IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
Health and Safety Guide No. 12
HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA
This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 42:
This report contains the collective views of an international group
of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the
stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the
International Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization
Published by the World Health Organization for the International
Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the
United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour
Organisation, and the World Health Organization)
ISBN 92 4 154000 0
(c) World Health Organization 1989
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should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
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welcomes such applications.
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whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health
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The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar
nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the
names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
1.2. Physical and chemical properties
1.3. Analytical methods
1.4. Production and uses
2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
2.1. Tecnazene toxicity
2.2. Human exposure to tecnazene
2.3. Evaluation of health risks for man
2.4. Evaluation of effects on the environment
3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND
PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and
protection, first aid
4.1.1. Advice to physicians
4.2. Health surveillance advice
4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
4.3.1. Explosion hazards
4.3.2. Fire hazards
4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
4.6. Spillage and disposal
18.104.22.168 Solid products
22.214.171.124 Liquid products
126.96.36.199 All products
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR
6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND
7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
7.2. Exposure limit values
7.3. Specific restrictions
7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
7.5. Waste disposal
The International Programme on Chemical Safety prepares for
publication a series of Environmental Health Criteria (EHC)
documents, each of which includes an assessment of the effects of
exposure to a specific chemical, or group of chemicals, on human
health and the environment and gives guidelines for setting exposure
limits. The Health and Safety Guides complement the criteria
documents and are intended to facilitate the application of the
guidelines in national chemical safety programmes.
The first three sections of each Health and Safety Guide highlight
the relevant technical information from the corresponding EHC
document. Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective
measures and action to be taken in an emergency. All health staff
should be thoroughly familiar with this information to ensure that
they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency. Hazards for
the environment and their prevention are discussed in section 5.
Each Guide indicates the information to be included in an
International Chemical Safety Card, which should be prominently
displayed in all areas where there is a possibility of exposure to
the chemical(s). The information included in the final section on
current national regulations and standards has been obtained from
the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC)
and from other United Nations sources.
The target readership for the Health and Safety Guides includes the
staff of occupational health services and government ministries and
agencies, and personnel in industry and the trade unions who are
concerned with the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
environmental health hazards. The information on the prevention of,
and protection against, accidents will be of vital interest to all
workers who are involved in the production and handling of toxic
chemicals. A bibliography has been included for readers who require
further background information.
The information in this Guide will be revised in due course, and the
eventual aim is to use standardized terminology.
Comments on any difficulties encountered in using this Guide would
be very helpful and should be addressed to:
International Programme on Chemical Safety
Division of Environmental Health
World Health Organization
1211 Geneva 27
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY, PRODUCTION, AND USES
Common name: Tecnazene
Chemical formula: C6HCl4NO2
Common trade names: Chipman 3,142, Folosan, Fusarex,
Fumite, Folosan DB905, TCNB
CAS chemical name: 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene
CAS registry Number: 117-18-0
Relative molecular mass: 260.88
The technical grade material is more than 99% pure and contains less
than 1% of hexachlorobenzene.
1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties
Tecnazene is a colourless, odourless, crystalline solid with a
melting point of 99°C. It is fairly volatile at room temperature.
It is readily soluble in carbon disulfide, benzene, chloroform,
ketones, and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. It is
practically insoluble in water (0.44 mg/litre at 20°C), and its
solubility in ethanol is 40 g/litre at 25°C. Tecnazene is generally
very stable; it can be dispersed by pyrotechnic mixtures. It
decomposes slowly in solution when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
1.3 Analytical Methods
Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is the preferred
method for the determination of tecnazene residues.
1.4 Production and Uses
Tecnazene is used as a sprout inhibitor on stored potatoes and as a
fungicide in smoke generators in greenhouses.
2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
2.1 Tecnazene Toxicity
WHO classified tecnazene in the category of technical products
unlikely to present an acute hazard in normal use, based on an oral
LD50 in the rat of 17 500 mg/kg body weight.
Tecnazene is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in animals after oral
administration; as the dose increases, larger amounts are passed
unchanged in the faeces.
On the basis of long-term studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect
rat: 750 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 38 mg/kg body weight
mouse: 1500 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 200 mg/kg body weight
per day; and
dog: 15 mg/kg body weight per day (administered orally by
At higher dosage levels, growth inhibition occurs in the dog and
increases in plasma-alkaline phosphatase levels are found.
In the studies reported, tecnazene has been found not to be either
embryotoxic or teratogenic. There is no information on mutagenicity
or other related short-term tests. On the basis of the results of
an oral feeding study on the mouse and the rat, there are no
indications of carcinogenicity.
The only adverse reaction in man has been dermal sensitization.
2.2 Human Exposure to Tecnazene
Exposure of the general population is expected to be mainly via
residues in food. Data available indicate that these are below the
FAO/WHO maximum residue limits.
No data are available on tecnazene levels in air and water and on
the levels that occur during occupational exposure.
No cases of human poisoning have been reported.
2.3 Evaluation of Health Risks for Man
The experimental animal data available indicate that tecnazene
(purity greater than 99%) has a low degree of toxicity, even in
An acceptable daily intake for man has been estimated by FAO/WHO at
0.01 mg/kg body weight.
In the absence of human exposure data, other than residues in food,
a factual hazard assessment of the present total exposure cannot be
The data available on tecnazene indicate a low degree of concern in
relation to human health effects.
2.4 Evaluation of Effects on the Environment
In the absence of information on levels in the environment and
effects on the environment, such an evaluation cannot be made.
3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
(a) The general population does not seem to be at risk from exposure
(b) With the exception of one report of dermal sensitization in
agricultural workers, tecnazene does not seem to present a
(c) No data on effects on the environment are available, except that
there are no effects on the bacteria involved in the nitrogen
cycle. Since the use of this chemical is mainly confined to
greenhouses, there is little concern regarding risks for the
(a) More data should be made available on tecnazene levels in
(b) The level of hexachlorobenzene as an impurity in tecnazene
should be kept as low as possible.
From: Environmental Health Criteria 42: Tecnazene
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1 Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid
Tecnazene is an organochlorine fungicide and plant growth regulator
that is only slightly toxic. Nevertheless, the correct precautions
should be observed in its handling and use.
For details see the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 18-21.
4.1.1 Advice to Physicians
Poisoning is unlikely to occur unless a massive overdose is
swallowed. In this case, it is not necessary to induce vomiting. If
gastric lavage is undertaken, a cuffed endotracheal tube should
already be in place. Otherwise a clear airway should be maintained,
and respiration should be safeguarded.
4.2 Health Surveillance Advice
No routine medical supervision is required.
4.3 Explosion and Fire Hazards
4.3.1 Explosion hazards
The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.
4.3.2 Fire hazards
Liquid formulations of tecnazene containing organic solvents may be
flammable. Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon
dioxide, or powder. With sufficient burning or external heat,
tecnazene will decompose emitting toxic fumes. Fire-fighters need
to wear self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of
unaffected stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off
from the site.
Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated
Keep products out of the reach of children and unauthorized
personnel. Do not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.
4.4.1 Leaking containers in store
Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (see
International Chemical Safety Card). Empty any product remaining in
damaged/leaking containers into a clean empty drum, which should
then be tightly closed and suitably labelled.
Sweep up spillage with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for
powders), and dispose of safely (see section 4.6.2).
After emptying, leaking containers should be rinsed with at least
1 litre of water per 20-litre drum. Swirl round to rinse the walls,
empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth. Puncture the
container to prevent re-use.
Comply with any local requirements regarding the movement of
hazardous goods. Do not transport in the same compartment as
foodstuffs. Check that containers are sound and labels undamaged
4.6 Spillage and Disposal
Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
required and appropriate personal protection should be used (see
International Chemical Safety Card).
188.8.131.52 Solid products
Sweep up and absorb remaining spilled product with moist sawdust,
sand, or earth and transfer in a suitable container to a safe place
184.108.40.206 Liquid products
Prevent liquid from spreading or contaminating other cargo,
vegetation, or waterways, by making a barrier of the most suitable
material available, e.g., earth or sand.
Absorb spilled liquid with sawdust, sand, or earth, sweep up and
place it in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
220.127.116.11 All products
As soon as possible after spillage and before re-use, cover all
contaminated areas with damp sawdust, sand, or earth. Sweep up and
place in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe place
for disposal. Care should be taken to avoid run-off into water
Surplus product, and contaminated absorbants and containers should
be disposed of in an appropriate way. Waste material should be
burned in a proper incinerator designed for organochlorine waste
disposal (1000°C and 30 min residence time with effluent gas
scrubbing). If this is not possible, bury in an approved dump or
landfill where there is no risk of contamination of surface- or
ground-water. Comply with any local legislation regarding disposal
of toxic wastes. Puncture the container to prevent re-use.
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
Although there are no indications that tecnazene constitutes a
hazard for the environment, as a matter of principle, discharges
arising during manufacture, formulation, or use should not be
allowed to pollute the environment and should be treated and
disposed of properly (see section 4.6).
6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
This card should be easily available to all health workers
concerned with, and users of, tecnazene. It should be displayed at,
or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
tecnazene, and on processing equipment and containers. The card
should be translated into the appropriate language(s). All persons
potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.
Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of
the National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.
INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
(C6HCl4NO2) (CAS chemical name: 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene)
(CAS registry number: 117-18-0)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Melting point (°C) 99 Colourless, odourless, crystalline solid; the technical
grade is more than 99% pure and may contain less than
Vapour pressure (room temperature) appreciably volatile 1% hexachlorobenzene; tecnazene is generally very
stable; in solution, it is slowly decomposed by ultraviolet
Relative molecular mass 260.88 radiation; it is used as a sprout inhibitor on stored
Solubility in: potatoes and as a greenhouse fungicide
- water (20°C) 0.44 mg/litre
- ethanol (25°C) 40 g/litre
- most other organic solvents readily soluble
HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS PREVENTION AND PROTECTION FIRST AID
SKIN: repeated skin Avoid skin contact, wear clean overalls Remove contaminated clothing; wash skin
contamination may cause and protective impermeable gloves with water and soap
EYES: May cause irritation, Avoid working in a dusty atmosphere Flush with clean water for 15 minutes; if
redness irritation persists, seek medical attention
INHALATION: Dust may irritate Avoid working in a dusty atmosphere
INGESTION: Unlikely Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
occupational hazard work; wash hands before eating,
drinking, or smoking
Massive accidental or intentional Obtain medical attention; do not induce
ingestion may cause poisoning vomiting
THROUGH SKIN, OR BY
INGESTION: Unlikely to cause Precautions and use of personal In case of poisoning, same as above
adverse effects, unless massive protection as above; take shower and
exposure; however, may cause put on clean clothing after work
ENVIRONMENT: Avoid pollution of the environment
with waste material or discharges
SPILLAGE STORAGE FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Take appropriate personal Products should be stored in Liquid products containing organic solvents
precautions; prevent liquid locked buildings preferably may be flammable; emulsifiable concentrates
from spreading or contaminating dedicated to insecticides are miscible with water; extinguish fires
other cargo, vegetation, or with alcohol-resistant foam, CO2, or
waterways, by making a barrier powder; with sufficient burning or external
of the most suitable available Keep products out of reach of heat, tecnazene may decompose, emitting
material, e.g., earth or sand children and unauthorized toxic fumes; the smoke and fumes could be
personnel; do not store near injurious through inhalation, or
Absorb spilled liquid with foodstuffs or animal feed absorption through the skin; therefore,
sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep protective clothing and self-contained breathing
up and place it in a closeable apparatus will be required; confine the use
container for later safe disposal of water spray to cooling of unaffected
stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of
polluted run-off from the site
WASTE DISPOSAL NATIONAL INFORMATION
Waste material should be burned National Occupational Exposure
in a proper incinerator designed Limit:
for organochlorine waste disposal;
if this is not possible, bury in an
approved dump or landfill where National Poison Control Centre:
there is no risk of contamination
of surface or ground water; comply
with any local legislation regarding Local Trade Names:
disposal of toxic wastes
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
The information given in this section has been extracted from the
International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
file and other United Nations sources. The intention is to give
the reader a representative, but not exhaustive overview of current
regulations, guidelines, and standards.
The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
framework of the legislation of that country.a
7.1 Previous Evaluations by International Bodies
The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) reviewed
residues and toxicity data on tecnazene in 1974, 1978, 1981, and
1983. Although further toxicological information is still desirable
on tecnazene, the meeting concluded that the no-observed-adverse-
effect levels for the rat, mouse, and dog were 750 mg/kg in the diet,
1500 mg/kg in the diet, and 15 mg/kg body weight (by capsule),
respectively, and estimated the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for
man to be 0-0.01 mg/kg body weight.
WHO, in its "Guidelines to the use of the WHO Recommended
Classification of Pesticides by Hazard" (WHO, 1986), classified
tecnazene in the list of technical products unlikely to present an
acute hazard in normal use.
7.2 Exposure Limit Values
Some exposure limit values are given in the table on page 23.
When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).
7.3 Specific Restrictions
In the USA, the hexachlorobenzene content of technical tecnazene
must not exceed 0.1%.
7.4 Labelling, Packaging and Transport
No specific guidelines have been found.
a The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to
change and should always be verified with the appropriate
regulatory authorities before application.
7.5 Waste Disposal
In the USA, any non-domestic waste containing tecnazene must be
treated as hazardous waste. Specific instructions are given for
In Finland, any waste containing tecnazene is classified as
hazardous waste and must be treated according to specific
EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
Medium Specification Country/ Exposure limit description Value Effective
FOOD Intake from FAO/WHO Acceptable daily intake (ADI) 0.01 mg/kg 1983
FOOD Plant FAO/WHO Maximum residue level 0.1-2 mg/kg
Germany, Maximum residue limit (MRL) 0.05-0.3 mg/kg 1984
Finland Maximum residue limit (MRL) 0.5 mg/kg 1987
Kenya Maximum limit (potatoes) 2-5 mg/kg
Netherlands Maximum residue limit (MRL) 0a(0.01) mg/kg 1987
Sweden Maximum tolerable concentration 0.5 mg/kg 1985
USA Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
- Raw agricultural products (potatoes) 2-5 mg/kg
a Limit of determination.
FAO (1985a) Guidelines for the packaging and storage of
pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
FAO (1985b) Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (1985c) Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
GIFAP (1982) Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants
de Produits Agrochimiques.
GIFAP (1983) Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.
GIFAP (1984) Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of
pesticide poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des
Associations Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.
IARC (1972-present) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of
Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Lyons, International Agency
for Research on Cancer.
IRPTC (1983) IRPTC legal file 1983. Geneva, International
Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment
IRPTC (1985) IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for
waste chemicals. Geneva, International Register of Potentially
Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.
PESTINA, R. (1984) Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization (Report
SAX, N.I. (1984) Dangerous properties of industrial materials.
New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
UNITED NATIONS (1986) Recommendations on the transport of
dangerous goods. 4th ed. New York, United Nations.
US NIOSH/OSHA (1981) Occupational health guidelines for chemical
hazards. 3 Vols, Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH)
WHO (1984) Environmental health criteria 42: Tecnazene. Geneva,
World Health Organization, 23 pp.
WHO (1986) The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
hazard. Guidelines to classification 1986-87. Geneva, World Health
Organization (Unpublished report VBC/86.1).
WHO/FAO (1975-87) Data sheets on pesticides. Unpublished
documents, Division of Vector Biology and Control. Geneva, World
WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B. (1983) The pesticide manual. 7th
ed. Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection