International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

(Group 2B)

For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.

VOL.: 79 (2001) (p. 621)

: 615-05-4
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4-Methoxy-1,3-benzenediamine

2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
: 39156-41-7
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4-Methoxy-1,3-benzenediamine, sulfate

2,4-Diaminoanisole dihydrochloride
: 614-94-8
Chem. Abstr. Name: 4-Methoxy-1,3-benzenediamine, dihydrochloride

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Exposure data

2,4-Diaminoanisole is an aromatic amine which was used extensively in hair dyes and in the dyeing of furs until the late 1970s.

5.2 Human carcinogenicity data

Although epidemiological studies have been conducted on professional and personal users of hair dyes, none made specific mention of 2,4-diaminoanisole.

5.3 Animal carcinogenicity data

2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate was tested by dietary administration in one experiment in mice and in two experiments in one strain of rats. Thyroid gland adenomas or carcinomas were induced in mice and rats. Tumours of the skin and of the preputial, clitoral and Zymbal glands were also induced in rats. 2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate was tested for its promoting effects by dietary administration in two strains of rats. In one study in rats, it promoted thyroid gland tumours induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine.

5.4 Other relevant data

About 24% of a dermal dose of 2,4-diaminoanisole is absorbed by humans, monkeys and rats. The compound is completely absorbed after oral administration to rats, extensively metabolized to free and conjugated acetylated and oxidized products and thereafter excreted in equal percentages of the applied dose in urine and faeces. The substance is metabolically activated to covalently protein-bound products in rat liver and kidney, but no covalent binding to hepatic DNA was detected. Short-term administration of high oral doses to rats induced thyroid enlargement (goitre) and alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis.

2,4-Diaminoanisole is genotoxic in vitro, producing gene mutations and chromosomal damage. It was mutagenic in bacteria in the presence or absence of a microsomal fraction from the livers of uninduced rats, mice, rabbits or humans. It produced chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in rodent cells in vitro, mitotic recombination in yeast and mutations in insects. The results of most tests in mammals in vivo were negative.

5.5 Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of 2,4-diaminoanisole.

There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of 2,4-diaminoanisole.

Overall evaluation

2,4-Diaminoanisole is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Previous evaluations: Vol. 16 (1978) (p. 51); Vol. 27 (1982) (p. 103); Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 61)



2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate

2,4-Diaminosole dihydrochloride

Last updated: 25 September 2001

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations