7               13               20
                                                                                                                                                

                                  1979   10        0.22             30                                 0.14(whole)
                                                   0.45                                                0.23(whole)
                                         10        0.22                                                0.67
                                                   0.45                                                1.8
                                         10        0.22                                                0.11
                                                   0.45                                                0.30
                                         10        0.22                                                0.10(whole)
                                                                                                       0.06(puree)    0.07(wet pulp)
                                                                                                       0.56(dry pulp)
                                          9        0.22                      0.37           0.39(4d)   0.34           0.31(14d)        0.26(21d)
                                         10        0.22                                                0.12
                                  1980   10        0.22             20       0.26(1d)                  0.62
                                                   0.45                      0.52(1d)                  1.4
                                         10        0.22                      0.37(1d)
                                                   0.45                      0.97(1d)
                                         10        0.22                      0.14(1d)                  0.09
                                  1979    8        0.11                                     0.35(3d)
                                                   0.22                                     0.66(3d)
                                                   0.45                                     0.72(3d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 3.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                         Applications                        Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop            Country/Year                                                                                                                
                                         No.       Rate      EC Formulation
                                               (kg a.i./ha)       (%)                   0        1           2           3           7
                                                                                                                                                

    Tomato

                    Canada        1979    1        0.07             30                                                 0.09
                                          2        0.07                               0.28                 0.18
                                  1978    2        0.15                        whole  1.60     1.00        0.80
                                                                               pulp  <0.01    <0.01       <0.01
                                          1        0.15                        whole  0.22     0.26        0.15        0.10
                                                                               pulp  <0.01    <0.01       <0.01       <0.01

                    Japan         1979    2        0.3              20         whole  1.31                 1.10        0.62
                                          3                                    whole  1.31                 1.30        0.78
                                          2        0.2                         whole  0.06                 0.07        0.10
                                          3                                    whole  0.18                 0.09        0.07

                    Netherlands   1977    1        0.112                                                  (0.13-0.20)
                                                                                                           0.17
                                          1        0.225                                                  (0.17-0.31)
                                                                                                           0.24
                                                                                                                                                
        Root and tuber vegetables

         Residue data on sugarbeets were obtained from trials in the USA.
    The maximum residue of 0.03 mg/kg was found in roots 21 days after the
    last of two treatments at a rate of 0.44 kg/ha. In other trials, the
    residues were at or below the detectable limit (0.01 mg/kg) (Table 4).
    In beet tops, the maximum residue observed was 8.5 mg/kg 21 days after
    treatments of 0.45 kg/ha. Numerous trials on the residue in potatoes
    showed that no residues above the limit of detection (0.01 mg/kg) were
    found in potatoes harvested 0 to 21 days after application (except one
    sample which contained 0.06 mg/kg.).

    Alfalfa

         Residue data on alfalfa were obtained from trials in the USA
    where a single treatment was made at rates of up to 0.22 kg/ha. The
    maximum residues on green alfalfa of 3.8 mg/kg was found 6 days after
    an application rate of 0.22 kg/ha (Table 5). The residues on dry
    alfalfa were about 3 times higher than those on green alfalfa.

    Legume vegetables

         Residue data are available from the USA, Canada and Mexico on
    legume vegetables, including green beans, soybeans, peas and
    chickpeas. Residues in green beans were generally less than 1.0 mg/kg
    3 days or more after treatment at rates of up to 0.45 kg/ha (Table 6).
    One trial in which 0.45 kg/ha was applied gave the maximum residue of
    2.0 mg/kg 7 days after treatment. Residues in soybeans were less than
    0.1 mg/kg 1 day or later after treatment. The maximum residue of 0.07
    mg/kg was found 21 days after treatment at 0.45 kg/ha. In peas, the
    residues did not exceed 0.1 mg/kg and the pods carried almost all the
    residues found in peas with pods.

    Pome and stone fruits

         Trials have been carried out on apples, pears, peaches and
    cherries in USA, Canada and Japan. In apples, following application at
    rates up to 1.12 kg/ha, the residues were less than 2.0 mg/kg 0 day or
    later after treatment, except in a trial in the USA where 2.2 mg/kg
    was found 42 days after 4 treatments at 0.67 kg/ha (Table 7). In
    pears, the residues generally did not exceed 2 mg/kg 14 days after
    treatment, except in one trial in the USA where the maximum residue of
    4.3 mg/kg was found 20 days after the second of 2 applications of
    0.45 kg/ha. This was judged to be an exceptional case.

         Peaches were treated at rates of 0.1 to 3.4 kg/ha. At the
    application rates of 1.0 kg/ha or below, the residues were generally
    less than 1 mg/kg even when the treatment was made immediately before
    harvest. The maximum residue was 4.3 mg/kg 14 days after the last of 5
    applications at a rate of 0.9 kg/ha. As the recommended and approved

        TABLE 4.  Fenvalerate Residues on Root and Tuber Vegetables
                                                                                                                                                
                                                     Applications                         Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop                         Country/Year                                                                                                   
                                                     No.   Rate          EC Formulation
                                                           (kg a.i./ha)  (%)              0      3      5       7          10      13     21
                                                                                                                                                
    Sugarbeet   roots            USA       1978      3         0.11             20                                                       0.01
                tops                                                                                                                     4.21
                roots                                          0.22                                                                      0.01
                tops                                                                                                                     4.43
                roots                                          0.45                                                                      0.02
                tops                                                                                                                     8.52
                roots                                2         0.22                                                                     <0.01
                tops                                                                                                                     0.10
                roots                                          0.45                                                                      0.03
                tops                                                                                                                     0.54

    Potato      whole            USA       1978      7         0.22             20                                                      <0.01
                pulp                                                                                                                    <0.01
                peel                                                                                                                     0.03
                whole                                          0.45                                                                      0.02
                pulp                                                                                                                    <0.01
                peel                                                                                                                     0.03
                whole, pulp,
                peel                       1979      7         0.22             20                            <0.01
                whole, pulp,
                peel                                 7         0.22                                           <0.01
                whole, pulp,
                peel                                 7         0.22             20                            <0.01(8d)
                                                               0.45                                           <0.01
                                                     7         0.22             20                            <0.01
                                                     7         0.22             20      <0.01  <0.01  <0.01   <0.01      <0.01   <0.01
                                                               0.45                     <0.01  <0.01  <0.01   <0.01      <0.01   <0.01
                                                     6         0.022            30                             0.06
                                 Canada    1978      3         0.15             30                            <0.01
                                                     4         0.15             30                            <0.01
    Carrot                       Canada    1979      7         0.07             30             <0.01          <0.01
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 5.  Fenvalerate Residues on Alfalfa
                                                                                                                                                

                             Applications                         Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop      Country/Year                                                                                                                      
                             No.  Rate           EC Formulation
                                  (kg a.i./ha)   (%)              0              1             3             7             14            24
                                                                                                                                                

    Green     USA     1976   1       0.05              30         0.30          0.34          0.40          0.51          0.20          0.12
                                     0.11                         0.74          0.90          0.88          0.96          0.53          0.43
                                     0.22                         1.9           1.7           2.0           1.7           1.3           0.70
                      1977   1       0.11                         2.0(25d)      0.31(50d)     0.03(81d)    <0.01 (116d)
                      1978   1       0.0065            30                                                                 0.27
                                     0.014                                                                                0.78
                                     0.028                                                                                0.80
                      1980   1       0.22              30                                                   3.8(6d)

    Dry       USA     1976   1       0.05              30         1.3           1.2           1.1           0.92          0.71
                                     0.11                         2.4           2.3           2.1           2.1           1.6
                                     0.22                         5.8           5.5           5.9           5.4           3.1
                      1977   1       0.11              30         0.50(36d)     0.64(61d)     0.02(92d)     0.03(127d)
                      1980   1       0.11              30                                                                 6.9
                                     0.22                                                                                12.0
                             1       0.22              30                                                                         12(20d)13(67d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 6.  Fenvalerate Residues on Legume Vegetables
                                                                                                                                                
                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop              Country/Year                     EC            application
                                    No.      Rate      Formulation                                                                              
                                         (kg a.i./ha)      (%)        0         3         5         7         10        14                  21
                                                                                                                                                

    Green beans       USA     1976  3       0.11            30                           0.17
                                            0.22                                         0.26
                                            0.45                                         0.67
                                    5       0.11                                                                       0.03
                                            0.22                                                                       0.05
                                    4       0.11                                                   0.04
                                            0.22                                                   0.07
                             1978   4       0.11                                                   0.10      0.13      0.09      0.10
                                            0.22                                                   0.18      0.12      0.11      0.18
                             1979   4       0.11                                                   0.03
                             1978   4       0.22                     1.1                           0.55      0.57      0.47      0.70
                                            0.45                     2.4                           2.0       1.0       0.76      1.1
                             1980   4       0.22                               0.26
                                            0.45                               0.47
                                    4       0.22                               0.73(4d)
                             1978   7       0.22                                                                       0.18(16d)
                                            0.45                                                                       0.29(16d)

    Dry beans                1978   3       0.22                                                                                <0.01
                                            0.44                                                                                <0.01
                                    4       0.055                                                                               <0.01
                                            0.22                                                                                 0.02
                             1977   3       0.11                     0.02      0.01               <0.01               <0.01
                                            0.22                     0.04      0.01                0.02                0.02
                                            0.45                                                   0.03
                             1979   4       0.22                                                                                <0.01
                                            0.45                                                                                 0.02
                                    5       0.22                                                                                <0.01
                                            0.45                                                                                <0.01
                                    4       0.22                                                                                <0.01
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 6.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop              Country/Year                     EC            application
                                    No.      Rate      Formulation                                                                              
                                         (kg a.i./ha)      (%)        1         3         7         14         21           28
                                                                                                                                                

    Soybeans          USA    1978   4       0.055           30                                              <0.01(20d)
                                            0.11                                                            <0.01(20d)
                                            0.22                                                             0.02(20d)
                                            0.45                                                             0.02(20d)
                             1979   4       0.22                    <0.01     <0.01     <0.01     <0.01     <0.01         <0.01
                                    4       0.22                                                            <0.01
                                            0.45                                                             0.01
                                    4       0.22                                                             0.03
                                            0.45                                                             0.03
                                    4       0.22                                                             0.03
                                            0.45                                                             0.07
                                    4       0.22                                                             0.03

                      Japan  1980   3       0.2             20                                               0.015         0.030(35d)
                                    3       0.18                                                             0.005        <0.005(34d)

    Dry peas          USA    1978   1       0.22            30       0.03
                                            o.45                     0.05
                             1979   4       0.22                                                             0.12
                                            0.45                                                             0.19
                                    4       0.22                                                             0.05
                                            0.45                                                             0.12
                                    2       0.055                                                            0.12(24d)
                                            0.11                                                             0.18(24d)
                                            0.22                                                             0.59(24d)
                                    4       0.055                                                           <0.01
                                            0.11                                                             0.02
                                            0.22                                                             0.03
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 6.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop              Country/Year                     EC            application
                                    No.      Rate      Formulation                                                                              
                                         (kg a.i./ha)      (%)          0         1          3             7               10           23
                                                                                                                                                

    Peas succulent    USA    1978   3       0.22            30                                       <0.01(Pods 0.22)
    (peas)                                  0.45                                                     <0.01 (0.27)
                                    1       0.22                                0.02
                                            0.45                                0.07
                             1979   4       0.22                                                                       0.01(0.46)
                                            0.44                                                                       0.01(1.01)
                                    4       0.22                     0.05(3.6)  0.04(3.1)  0.05(2.9)  0.06(1.9)        0.02(0.91)
                                            0.45                                0.09(9.7)

    Peas succulen     USA    1980   2       0.22                                           0.59
    (peas a pods)                           0.44                                           1.16
                                    2       0.22                                           0.46
                                            0.44                                           1.1
                                    2       0.22                                           0.90
                                            0.44                                           1.17
                                    2       0.22                                           0.20(pods)
                                            0.44                                           0.42(pods)
                                    2       0.22                                           0.06

    Chickpea          Mexico 1979   1       0.105           30                                                                      <0.01(0.21)
    (seeds)                         1       0.15                                                                                    <0.01(0.47)
                                    1       0.21                                                                                    <0.01(0.70)
                                    1       0.30                                                                                    <0.01(1.0)
                                                                                                                                  (seeds & pods)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  Fenvalerate Residues on Pome and Stone Fruits
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0       3       15      20           33          65          187
                                                                                                                                                

    Apples

     whole         USA       1978   1         0.34         30                                                                    <0.01
     peeled                                                                                                                      <0.01
     peel                                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                          1         0.28                                                                               <0.01 (174d)
     peeled                                                                                                                      <0.01 (174d)
     peel                                                                                                                        <0.01 (174d)

     whole                          4         0.34                                                        0.51(42d)
     peeled                                                                                              <0.01(42d)
     peel                                                                                                 3.4 (42d)

     whole                                    0.67                                                        2.2 (42d)
     peeled                                                                                               0.03(42d)
     peel                                                                                                 7.3 (42d)

     whole                          7         0.56                                           0.56(21d)
     peeled                                                                                  0.03(21d)
     peel                                                                                    1.5 (21d)

     whole                                    1.12                                           0.92(21d)
     peeled                                                                                  0.06(21d)
     peel                                                                                    2.6 (21d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0       3       15      20           33          65          187
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                   1977   8         0.28                   0.86    0.89    0.46                 0.6
     peeled                                                          0.02    0.01   <0.01                 0.01
     peel                                                            4.0     1.5     2.0                  1.5

     whole                                    0.56                   1.1     1.6     0.85                 0.78
     peeled                                                          0.04    0.02    0.01                 0.01
     peel                                                            5.0     5.3     5.1                  3.6

     whole                   1979   5         0.56                                                                    0.54
     peeled                                                                                                           0.01
     peel                                                                                                             1.4

     whole                                    1.12                                                                    0.46
     peeled                                                                                                          <0.01
     peel                                                                                                            <0.1

     whole                   1977   4         0.11                                                        0.22(29d)
     peeled                                                                                              <0.01(29d)
     peel                                                                                                 1.9 (29d)

     whole                                    0.22                                                        0.54(29d)
     peeled                                                                                              <0.01(29d)
     peel                                                                                                 3.3 (29d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)          0          14       21               30           35
                                                                                                                                                

     whole         USA       1979   9         0.67         30            0.78        0.64     0.67             0.88         0.77

     whole                          9         0.34                                            0.67
     peeled                                                                                   0.05
     peel                                                                                     3.8

     whole                                    0.45                                            1.1
     peeled                                                                                   0.04
     peel                                                                                     9.9

     whole                                    0.67                                            1.1
     peeled                                                                                   0.14
     peel                                                                                    13.0

     whole                   1977  10         0.056                                           0.35(20d)        0.37
     peeled                                                                                  <0.01(20d)       <0.01
     peel                                                                                     2.1 (20d)        2.6

     whole                                    0.11                                            0.63(20d)        0.61
     peeled                                                                                  <0.01(20d)        0.01
     peel                                                                                     3.7 (20d)        2.6

     whole                   1979   9         0.15                                            0.84

     whole                                    0.28                                            1.6

     whole                          9         0.56                                            0.71

     whole                                    1.12                                            1.2
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      3          42          56          70          84         112
                                                                                                                                                

     whole         Canada    1979   1         0.14         30                                           <0.01

     whole                          1         0.14                                                      <0.01

     whole                          4         0.14                                           0.08
     pulp                                                                                   <0.01

     whole                          8         0.14                   0.45        0.40(7d)
     pulp                                                            0.05        0.08(7d)

     whole                   1978   1         0.07                                                                  <0.01

     whole                          1         0.07                                                                              <0.01

     whole                          8         0.07                               0.20
     pulp                                                                       <0.01

     whole                          8         0.07                               0.28
     pulp                                                                       <0.01

     whole                          8         0.15                               0.30
     pulp                                                                       <0.01

     whole                          8         0.15                               0.72
     pulp                                                                        0.02
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0       3       15      20           33          65          187
                                                                                                                                                

     whole         Japan     1980   2         0.5          20                    0.450(45d)  0.338(60d)  0.344(75d)

     whole                          4                                            0.600(45a)  0.378(60d)  0.500(75d)

     whole                          2         0.5                                0.328(45d)  0.256(60d)  0.234(VSd)

     whole                          4                                            0.605(45a)  0.555(60d)  0.498(75d)

                                                                    28             83            114            135       147       161
                                                                                                                                                

    Pear

     whole         USA       1977   1         0.17         30        0.20(36d)
     peeled                                                         <0.01(36d)
     peel                                                            0.56(36d)

     whole                                    0.34                   0.27(36d)
     peeled                                                         <0.01(36d)
     peel                                                            1.0 (36d)

     whole                   1978   1         0.11                                                <0.01(118d)
     peeled                                                                                       <0.01(118d)
     peel                                                                                         <0.01(118d)

     whole                          2         0.11                                                <0.01(118d)
     peeled                                                                                       <0.01(118d)
     peel                                                                                         <0.01(118d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      28             83            114            135       147       161
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                          1         0.22                                                <0.01(118d)
     peeled                                                                                       <0.01(118d)
     peel                                                                                         <0.01(118d)

     whole                          1         0.34                                                               <0.01
     peeled                                                                                                      <0.01
     peel                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                                    0.17                                                               <0.01
     peeled                                                                                                      <0.01
     peel                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                                    0.084                                                              <0.01
     peeled                                                                                                      <0.01
     peel                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                          2         0.34                                  0.12(62d)
     peeled                                                                        <0.01(62d)
     peel                                                                           0.32(62d)

     whole                          1         0.34                                                                         <0.01     <0.01
     peeled                                                                                                                <0.01     <0.01
     peel                                                                                                                  <0.01     <0.01

     whole                          2         0.34                                 <0.01(89d)

     whole                          5         0.34                   0.26
     peeled                                                         <0.01
     peel                                                            2.0
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                    Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC                                 (Days)
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       28            83           114           137 
                                                                                                                                                

     whole         USA       1979   4         0.45         30        0.58
     peeled                                                          0.02
     peel                                                            2.2

     whole                                    0.9                    0.75
     peeled                                                          0.02
     peel                                                            3.5

     whole                          4         0.45                   0.93(21d)

     whole                                    0.9                    0.78(21d)

     whole                          3         0.45                                 0.15
     peeled                                                                       <0.01
     peel                                                                          0.50

     whole                                    0.9                                  0.03
     peeled                                                                       <0.01
     peel                                                                          0.14

     whole                          3         0.45                                 0.04(86d)
     peeled                                                                       <0.01(86d)
     peel                                                                          0.20(86d)

     whole                                    0.9                                  0.05(86d)
     peeled                                                                       <0.01(86d)
     peel                                                                          0.19(86d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                    Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC                                 (Days)
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       28            83           114           137
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                          2         1.8                                                              0.08
     peeled                                                                                                    0.01
     peel                                                                                                      0.37

     whole                          4         0.45                   0.47

     whole                                    0.9                    0.58

     whole                          3         0.45                                               0.02(114d)
     whole                                    0.9                                                0.04(114d)
     whole                          3         0.45                                               0.01
     peeled                                                                                     <0.01
     peel                                                                                        0.03

     whole                   1979             0.9                                                0.03
     peeled                                                                                     <0.01
     peel                                                                                        0.05

     whole                          4         0.45                  <0.01(35d)

     whole                                    0.9                    0.01(35d)

                                                                                              (Days)
                                                                     1         7        14        20        31          82         100
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                          2         0.06         30        0.90      0.57      0.48      0.36

     whole                                    0.11                   1.1       1.0       1.1       0.68
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC                                       (Days)
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      1         7        14        20        31          82         100
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                                    0.22                   2.1       1.3       1.7       1.5

     whole                                    0.45                   4.1       2.6       3.5       4.3

     whole                          4         0.45                                                           0.7 (28d)
     peeled                                                                                                  0.01(28d)
     peel                                                                                                    3.2 (28d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                            0.80(28d)
     peeled                                                                                                 <0.01(28d)
     peel                                                                                                    3.4 (28d)

     whole                          3         0.45                                                                       0.04

     whole                                    0.9                                                                        0.05

     whole                          4         0.67                                                                                   0.18
     peeled                                                                                                                          0.01
     peel                                                                                                                            1.0

     whole                          4         0.45                                                           0.84(29d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                            1.1 (29d)

     whole                                    1.8                                                            1.7 (29d)

     whole                          1         0.45                                                                                  <0.01(140d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC                                       (Days)
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      1         7        14        20        31          82         100
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                   <0.01(140d)

     whole                          3         0.45                                                                       0.06(77d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                        0.11(77d)

     whole                          2         0.45                                                                                  <0.01(132d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                   <0.01(132d)

     whole                          4         0.45                                                           0.39

     whole                                    0.9                                                            0.87

     whole                          4         0.45                                                           0.73

     whole                                    0.9                                                            1.5

     whole                          2         0.45                                                                                  <0.01(119d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                   <0.01(119d)

     whole                          3         0.45                                                                                   0.01(97d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                    0.03(97d)

     whole                          3         0.45                                                                                   0.03(110d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                    0.02(110d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after application
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC                                      (Days)
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)                1         4         7        35          84
                                                                                                                                                

     whole         Canada    1978   4         0.03         30                                               <0.01

     whole                          2         0.07                                                                      <0.01

     whole                   1979   3         0.004%                           0.23      0.22      0.15
     pulp                                                                     <0.01     <0.01     <0.01

                                                                     1         7        14        21        28          63
                                                                                                                                                

    Pear

     Bartlett      Canada    1978   2         0.065      E.C.                                                            0.02
                                    2         0.125      E.C.                                                            0.07

                             1979   1         0.125      E.C.                                                0.090       0.029
                                    2         0.125      E.C.                            0.243     0.118
                                    3         0.125      E.C.                            0.348

    Pear

     Bartlett      Canada    1978   1         0.125      E.C.        0.085     0.130     0.100
                                    1         0.125      E.C.        0.115     0.195     0.170
     whole                          1         0.125      E.C.        0.170     0.210     0.140
     whole                          1         0.125      E.C.        0.275     0.185     0.165
     peel                           1         0.125      E.C.        1.34      0.71      1.14
     pulp                           1         0.125      E.C.        0.005     0.005     0.005
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      1         7        14        21        28          63
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                          1         0.250      E.C.        0.515     0.595     0.275
     whole                          1         0.250      E.C.        0.490     0.620     0.260
     whole                          1         0.250      E.C.        0.405     0.395     0.260
     peel                           1         0.250      E.C.        3.23      3.19      2.06
     pulp                           1         0.250      E.C.        0.013     0.012     0.009

     Anjou                          1         0.125      E.C.        0.085
     Anjou                          1         0.250      E.C.        0.225

                                                                     0        3         7            14            30           126
                                                                                                                                                

    Peach

     whole         USA       1978   3         0.45         30                                                       0.65(21d)
     pulp                                                                                                           0.03(21d)
     peel                                                                                                           3.4(21d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                   2.2(21d)
     pulp                                                                                                           0.06(21d)
     peel                                                                                                           5.4(21d)

     whole                          2         0.11                                                                  0.05(35d)
     pulp                                                                                                          <0.01(35d)
     peel                                                                                                           0.22(35d)

     whole                                    0.22                                                                  0.11(35d)
     pulp                                                                                                          <0.01(35d)
     peel                                                                                                           0.37(35d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0        3         7            14            30           126
                                                                                                                                                

     whole                                    0.41                                                                  0.17(35d)
     pulp                                                                                                          <0.01(35d)
     peel                                                                                                           0.40(35d)

     whole                                    0.62                                                                  0.12(35d)
     pulp                                                                                                          <0.01(35d)
     peel                                                                                                           0.42(35d)

     whole                   1979   2         0.45                                                                               <0.01
     pulp                                                                                                                        <0.01
     peel                                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                <0.01
     pulp                                                                                                                        <0.01
     peel                                                                                                                        <0.01

     whole                          2         0.45                                                                                0.02(129d)
     pulp                                                                                                                        <0.01(129d)
     peel                                                                                                                         0.05(129d)

     whole                                    0.9                                                                                 0.01(129d)
     pulp                                                                                                                        <0.01(129d)
     peel                                                                                                                         0.05(129d)

    whole                           1         1.7                                                                                <0.01(121d)

    whole                                     3.4                                                                                <0.01(121d)
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0        3         7            14            30           126
                                                                                                                                                

    whole                    1978   2         0.028                                    <0.01(10d)    <0.01(21d)

    whole                                     0.06                                     <0.01(10d)    <0.01(21d)

    whole                    1979   2         0.45         30                                                                    <0.01(102d)

    whole                                     0.9                                                                                 0.01(102d)

    whole                           4         0.45                                                                  0.36(24d)

    whole                                     0.9                                                                   0.94(24d)

    whole                    1980   5         0.45                                                    3.2

    whole                                     0.9                                                    19.7

    whole                           1         0.45                                                                               <0.01(119d)

    whole                           5         0.45                                                                  0.92

    whole                                     0.9                                                                   2.70

    whole                           4         0.45                                                                  3.12

    whole                                     0.9                                                                   3.55

    whole                           4         0.45                                                    0.9
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0        3         7            14            30           126
                                                                                                                                                

    whole                                     0.45                                                    1.5

    whole                                     0.9                                                     4.2

    whole                                     0.9                                                     5.9

    whole                                     0.45                                                    2.4

    whole                                     0.45                                                    3.6

    whole                                     0.45                                                    3.6

    whole                                     0.45                                                    0.07

    whole                                     0.45                                                    0.58

    whole                    1981   4         0.45                                                    1.47

    whole                                     0.9                                                     2.42

    whole          Canada    1979   4         0.14                   0.90     0.50      0.40
    pulp                                                            <0.01    <0.01     <0.01

    whole                    1978   3         0.10                                                    0.35
    pulp                                                                                             <0.01

    whole                           3         0.006%                 0.40               0.25          0.10
    pulp                                                            <0.01              <0.01         <0.01
                                                                                                                                                

    TABLE 7.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Applications                     Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop           Country/Year                         EC           application
                                    No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                             
                                          (kg a.i./ha)      (%)      0        3         7            14            30           126
                                                                                                                                                

    Cherry         USA       1980   3         0.45         30                                         5.9
                                              0.9                                                     4.7
                                    3         0.45                                                    2.8
                                              0.9                                                     5.5
                                    3         0.45                                                    6.32
                                              0.9                                                    13.0
                                    3         0.45                                                    7.56
                                              0.9                                                     8.84
                                    3         0.45                                                    7.73
                                              0.9                                                    26.3
                                                                                                                                                
        use pattern includes the application of 0.15 to 0.3 kg/ha, with not
    more than 4 applications between blossom and harvest, and a 14-day
    PHI, the Meeting concluded that a MRL of 5 mg/kg was appropriate
    (Table 7).

         In cherries, the residue levels were higher than in other fruits,
    the maximum being 26.3 mg/kg 14 days after the last of 3 applications
    of 0.9 kg/ha. There is no indication whether these treatments and
    resulting residues are in keeping with good agricultural practice, and
    further information is needed.

    Small fruits and berries

         Trials on grapes have been carried out in the USA, Canada and
    Japan. The residues were generally less than 1 mg/kg 14 days after
    application of rates of up to 0.22 kg/ha. The maximum residue
    resulting from the above application rates was 3.8 mg/kg (Table 8).

         In strawberries, the residues were less than 0.5 mg/kg when the
    crop was harvested 4 to 21 days after treatments at rates of up to
    0.45 kg/ha.

    Cereal grains, pre-harvest

         Trials have been carried out in the USA and Canada on sweet corn,
    maize, field corn, sorghum, barley and wheat. In sweet corn, the
    residues in ears were less than 0.1 mg/kg (Table 9). The maximum
    residue in kernels was 0.12 mg/kg, even though 10 treatments were made
    with intervals of 2 to 3 days and the crops were harvested 3 days
    after treatments. The residues in stover and ensilage ranged from 1.4
    to 4.3 mg/kg. In field corn, fenvalerate was detected only in stover
    at the level of 7.9 mg/kg 21 days after the last of 3 treatments at
    0.44 kg/ha.

         In sorghum grain, the maximum residue was 4.11 mg/kg 21 days
    after the last of 5 applications of 0.45 kg/ha.

         In barley and wheat, residues were generally less than 1.0 mg/kg,
    and the maximum was 1.6 mg/kg.

    Nuts and seeds

         Trials on nuts and seeds of filberts, pecans, almonds and coffee
    have been conducted in the USA and Brazil. The residues in the meats
    were generally less than 0.1 mg/kg and the maximum residue was
    0.94 mg/kg immediately after the last of 4 applications at 0.9 kg/ha
    (Table 10).

        TABLE 8.  Fenvalerate Residues on Small Fruits and Berries
                                                                                                                                               

                                 Applications                      Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop         Country/Year                            EC        application
                                 No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                               
                                       (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       0         4         7         14        21          54          81       155
                                                                                                                                               

    Grape        USA      1978   1         0.11          30                                                                               <0.01
                                           0.22                                                                                           <0.01

                                 1         0.11                                                                        0.11
                                           0.22                                                                        0.34

                                 2         0.11                                                                                    0.1
                                           0.22                                                                                    0.5
                                           0.45                                                                                    0.75

                                 2         0.11                                                            0.55
                                           0.22                                                            1.7
                                           0.45                                                            3.0
                          1980   2         0.22                                        1.3
                                           0.45                                        6.1
                          1978   4         0.11                    0.63                          0.19      0.54        0.34(30d)
                                           0.22                    0.84                          0.58      0.69        0.91(30d)
                                           0.45                    3.7                           2.3       3.8         2.6(30d)
                                 2         0.055                                                                                  <0.01(111d)
                                           0.11                                                                                   <0.01(111d)
                          1980   2         0.22                              2.63      3.44      3.80      1.19
                                           0.45                              4.87      9.52      2.74      6.12
                 Canada   1978   4         0.07          30                            0.14
                                           0.006%                  0.45(1d)            0.38      0.29
                 Japan    1980   2         0.3           20                                                1.22(30d)   0.519(45d)
                                 4                                                                         0.638(30d)  0.900(45d)
                                 2         0.2                                                             1.20(30d)   1.56 (45d)
                                 4                                                                         1.48(30d)   1.08 (45d)
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 8.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                               

                                 Applications                      Residues (mg/kg) at intervals (days) after
    Crop         Country/Year                            EC        application
                                 No.      Rate       Formulation                                                                               
                                       (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       0         4         7         14        21          54          81       155
                                                                                                                                               

    Strawberry   USA      1978   2         0.22          30                  0.22(3d)
                                           0.45                              0.35(3d)
                 Canada   1979   2         0.14                                                           <0.01(23d)

    Raspberry    Canada   1979   3         0.07                                                  0.13(11d)
                                           0.14                                                  0.19(11d)
                                                                                                                                               

    TABLE 9.  Fenvalerate Residues on Cereal Grains
                                                                                                                                             

    Crop            Country/Year                                EC
                                       No.      Rate        Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       0              3              5              7              14
                                                                                                                                             

    Sweet corn      USA      1976      4         0.11           30                                                   <0.01
      ears                                       0.22                                                                <0.01
                                                 0.45                                                                <0.01

                             1978      5         0.22                                  <0.01
                                                 0.45                                  <0.01
                                       10        0.22                    0.06           0.06           0.06           0.06
                                                 0.45                    0.08           0.05           0.08           0.09
                                       4         0.22                   <0.01          <0.01          <0.01           0.01
                                                 0.45                   <0.01          <0.01           0.02          <0.01

                             1977      3         0.11                   <0.01          <0.01                         <0.01          <0.01
                                                 0.22                   <0.01          <0.01                         <0.01          <0.01
                                                 0.45                   <0.01           0.02                         <0.01          <0.01

                             1979      5         0.11                                  <0.01
                                                 0.22                                   0.02

                             1980      10        0.22                    0.05(1d)
                                                 0.45                    0.08(1d)
                                       10        0.22                   <0.01(1d)
                                       10        0.22                    0.08(1d)
                                                 0.45                    0.05(1d)
                                       10        0.22                                                                 0.03(9d)
                                                 0.45                                                                 0.05(9d)
                                       10        0.22                   <0.01(1d)

                    Canada   1978      5         0.07           30                     <0.01
                                       3         0.075                                 <0.01                         <0.01
                                                                                                                                             

    TABLE 9.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                             

    Crop            Country/Year                                EC
                                       No.      Rate        Formulation                         (Days)
                                              (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       23             80            120           150             172
                                                                                                                                             

    Field corn      USA      1978      2         0.22           30                                                   <0.01
    ears                                         0.45                                                                <0.01
                                       1         0.11                                                                <0.01
                             1977      1         0.22                                                                <0.01(140d)
                             1977      1         0.11                                                                <0.01(141d)
                                                 0.22                                                                <0.01(141d)
                             1978      3         0.22                   <0.01
                                                 0.45                   <0.01

                             1979      3         0.22                   <0.01(21d)
                                                 0.44                   <0.01(21d)
                                       2         0.22                                                                <0.01(152d)
                                       2         0.22                                                 <0.01(135d)
                                                 0.45                                                 <0.01(135d)
                                       2         0.11                   <0.01(31d)
                                                 0.22                   <0.01(31d)
                             1978      2         0.22                                                 <0.01
                                                 0.45                                                 <0.01
                             1979      2         0.22                                                 <0.01(109d)
                                                 0.44                                                 <0.01(109d)
                                                                                                                                             

    TABLE 9.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                             

    Crop            Country/Year                                EC
                                       No.      Rate        Formulation                         (Days)
                                              (kg a.i./ha)      (%)       0         3          7           14        21            28
                                                                                                                                             

    Sorghum         USA      1977      3         0.11           30       2.80      3.30      2.20         1.70
    heads                                        0.22                    5.00      6.00      4.40         3.00
                                                 0.45                    7.60     10.70      9.50         6.30
                             1980      2         0.11                                                               1.4

    stalks                   1977      3         0.11                    8.00      7.00      4.50         3.60
                                                 0.22                   16.90     14.30      7.20         7.90
                                                 0.45                   21.40     33.80     20.70        18.00

    grain                    1980      5         0.22                                                               3.43
                                       5         0.22                                                               2.01
                                                 0.45                                                               4.11

    Barley          USA      1980      2         0.22           30                                                  0.03
                                                 0.45                                                               0.09
                    Canada   1978      1         0.15                                        1.60         1.20      1.00          0.80

    Wheat           Canada   1978      1         0.15           30                           0.30(8d)     0.37      0.17(22d)     0.14(29d)
                                                                                                                                             

    TABLE 10.  Fenvalerate residues on Nuts and Seeds
                                                                                                                                             
    Crop            Country/Year                               EC
                                       No.        Rate      Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)     (%)         0           7           21          28          46          63
                                                                                                                                             

    Filberts        USA      1979      3      0. 45         30
      meat                                                                                       <0.01
      whole nut                                                                                   0.23
      meat                                    0.9                                                <0.01
      whole nut                                                                                   0.09
      meat                             4      0.45                                               <0.01
      shell                                                                                       0.18
      whole nut                                                                                   0.12
      meat                                    0.9                                                <0.01
      shell                                                                                       0.79
      whole nut                                                                                   0.49

      meat                   1980      2      0.45                                               <0.01
      meat                                    0.9                                                <0.01

    Pecans          USA      1979      4      0.45          30
      meat                                                                                        0.03
      meat                                    0.9                                                 0.04
      meat                             4      0.45                                                                                   <0.01
      shell                                                                                                                           0.02
      meat                                    0.9                                                                                    <0.01
      shell                                                                                                                           0.08
      meat                             4      0.45                                               <0.01(23d)
      meat                                    1.79                                                0.01(23d)
      meat                             4      0.22                        0.05        0.04        0.10(14d)   0.07
      meat                                    0.45                        0.41        0.06        0.12(14d)
      meat                                    0.9                         0.94
                                                                                                                                             

    TABLE 10.  (con't)
                                                                                                                                             
    Crop            Country/Year                               EC
                                       No.        Rate      Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)     (%)         0           7           21          28          46          63
                                                                                                                                             

      meat                   1979      4      0.11          30                                   <0.01(24d)
      shell                                                                                      <0.01(24d)
      meat                                    0.22                                               <0.01(24d)
      shell                                                                                      <0.01(24d)

    Almonds         USA      1979      2      0.45          30
      meat                                                                                                                0.01
      hull                                                                                                                3.5
      shell                                                                                                               0.22
      meat                             3      0.45                                                0.06
      hull                                                                                        7.9
      shell                                                                                       3.5
      meat                   1980      2      0.45          30                                   <0.01
      hull                                                                                        9.1
      meat                                    0.9                                                 0.02
      hull                                                                                       14

                                                                                    (Days)
                                                                           20         28         112
                                                                                                                                             

    Almonds         USA      1980      2      0.45          30
      meat                                                                0.06
      hull                                                                2.7
      meat                                    0.9                         0.09
      hull                                                                4.7

    Coffee          Brazil   1979      1      0.02          30            Green      <0.01       <0.01
                                       1      0.03                        Green      <0.01       <0.01
                                                                                                                                             
        Citrus

         The results from one trial on grapefruit is available. Residues
    were less than 1.0 mg/kg 14 days after the second of 2 applications at
    the application rate of up to 0.67 kg/ha (Table 11).

    Bulb vegetables

         A trial on onions has been conducted in Canada. The residues were
    below the detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg 7 days after treatment
    (Table 12).

    Cereal grain, post-harvest

         Information from silo-scale field trials and large-scale trials
    on wheat, barley and sorghum under commercial conditions was
    considered by the Meeting in 1979 and recommendations were made for
    maximum residue limits.

         Further large-scale trials involving many thousands of tons of
    wheat and other cereal grains, planned to commence in December 1979,
    could not be undertaken for a further 12 months. These studies, which
    have been progressing for 9 to 10 months, are not yet complete and the
    residue data are not yet available. They will be supplied shortly.
    However, the preliminary data indicate that these studies will
    complement the information already considered.

         It is important to recognize that the level and fate of
    fenvalerate and other grain protectant insecticide residues on stored
    cereal grain can be predicted with a high level of accuracy from
    mathematical models based on an equilibrium constant for each
    particular insecticide, the temperature of the stored cereal grain and
    the equilibrium relative humidity within the grain mass. This varies
    from one species of grain to another even when the moisture content is
    similar (Banks and Desmarchelier 1978; Desmarchelier and Bengston
    1979; Desmarchelier  et al 1980). The half-life of fenvalerate
    residues on grain at 30C and 50% relative humidity is greater than 50
    weeks. The coefficient of variation with respect to temperature is
    0.030/C.

    FATE OF RESIDUES

    In plants

         A series of trials were conducted in Canada (Shell 1980 a,b)
    to determine the residues of degradation products in crops grown
    under typical outdoor conditions. As shown in Table 13, none of the
    known degradation products could be detected by methods sensitive to
    0.05 mg/kg in any of 16 varieties of fruit and vegetables treated in
    accordance with label directions. Fenvalerate itself occurred in most
    of the samples at levels consistent with those found in other trials.

        TABLE 11.  Fenvalerate Residues on Citrus
                                                                                                          

                                                                             Residues (mg/kg) at intervals
    Crop            Country/Year       Application                           (days) after application
                                                                                                          
                                       No.        Rate      EC Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)       (%)         3          7           14
                                                                                                          

    Grapefruit      USA      1980      2          0.34           30                                0.51
                                                  0.67                                             0.79
                                                                                                          



    TABLE 12.  Fenvalerate Residues on Bulb Vegetables
                                                                                                          

                                                                             Residues (mg/kg) at intervals
    Crop            Country/Year       Application                           (days) after application
                                                                                                          
                                       No.        Rate      EC Formulation
                                              (kg a.i./ha)       (%)         3          7           14
                                                                                                          

    Onion           Canada   1979      7          0.07           30          0.12       <0.01
                             1978      4          0.07                                  <0.01
                                                                                                          

    TABLE 13.  Residues of Fenvalerate Degradation Products in Field-Tested Crops in Canada
                                                                                                          

                     Dose Rate (x)       PHI                       3-Phenoxy      Fenvalerate   Isovaleric
    Crop             (g/ha)              (days)    Fenvalerate     benzoic acid   amide         acid
                                                                                                          

    Apple            70 (x1)               84                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70 (x1)              112                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     150 (x8)              42                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     150 (x8)              42                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Barley           150 (x8)               7          1.60          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           14          1.20          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           28          0.65          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Brussels sprout  70 (x7)                1          0.14          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70 (x6)               14          0.10          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Cabbage          70 (x7)               14                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70+150(x3+2)           1                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                            3                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           14                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Cauliflower      70 (x3)                1          0.20          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           14          0.02          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Celery           70 (x1)                7          0.02          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Grape            0.006% (x1)            1          0.45          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                            7          0.38          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           14          0.29          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Lettuce          70 (x6)                7         <0.01          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70 (x4)                2         <0.01          <0.05                       <0.05
                                            7         <0.01          <0.05                       <0.05
    Maize            70 (x5)                3                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     75 (x3)                3                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                            7                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Onion            70 (x4)                7         <0.01          (0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                                                                                          

    TABLE 13.  (con't)
                                                                                                          

                     Dose Rate (x)       PHI                       3-Phenoxy      Fenvalerate   Isovaleric
    Crop             (g/ha)              (days)    Fenvalerate     benzoic acid   amide         acid
                                                                                                          

    Peach            0.006%(x3) whole       0          0.40          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                pulp        0         <0.01          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                whole       7          0.25          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                pulp        7         <0.01          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                whole      14          0.10          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                pulp       14         <0.01          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Pear             30 (x4)               35                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70 (x2)               84                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Potato           150 (x3)               7                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     150 (x4)               7                        <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Rapeseed         100 (x1)              42          0.09          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           70         <0.01          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
    Tomato           150 (x2)               2          0.80          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                     70 (x1)                7          0.09          <0.05                       <0.05
                     70 (x2)                1          0.28          <0.05                       <0.05
                                            3          0.18          <0.05                       <0.05
    Wheat            150 (x1)               8          0.30          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           14          0.37          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                           29          0.14          <0.05          <0.05        <0.05
                                                                                                          
    
         Trials were carried out in the USA to determine the residue
    levels of two photodegradation products, reverse ester and
    decarboxylated fenvalerate in crops. The residue levels of these
    compounds were generally less than 1 mg/kg. The maximum residue of
    reverse ester and decarboxylated fenvalerate was found in fodders of
    sweet corn at the level of 0.11 and 1.40 mg/kg, respectively, when the
    crop was treated 10 times at the rate of 448 g/ha and harvested 7 days
    after the last treatment (Table 14).

    In processing

         Soybeans obtained from supervised trials in the USA were
    subjected to processing to produce oil products. No residue was
    detected in meal, refined bleached hydrogenated oil and soapstock at
    the limit of 0.01 mg/kg. In crude soybean oil the maximum residue was
    0.16 mg/kg, when the residue in soybeans was 0.15 mg/kg 14 days after
    application of 0.22 kg/ha (Table 15).

         Wine made from grapes containing up to 3.44 mg/kg of fenvalerate
    7 days after treatment, at rates of 0.22 kg/ha, contained no
    detectable residues (Table 16).

    NATIONAL MAXIMUM RESIDUE LIMITS

         National MRLs, not included in the 1979 evaluation, were reported
    to the Meeting by Australia and The Netherlands and are listed in
    Table 17.

    TABLE 17.  National maximum residue limits reported to the Meeting
                                                                        
                                                 MRL          PHI
    Country        Commodity                     (mg/kg)      (days)
                                                                        
    Australia      wheat bran                     10
                   Raw ceral (whole grain)         5
                   Wheat pollard                   5
                   Wheat flour (wholemeal)         2
                   Wholemeal bread                 2
                   Celery                          2
                   Cole crops                      1
                   Tomato                          0.2
                   Wheat flour (white)             0.2
                   White bread                     0.2
                   Water                           0.04
    Netherlands    Lettuce, endive                 2           21
                   Apple, pear                     1           14
                   Cabbage                         1            7
                   Fruiting vegetables             0.5          3
                   Potato                          0.011
                                                                        
    1  Level at or about the limit of determination.

        TABLE 14.  Residues of Photodegradation Products of Fenvalerate in Field-treated crops in USA
                                                                                                  

                     Dose Rate (x)     PHI                           "Reverse       Decarboxylated
    Crop             (g/ha)            (days)         Fenvalerate     ester"        fenvalerate
                                                                                                  

    Apple            280 (x1)           174             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
    Apple            336 (x1)           187             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
    Apple, dried     448 (x7)            21             10             0.04            0.56
    Pear             336 (x1)           135             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
                     336 (x1)           147             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
                                        161             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
                     224 (x1)           118             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
                     280 (x1)           174             <0.01         <0.01           <0.01

    Pear, peel       448 (x4)            28              3.2          <0.01            0.07
    Soybean          224 (x4)            20              0.02         <0.01           <0.01
                     224 (x1)            24                           <0.01           <0.01

    Soybean,hull     224 (x4)            48              0.06         <0.01           <0.01
    Maize,stover     224 (x2)            48              0.7          <0.01            0.11
    Sweet corn       224 (x10)            7             24             0.05            0.88
      fodder         448 (x10)            7             80             0.11            1.40
    Tomato           448 (x10)            7              2            <0.01           <0.03
    Celery           224 (x15)            1              3            <0.01            0.05
    Alfalfa          112 (x1)            14              7             0.06            0.40
      dry            224 (x1)            14             12             0.10            0.95
                                                                                                  

    TABLE 15.  Distribution of residues in processed products of oilseeds1
                                                                                                         

    Soybean
                                                                                                         

    Rate (kg/ha)                                         0.11          0.22            0.45        0.22
    N0. of application                                   1             1               1           1
    Pre-harves% interval (days)                         14            14              14           48
    Residues in hulls                                    0.45          0.91            1.1         0.06
      Solvent extracted meal                            <0.01         <0.01           <0.01        <0.01
      Refined bleached hydrogenated oil <0.01           <0.01         <0.01           <0.01
      Crude oil                                          0.06          0.16            0.16
      Soapstook                                         <0.01         <0.01           <0.01

      (Soybeans                                          0.11          0.15            0.04        <0.02)
                                                                                                         

    1  Crop treated with 30% E.G. fenvalerate in USA.

    TABLE 16.  Distribution of residues in processed products of grapes1
                                                                                                         

    Rate (kg/ha)                      0.055       0.11        0.22        0.45        0.11        0.22
    No. of applications               2           2           2           4           4           4
    Pre-harvest intervals (days)    111         111           7          21          21          21
    Residues in Raisins                                       2.05        7.6         0.63        1.4
                Trash                                                    13           1.9         4.5
                Juice                <0.01       <0.01        2.13        0.56        0.18        0.27
                Pomace                                        4.15        5.2         0.51        1.4
                Wine                 <0.01       <0.01       <0.01       <0.01                   <0.01
                Wine pomace          <0.01       <0.01
                Juice pomace         <0.11       <0.01
                                                                                                         

                (Grapes              <0.01       <0.01        3.44        3.8         0.54        0.69)
                                                                                                         

    1  Crop treated with 30% E.G. fenvalerate in USA.
    
    EVALUATION

    COMMENTS AND APPRAISAL

         Fenvalerate was considered by the 1979 JMPR. The Meeting was of
    the view that data were also required on the potential bioaccumulation
    of fenvalerate and/or its metabolites, as well as observations in
    humans occupationally exposed to high levels of the compound. An
    additional dominant lethal assay to confirm previous data was
    considered desirable.

         From limited data, no appreciable propensity for bioaccumulation
    of fenvalerate and/or its metabolites was apparent, although in some
    species the cyano-moiety remains in the body relatively longer than
    the other metabolites, being retained particularly in skin and hair.

         Some data were also available from observations in humans. These
    indicate that fenvalerate can cause the transient abnormal facial
    sensations that appear to be common to a number of synthetic
    pyrethroid compounds, particularly those possessing a cyano-group.

         Four new long-term studies, two in rats and two in mice, were
    also evaluated. However, in both the mouse studies granulomatous
    lesions, which in a special mouse study appeared to be only partially
    reversible, were observed. In addition, giant-cell infiltration was
    observed in at least four organs in both rat studies. The Meeting
    regarded these as a serious finding, the significance of which it was
    unable to evaluate properly with the available data. An ADI was
    estimated on the basis of a newly established no-effect level in the
    mouse.

         Following the evaluation of fenvalerate in 1979, several
    additional items of information were requested. These were supplied
    and have been evaluated.

         Additional residue studies on cucumbers, citrus, peanuts,
    lettuce, celery, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower,
    Chinese cabbage, sugarbeet, potatoes, pome fruits, raspberries, beans
    (green), beans (dry), soybeans, tomatoes and strawberries confirm the
    recommendation made for MRLs in 1979.

         Results of supervised residue trials on watermelons, cantaloupe,
    honeydew melon, bell peppers, alfalfa, peas, grapes and nuts were
    considered adequate as a basis for recommending new MRLs.

         These new data, taken in conjunction with that considered in
    1979, enabled the Meeting to recommend an MRL for brassica leafy
    vegetables in place of the separate limits for cabbage, Chinese
    cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower. Likewise, an MRL
    was recommended for root and tuber vegetables at the level determined
    to be appropriate for sugarbeet, potatoes and radish.

         The data from supervised residue trials on peaches, squash and
    sweet corn justify amendments to the MRLs recommended in 1979. New
    data on cherries indicates residues considerably above those reviewed
    in 1979, but the Meeting was not confident that the new information
    represented either approved rates or potential commercial practice and
    it was decided to seek further information.

         Though residue data were available from trials on sorghum,
    barley, wheat and maize treated pre-harvest, the Meeting recognized
    that the MRLs covering post-harvest treatment of these commodities
    would also cover any residues resulting from pre-harvest treatments.

         Some data were available on residues in onions, pumpkins and
    spinach, but the number of separate values was insufficient to
    estimate a maximum residue level. Additional data on these crops are
    needed.

         No new results were available from studies where fenvalerate was
    applied post-harvest to cereal grains or other stored commodities, but
    information was presented on the method of predicting the degradation
    of residues of insecticides, including fenvalerate, on grain from the
    temperature and equilibrium moisture value for the treated commodity.

         Results of trials carried out in Canada and the USA to determine
    the residues of degradation products of fenvalerate in crops grown
    under typical outdoor conditions confirmed that none of the known
    degradation products occurred at levels above the limit of
    determination (0.05 mg/kg) when the insecticide was applied in
    accordance with label instructions.

         Some additional national MRLs were noted.

    Level causing no toxicological effects

         Mouse : 30 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 3.5 mg/kg bw/day

         Rat : 150 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg bw/day

         Dog : 12.5 mg/kg bw/day.

    Estimate of temporary acceptable daily intake for man

         0 - 0.007 mg/kg bw.

    RECOMMENDATIONS OF RESIDUE LIMITS

         The following maximum residue limits, determined and expressed as
    fenvalerate are recommended.
                                                                        
                                              Pre-harvest interval
                                  MRL         (days) on which
    Commodity                     (mg/kg)     recommendations are based
                                                                        
    Watermelon                     0.5                 3

    Cantaloupe                     0.2                 3

    Honeydew melon                 0.2                 3

    Bell pepper                    2                   3

    Squash                         0.5                 3

    Peach                          5                  30

    Sweet corn                     0.1                 3

    Nuts                           0.2                21

    Leafy brassica vegetables      2

    Root and tuber vegetables      0.05
                                                                        

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Required (by 1982)

    1.   Clarification of the granulomatous lesions observed in the mouse.

    2.   Clarification of the giant-cell infiltration observed in rats.

    Desirable

    1.   Further information on the potential for bioaccumulation.

    2.   Further observations in humans.

    3.   Information on use patterns and resulting residues on cherries.

    4.   Further residue data on onions, pumpkins and spinach.

    5.   Results from on-going trials with fenvalerate applied post-
         harvest to stored grains.

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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Fenvalerate (EHC 95, 1990)
       Fenvalerate (HSG 34, 1989)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Fenvalerate (UKPID)
       Fenvalerate (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)